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AMERICAN 
CINEMATOGRAPHER 



A Technical and Educational publication 
of motion picture photography. 

Published monthly by the 
AMERICAN SOCIETY 
OF CINEMATOGRAPHERS, INC. 
6331 Hollywood Boulevard 
Hollywood, California 

Telephone GRanite 21 35 

JOHN ARNOLD, President, A.S.C. 

GEORGE SCHNEIDERMAN, Treasurer, A.S.C. 



Volume 16 JANUARY, 1935 Number 1 



What to Read 



CREATING Moods with Light 

by Victor Milner, A.S.C 7 

EXPLAINING Technicolor 3-Color Process 

by W. Stull, A.S.C 8 

PHOTOGRAPHY of the Month 10 

THE DIN Scale 

by Martin Blitz 1 1 



Next Month 



• John Seitz will talk about Rhythm with 
Light. Mr. Seitz is considered one of the 
outstanding cinemctographers of the industry. 
This will be the second in a series of articles 
on the artistic side of cinematography as prac- 
ticed by the leading cinematographers in Hol- 
lywood. This month Victor Milner talked on 
Mood in Lighting. Mr. Milner gives a glimpsa 
of what the ace cinematographer aims at when 
shooting the present-day picture. 

• There will be other articles in our next issue. 
The Cinematographer with Father Hubbard on 
his latest expedition will tell you of his ex- 
periences. 




The Staff 



EDITOR 

Charles J. VerHalen 

TECHNICAL EDITOR 

Emery Huse, A. S. C. 

ASSOCIATES 

Walter Blanchard 
Karl Hale 
CIRCULATION MANAGER 

M. Miller 

ADVISOR I 
EDITORIAL BOARD 

Victor Milner, A. S. C. 
Chas. G. Clark, A. S C. 
Hatto Tappenbeck, A. S C. 
Jackson J. Rose, A. S C. 
Fred Gage, A. S. C. 
Dr. J. S. Watson, Jr., A. S. C. 
Dr. L. M. Dieterich, A. S. C. 
Dr. L. A. Jones, A. S. C. 
Dr. C. E. K. Mees, A. S. C. 
Dr. W. B. Rayton, A. S. C. 
Dr. Herbert Meyer, A. S. C. 
Dr. V. B. Sease, A. S. C. 



FOREIGN REPRESENTATIVES 

GeorgesBenoit,100,AlleeFranklin, 
Pavillions-sous-Bois. France. Seine. Tele- 
phone LeRaincy 13-19. H. T. Cowling, 4700 
Connecticut Ave., Washington, D. C. 

NEW YORK REPRESENTATIVE 

S. R. Cowan, 19 East 47th St., New York 
City. Phone Plaza 3-0483. 



ESTABLISHED 1918. Advertising Rates on application. 
Subscription: U.S. $2.50 a year; Canada $3.50 a year; 
Foreign $3.50 a year. Single copies 25c. Foreign 
single copies 35c. COPYRIGHT 1935 by American 
Society of Cinematographers, Inc. 



Neither the American Cinematographer nor 
the American Society of Cinematographers 
is responsible for statements made by au- 
thors. This magazine will not be responsible 
for unsolicited manuscripts. 



4 American Cinematographer • January 1935 




MEMBERS** 



Directors of 
Photography 

Abel, David 
Andersen, Milford A 
Andriot, Lucien 
Arnold, John 
Ash, Jerome H. 
August, Joseph 
Barlatier, Andre 
Barnes , George S. 
tBell, Chas. E. 
tBenoit, Georges 
Boyle, Chas. P. 
Boyle, John W 
Brodlne, Norbert F. 
Brown, Jas. S., Jr. 
Chancellor, Philip 
Clark, Dan 
Clarke, Charles G. 

line Robert E. 
Corby, Francis 
Croniager, Edward 
Crosby, Floyd D. 
Daniels, William H. 
tDavis, Charles J. 
Depew, Ernest S. 
DeVinna, Clyde 
Dietz, Wm. H. 
tDored, John 

raper, Lauron A. 
*Dubray, Joseph A. 
tDuPar, E. B. 
Dyer, Edwin L. 
Dyer, Elmer G. 
Edeson, Arthur 
Fernstro.m, Ray 
Fisohbeck, Harry 
Folsey, George J., Jr. 
Freulich, Henry 
*Freund, Karl 
Gaudio, Gaetano 
Gerstad, Merritt B. 
Gilks, Alfred 
Glennon, Bert 
Good, Frank B. 
Haller, Ernest 
Halperin, Sol 
tHarten, Charles 
tHerbert, Charles W. 
Hickox, Sid 
Hickson, John T. 
Howe, James Wong 
Hunt, Roy 
Jackson, Harry 
tJansen, William H 
Jennings, J. D. 
June, Rav 
Kershner, Glenn 
Kline, Ben 
tKnechtel, Lloyd 
Kohler, Henry N. 
Krosner Milton 
Kull, Adolph E. 
Lancaster, George ). 
Landers, Sam 
Lang, Charles B., Jr. 
Lloyd, Art 
Lundin, Walter 
Lyons, Chet 
McCord, Ted 
McGill, Barney 
Mackenzie, Jack 
tMacWilliams, Glenn 
Marley, J. Peverell 
Marsh, Oliver 
Marshall, Chas. A. 
Marshall, William C. 
Martinelli, Arthur 
Marzorati, Harold J. 
Mate, Rudolph 
Meehan, Geo. B., Jr. 
Mellor, William C. 
Miller, Arthur 
Miller, Ernest W. 
Miller, Virgil E. 
Milner, Victor 
Morgan, Ira H. 
Musuraca, Nick 
Neuman, Harry C. 
Nobles, William 
O'Connell, L. William 
Overbought, Roy F. 
Palmer, Ernest 
tPaul, Dr. Edward F. 
Peach, Kenneth 
Perry, Harry 
Perry, Paul P. 
Polito, Sol 
Rees, William A. 
Reynolds, Ben F. 
Robinson, George 
Rose, Jackson J. 



Rosher, Charles 
Rosson, Harold 
tRuttenberg, Joseph 
Schneiderman, George 
Schoenbaum, Charles 
Seitz, John F. 
Shamroy, Leon 
Sharp, Henry 
*Shearer, Douglas 
Siegler, Allen 
tSilver, John 
"--tSintzenich, Harold 
tSmith, Jack 
Smith, Leonard 
Snyder, Edward J . 
Soarkuhl, Theodor 
tSteiner, William, Jr. 
Stengler, Mack 
Stout, Archie J. 
Strenge, Walter 
Struss, Karl 
Stumar, Charles 
Stumar, John 
Tetzlaff, Ted 
Thompson, William C. 
Todd, Arthur 
Toland, Gregg 
Tover, Leo 
Towers, Richard 
Tutwiler, Tom 
Valentine, Joseph A. 
*Van Buren, Ned 
Van Enger, Willard 
Van Trees, James 
tVarges, Ariel 
von Sternberg, Josef 
Wagner, Sidney C. 
Walker, Joseph 
. Warren, Dwight 
Warrenton, Gilbert 
Wenstrom, Harold 
Wetzel, Al. 
White, Lester 
Wvckoff, Alvin 
tZucker, Frank C. 

Special Process 

Binger, Ray 
Cully, Russell A. 
Edouart, Farciot 
Fabian, Maxmillian 
-Haskin, Byron 
Jackman, F r ed 
Jackman, Fred, Jr. 
Kelley, W. Wallace 
Koenekamp, H. F. 
Lipstein, Harold 
Pollock. Gordon 
Ries. Irving C. 
Walker, Vernon L. 
Williams, William N. 
Wrigley, Dewey 
Wimpy, Rex 
Zech, Harry 

Ooerative 
Cinematographers 

Anderson, Don 
Anderson, Wesley 
Arling, Arthur E. 
Badaracco, Jacob 
Bader. Walter 
Ballard, Lucien 
Bell, Jack C. 
Bennett, Guy M. 
Bennett, Monroe 
Bentley, Fred 
Biroc, Joe 
Blackstone. Cliff 
Bradley, Wilbur H. 
Burks, Robert 
Campbell, Arthur 
Chewning, Wallace 
Clark, Roy 
Clemens, Geo. T. 
Cline, Wilfrid E. 
Cohen, Edward J 
Collings, Russell D. 
Cooper, Harry H. 
Cortez, Stanley 
Davis, Harry 
Davis, Leland E. 
Dean, Faxon 
DeGrasse, Robert 
Diamond, Jas. R. 
Dunn, Linwood G. 
Eagler, Paul 
Eslick, LeRoy 
Fapp, Daniel L. 
Felndel, Jockey 
Fetters, C. Curtis 
Fitzgerald, Edward 



Galezio, Len 
Galligan, Thomas 
Garnett, Paul 
Gertsman, Maury 
Gibbons, Jeff T. 
Glassberg, Irving 
Gordon, James 
Gray, King D. 
Green, Kenneth 
Greene, Al M. 
Griggs, Loyal 
Guffey, Burnett 
Guthrie, Carl 
Hallenberger, Harry 
Harper, James B. 
Henderson, Edward 
Hoag, Robert 
Huggins, L. Owens 
Jennings, Lewis E. 
fKelly, Wm. J. 
Knott, James 
Kornman, Anthony 
Lane, Al L. 
Lanning, Reggie 
LaShelle, Joseph 
Laszlo, Ernest 
Lawton, Charles C. 
Lindon, Lionel A. 
Lynch, Warren 
Lyons, Edgar H. 
Mayer, Fred 
Meade, Kyme 
Merland, Harry 
Metty, R. L. 
Mols, Pierre M. 
Newhard, Guy J. 
Newhard, Robert S. 
Nogle, Geo. G. 
Novak, Joe 
Palmer, Robert 
Pierce, Otto 
Pittack, Robert 
Pyle, Edward 
Ragin, David 
Ramsey, Ray L. 
Rand, William 

Redman, Frank 

Reed, Arthur 

Ries, Ray 

Roberts, Albert G. 
Roberts, Irmin 
Roberts, Josiah 
Robinson, Walter C. 
Scheurich, Victor 
Schurr, William F. 
Salerno, Charles, Jr. 
Schmitz, John J. 
Schoedsack, G. F. 
Shipham, Bert 
Smith, William Cooper 
Snyder, Wm. 
Stafford, Earl 
Stine, Clifford R. 
TapDenbeck, Hatto 
Thompson, Stuart 
Titus Frank 
Travis, N. C. 
Ulm, William R. 
Unholz, George 
Vaughan, Roy V. 
Vogel, Paul Charles 
Vogel, Willard I. 
Wester, Carl 
White, Ben 
Wild, Harrv 
Wilky, Guy L. 
Williams, Al E. 
Williamson, James 

Assistant 
Cinematographers 

Abbott, L. B. 

Abramson, Melvin 

Adams, Eddie 

Ahem, Lloyd 

Anderson, Eddie 

Baldwin, Herold 
Barth, Willard 
Beckner, Neal 
Bergholz, Emmett 
Bessette, Raoul 
Boggs, Haskell 
Bourne, George 
Bradford, William 
Brandenburg, Gentry 
Bridenbecker, Milton 
Brigham, Donald H. 
Bronner, Robert 
Burgess, Frank 
Burke, Charles 
Caldwell, John C. 
Carter, Ellis W. 
Clothier, William H. 



Cohan, Ben 
Cohen, Sam 
Collins, Edward C. 
Crawford, Lee 
Croniager, Henry, Jr. 
Crouse, John 
Curtiss, Judd 
Daly, James 
Dalzell, Arch R. 
Davenport, Jean L. 
Davis, Mark 
Davis, Robt. D., Jr. 
Davol, Richard S. 
Dawe, Harry 
DeAngelis, Louis 
tde Cazstellaine, Paul 
Deverman, Dale 
Diskant, George 
Dodds, Wm. 
Dorris, Joe 
Dowling, Thomas L. 
Dugas, Frank 
Eagan, J. P. 
Eckert, John 
tEtra, Jack 
Farley, Joseph '_. 
Fischer, Herbert J. 
Flinsky, Ray 
Foxall, William 
Fredricks, Ellsworth 
Garvin, Edward 
Gaudio, Frank, Jr. 
Geissler, Charles R. 
Gerstle, Arthur 
Gough, Robert J. 
Grand, Marcel 
Greer, John 
Haas, Waller 
Hackett, James C. 
Haddow, Ledger 
Harlan, Russell 

Hayes, Towne D. 
Higgins, James Colman 
Higgs, Stuart P. 

Hill, Paul 

Hoffman, Roswell 
tHolcombe, Walter B. 

Horsley, Davis S. 

Hunter, Kenneth 

Ivey, Jesse F. 

Kauffman, R. King, Jr. 

Kearns, Edward 

Keller, Alfred S. 

Kelley, George F. 

Klein, Irving 

Kluznik, Mart 

Lackey, Walter K. 

Lane. Art 

Laraby. Nelson 
Leahy, Chas. P. 

Lewis, C. L. 

Lockwood, Paul 

Love, Cecil 

Lykins, Vollie Joe 

McDonald, Frank 

McEdward, Nelson C. 

MacDonneil, Stanley 

Maclntyre. Andy 

Martin, John 

Marble, Harry 

Mautino, Bud 

Meade, Kenneth 

Mehl, John 

Molina, Luis 

Moreno, Robert C. 

Morris, Thomas C. 

Noble, Roy 

Norton, Kay 

Orsatti, Alfred 

Parkins, Harry 

Ramsey, H. Clark 

Rankin, Walter 

Reinhold, Wm. G. 

Rhea, Robert 

Riley, William 

Roe, Guy 

Sanford, S. A. 

Sargent, Don 

Scheving, Albert 

Schuch, William 

Shirpser, C 

Shorr, Lester 

Slifer, Clarence 

Sloane, James 

Smith, H. C. 

Soderberg, Edward F. 

Southcott, Fleet 

Straumer, E. Charles 

Strong, Glenn 

Strong, William M. 

Tolmie, Rod 

Tripp, Roy 

Ulm, William R. 



Van Trees, James, Jr. 
Van Warmer, John Pierce 
Ward, Lioyd 
Weiler. John 
Weissman, Leonard 
Wellman, Harold 
Wendall, Jack E. 
Whitley, William 
Worth, Lothrop 

Still Photographers 

Allan, Ted 
Alsop, George 
Anderson, Bert - 
Bachrach, Ernie — 
Bjerring, Frank — 
Blanc, Harry — 
Breau, Joseph F. 
Bredell, Elwood — 
Brown, f/'ilton 
Coburn, Robert 
Cooper, John 
Cronenweth, W. E. « 
Crosby, Warner N. — 
Ellis, John 
Estep, Junius D. ^- 
Evansmith, Henry 
Farrell, David H. 
Fraker, W. A._ 
Freulich, Roman -»- 
Fryer, Elmer 
Grimes. William H. 
Head, Gordon G. 
Hendrickson, Fred S. — 

Hommel, Geo. P. 

Hopcraf t, 1st . John 
Johnson, Roy L. 
Julian, Mac 
Kahle, Alexander 
Kling, Clifton - 
Kornman, Gene 
Lippman. Irving 
Lobben, C Kenneth 

Longet, Gaston 

Longworth. Bert 
Lynch, Bert 
Manatt, S. C. 
Morioold Mickey 
Martin, Shirley A. 
McAlpin, Hal A. 
Miehle, John J. 

Osborne, Harry 

Richardson, G. E. 
Richee, Eugene R. 
Robbins, Leroy S. 
Rowley, Les 
Sibbald, Merritt J_- 
Six, Bert 
Tanner, Frank 
Van Pelt, Homer 
Walling, Will, J. 
Welbourne, Chas. Scott 

Portrait 
Photographers 

MacDonald, Melvin A. 

Honorary Members 

Mr. E. O. Blackburn, 

Los Angeles. Calif. 
£Mr. George Eastman, 

Rochester, N. Y. 
tMr. Thomas A. Edison, 

Orange, N. J. 
Mr. Albert S. Howell, 

Chicago, III. 

Associate Members 

Mr. Louis A. Bonn 
Mr. George Cave 
Dr. L. M. Dieterich 
Mr. Fred Gage 
Mr. Emery Huse 
Dr. Lloyd A. Jones 
Dr. C. E. K. Mees 
Dr. Herbert Meyer 
Mr. Hollis Moyse 
Dr. W. B. Rayton 
Dr. V. B. Sease 
Dr. J. S. Watson, Jr. 

Inactive Members 

Cowling, Herford T. 
Dunning, Dodge 
DuPont, Max B. 
Fildew, William 
Glouner, Martin G. 
Graham, Stanley 
Home, Pliny 
Jackman, Dr. Floyd 
Lockwood, J. R. 
Roos, Len H. 
Stu.II, William 



: ; Mpmhership by Invitation only. 



'Directors of Photography in Executive Positions. 



tNon-Restdent Members. 



tDeceased. 



1 



January 1935 • American Cinematographer 5 



THE 



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sensitive panchromatic NEGATIVE FILM, refined to meet the increasing 
demands of picture taking. 

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speed and a finer grain 

In both exposure and development the Agfa Superpan Negative gives, 
through a wider latitude, a wider range of pictorial possibilities in 
motion pictures. 

A non-abrasion surface coating protects the emulsion physically. The 
anti-halation coating underlying the emulsion preserves the photographic 
definition. 

High, evenly balanced color sensitivity simplifies the problem of correct 
registration under any lighting conditions, permitting any desired color 
emphasis with a relatively low multiplying factor for the filter used. 



C. KING CHARNEY, Distributor for 
AGFA 35mm NEGATIVE uni POSITIVE FILM 



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245 West 55th Street 
Tel. Circle 7-4635 



Made in America by AGFA ANSCO CORPORATION 

FACTORIES AT BINGHAMTON, N. Y 



6 American Cinematographer • January 1935 



THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CINEMA- 
TOGRAPHERS was founded in 1918 for 
the purpose of bringing into closer con- 
federation and cooperation all those leaders in 
the cinematographic art and science whose 
aim is and ever will be to strive for pre-emi- 
nence in artistic perfection and technical mas- 
tery of this art and science. Its purpose is to 
further the artistic and scientific advancement 
of the cinema and its allied crafts through un- 
ceasing research and experimentation as well 
as through bringing the artists and the scien- 
tists of cinematography into more intimate 
fellowship. To this end its membership is com- 
posed of the outstanding cinematographers of 
the world with Associate and Honorary mem- 
berships bestowed upon those who, though not 
active cinematographers, are engaged none 
the less in kindred pursuits, and who have, by 
their achievements, contributed outstandingly 
to the progress of cinematography as an Art 
or as a Science. To further these lofty aims 
and to fittingly chronicle the progress of cine- 
matography, the Society's publication, The 
American Cinematographer, is dedicated. 



AMERICAN 
SOCIETY OF 
CINEMATOGRAPHERS 



OFFICERS 

JOHN ARNOLD 
VICTOR MILNER 
JOHN W. BOYLE 
ELMER G. DYER 
GEORGE SCHNEIDERMAN 
FRANK B. GOOD 



President 
First Vice-President 
Second Vice-President 
Third Vice-President 
Treasurer 
Secretary 



BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

John Arnold Frank Good 

John W. Boyle Fred Jackman 

Dan Clark Ray June 

Elmer Dyer Charles B. Lang, Jr. 

Arthur Edeson Victor Milner 

George Folsey George Schneiderman 

Alfred Gllks James Van Trees 

Vernon L. Walker 

Frederick L. Kley, Executive Business Manager 



PAST PRESIDENTS 

Philip E. Rosen 
Gaetano Gaudio 
James Van Trees 
John W. Boyle 

Fred W. Jackman 



HONORARY MEMBERS 



Hal Mohr 
Homer Scoti 
John F. Seitz 
Daniel B. Clark 



Mr. Albert S. Howell 
Mr. Edward 0. Blackburn 



PUBLIC RELATIONS COMMITTEE 



John Arnold 
Frank Zucker 
Charles Bell 
Charles J. Davis 
Paul H. Allen 
George Benoit 
Glenn MacWilliams 
Ariel Varges 

Max B. DuPont 



Herford T. Cowling 
Edwin L. Dyer 
Charles W. Herbert 
Mack Stengler 
Ross Fisher 
John Dored 
Philip M. Chancellor 
W. H. Jansen 



PRODUCTION COMMITTEE 

Daniel B. Clark 
John W. Boyle 



Elmer G. Dyer 
Ned Van Buren 



MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE 

Charles G. Clarke 

George Folsey 



Alfred Gilks 



RESEARCH COMMITTEE 

Victor Milner, Arthur Miller, Dr. Herbert 
Meyer, John Arnold, John F. Seitz, 
Emery Huse, Dr. L. M. Dietrich 



ENTERTAINMENT COMMITTEE 

John W. Boyle 
Charles B. Lang, Jr. 

Alvin Wyckoff 

WELFARE COMMITTEE 

Ray June 



Fred W. Jackman 



Frank B. Good 
Vernon Walker 



James Van Trees 



i 



January 1935 • American Cinematographer 7 



Creating 
Moods 
With Light 

by 

Victor Milner, A.S.C. 

LIGHT is the Cinematographer's most versatile tool. 
With it he can not only make or break his com- 
position, and display his players to advantage or 
otherwise, but he can attune the audience-mind to any 
mood, and key the response to any emotional pitch. In- 
telligent lighting can prepare the audience for any de- 
sired dramatic tempo, and create a subconscious, emotional 
receptiveness that greatly enhances the dramatic value of 
the production. 

It is not enough that a scene be an intrinsically beau- 
tiful bit of photography: it is essentially a vehicle for dra- 
matic expression, and every phase of the photography- — - 
especially the lighting — should exist for the specific pur- 
pose of telling the scene's story. The Cinematographer who 
strives solely for pictorial effect, and the man who rigidly 
follows a fixed scheme of lighting for every production 
both hamper themselves tremendously. Lighting technique 
should be flexible, changing (even within a sequence) to 
harmonize with the mood and tempo of the action. 

The Cinematographer should train himself to think 
directly in terms of lighting. He should be able to read 
a script and from the bare printed outline of a scene, vis- 
ualize it not merely in terms of action, or even of camera- 
angles and moves, but in terms of lighting. It is easy 
enough to read a heavy, dramatic scene which must neces- 
sarily be sombre and slow-paced, and understand that it 
must be photographed in a low key; or to glance over a 
swift-paced comedy scene, and see that it will require high- 
key lighting; but the really important thing is to be able 
to form such a clear mental picture of the light-treatment 
of a scene that the lighting itself expresses the scene's 
mood, tempo and character as clearly as do dialog and 
action. 

Picture, for example, this situation: in a bed in a small 
room, an old man lies dying; beside him sits his wife, who 
has shared his joys and sorrows for perhaps fifty years, 
tensely watching, waiting for the crisis. Different individ- 
uals, I suppose, would visualize this in different ways; to 
my mind, it conjures up at once a mental image of dra- 
matic light-effects. I can see the scene lit in a very low 
key, with only an extremely repressed scale of gradations. 
The figure in the bed is limned in grayish light, while the 
motionless figure of the wife is half hidden in shadow — 
ominous, formless shadows, relieved only by the subdued 
illumination on the bed-ridden figure. The lighting alone, 




unaided by dialog or action, could tell the story perfectly. 
An atmosphere of such dramatic power could be built up 
by skillfull lighting that the audience would inevitably ex- 
perience the tense, wordless agony of the situation, and 
sense the breathless emotion of an actual deathbed. 

Before the advent of sound and dialog, 90% of the 
responsibility of securing the desired emotional effect in 
such a scene lay in the hands of the Cinematographer. 
Today, even with the great advantages of speech, vocal 
inflection, music and sound-effects, it still rests with the 
Cinematographer whether the scene shall be merely a 
well-acted scene, or a gripping emotional experience. The 
true test of Cinematography is the emotional and dramatic 
effect it would convey if viewed without the assistance of 
the sound-track. 

To a very limited extent, changes in the mood and 
tempo of lighting may be brought about by increasing or 
decreasing the actual amount of light used; but the most 
essential factors in producing such effects should be judi- 
cious manipulation of the lighting-balance, and of the dif- 
fusion used on both camera rjnd lights. My personal pref- 
erence is to minimize the diffusion introduced photograph- 
ically, and to substitute controlled diffusion in illumination. 
Photographic diffusion is, at best, an unnatural and un- 
satisfactory thing, and often the difference in diffusion 
between a longshot and its correlative close-up becomes 
physically as well as esthetically a jarring note. The best 
practice, therefore, is to maintain a fairly constant stan- 
dard of photographic diffusion throughout, and to manip- 
ulate the diffusion in lighting to produce the effects desired. 

In the same way, altering the light-diffusion and the 
beam-concentration is often preferable to substituting 
larger, smaller or optically different units as the camera- 
angle changes. A condenser-type spotlight, for example, 
will give a more intense beam than the average mirror- 
lamp of the same wattage, and the two are sometimes 
used interchangeably for certain effects. I have found, 
however, that the light from the condenser lamp is much 
whiter, and can be cruelly deceptive when attempting to 
balance it with other, yellower illuminants, so it is better 
to use the same unit, altering the diffusing media and 

Continued on Page 14 



8 American Cinematographer • January 1935 




Detail of Three-Color Technicolor Camera. 
A — Path of light through lens and beam-splitter. 
B — Beam-splitter (partially reflecting prism). 
C — Creen filter in Aperture. 
D — Magenta filter in Aperture. 
E — Supersensitive film for Creen negative. 
F — Bipack film for Red (rear) and Blue (front) 
negatives. 

FOR NEARLY forty years it has been acknowledged 
that natural-color cinematography could not attain 
widespread commercial success until a really practical 
three color-component process was developed. During that 
time, innumerable experiments have been made, and 
scores of patents granted, upon three-color processes, some 
of which gave excellent results under laboratory test-con- 
ditions. None of them, however, proved successful under 
the rigorous test of commercial production. None the less, 
rumors have always been rife that such a process was just 
around the corner — just short of commercial perfection. 

For the past decade, these rumors have been justified, 
for it has been known that the exponents of Technicolor 
— already successful as a two-color process — were devel- 
oping a trichromatic process. No official hint, however, 
came from the Technicolor laboratories, where everyone 
was much too busy solving the laboratory problems of 
processing two-color films in quantity to make any state- 
ments about possible three-color developments. 

Late in 1932, Technicolor announced that the new 
three-color process was a fact, and was commercially 
available. Since then, the process has been used in over 
a score of Walt Disney's "Silly Symphonies," in musical 
and travel "shorts," and in special color sequences climax- 
ing such productions as "The Cat and the Fiddle," "The 
House of Rothschild," and "Kid Millions." The three-reel 
featurette, "La Cucaracha" — a gem of natural-color pho- 
tography — bids fair to make the Industry acutely color- 
conscious, and the same producers are even now bringing 
"Becky Sharp" to the screen as the first trichrome feature. 
The process has proven itself in cartoon work, on location, 
and in the studio: every sign (not the least of which is 
returning box-office prosperity) points to a considerable 
use of the process in the coming year's more important pro- 
ductions. What, then, is Three-Color Technicolor? 

Essentially, it is exactly what the name implies: a new 
process of natural-color cinematography which utilizes 
three, instead of only two, color-components. Other than 
the name, it has very little in common with the older, two- 



Explanation 



color Technicolor. The camera-equipment with which it is 
photographed is new, and far sturdier than previous color- 
cameras. The results are superior to any previous commer- 
cial color-process. Most important of all, with the new 
process comes a basic change in Technicolor's policy toward 
cameramen. 

At this point, it may be well to clarify the significance 
of the term "three-color" process. Medical science tells 
us that the human eye receives its color-impressions 
through three primary nerve-cerlers, each of which trans- 
mits to the brain one primary color impression. The three 
colors thus received — red, yellow and blue — are termed 
the primary colors, and all other color-impressions are 
made up of varying combinations, of these three. (Green, 
for example, is a simple overlapping of blue and yellow 
impressions. ) 

This same principle is the foundation of all forms of 
natural-color photography and cinematography. Obviously, 
if we make three black-and-white negatives of a scene, 
recording on one plate all of the red elements, on another, 
all of the yellows, and on the third, all of the blues, we 
shall have duplicated the selective action of the three 
color-sensory nerve-centers of the eye. If then we make 
positive transparencies from the three negatives, toning 
each in its appropriate hue, and view the three superim- 
posed, we shall have duplicated the resynthetizing brain- 
action, and should arrive at the same result — an image 
of the scene in its natural colors. 

It is by no means easy, however, to apply this prin- 
ciple to photography in a practical way; and applying it to 
cinematograhy raises innumerable mechanical and techni- 
cal difficulties — especially if the process is to be used 
commercially. The three separation-negatives must be ex- 
posed at the same time, through a single lens. The color- 
filters which must be used to produce these separations 
absorb a great deal of light, necessitating increased ex- 
posure — yet the films must be made at the standard 
sound-speed of 90 feet per minute. The cameras and 
their optical systems must be cf unusual optical and me- 
chanical precision— yet they must be sturdy and simple, 
as well as being relatively light and portable. The lab- 
oratory processes should be simple and dependable. The 
prints must be such as to run on any projector without 
special equipment: this necessitates that the prints be 
"subtractive," that is, that they have a perfect picture, of 
standard dimensions, in full color. The question of graini- 
ness in large-screen projection rules out the screen-plate 
method, which has been so successful in still photography. 

Reducing the number of color-components used from 
three to two reduces the technical problems proportion- 
ately. At the same time, a two-color process is more or 
less color-blind: it gives a fair suggestion of actual color, 
but it cannot give natural color, since it omits one-third of 
the primary color-components. None the less, every pre- 



i 



January 193 5 • American Cinematographer 9 



of the 
Trichrome 



Techni 



nico or 



by 

William Stull, A.S.C. 



vious color-cinematography process which has achieved 
any degree of commercial success has been a two-color 
process. Nearly all of them hove used colors which in 
some measure have partaken of the missing third: in some 
instances, red-orange and blue; in others, red and blue- 
green, or red-orange and blue-green. In any case, the 
majority of colors have beein rendered with more or less 
distortion, while others simply could not be reproduced. 
In addition, the two primaries were generally exaggerated 
to some extent. 

Technicolor's two-color process was probably the most 
successful of the lot, but it, no less than the rest, suffered 
from partial color-blindness, ond the cameras were noisy 
and delicate. The two images — red-orange and green — 
were recorded on a single film, which moved at twice nor- 
mal speed. A single lens was used, and its image was 
divided by a beam-splitting prism: the red image being 
reflected to a position one frame below the normal axis, 
while the green image was two frames above the usual 
gate. The film was moved two frames at a time, and con- 
sumed double footage required for photographing the same 
action in black-and-white. Printing was either on double- 
coated positive stock (by a special optical printer) or by 
the imbibition process. The latter proved the more eco- 
nomical, though at first the results were not satisfactorily 
uniform, a difficulty now understood to have been over- 
come. The cameras were excessively noisy, and were not 
popular with sound-engineers. 

The three-color process is in many ways simpler than 
the two-color method. Three separate films are used, ex- 
posed through a single lens, at standard speed. All three 
are standard types: those receiving the red and green 
images are standard Supersensitive Panchromatic, while 
the blue is recorded on the familiar red-ortho. All three 
are hypersensitized in the Technicolor plant. 

The optical system is simplicity itself: standard Cooke 
lenses are used (recalibrated hy Technicolor). Behind the 
lens is a simple beam-splitter, which reflects 2/3 of the 
light from the lens through an cperture to the left, placed 
at right angles to the normal position, and passes the re- 
maining 1/3 straight through to a normal aperture. This 
latter aperture is fitted with a green filter, and a green 
record is made on regular Supersensitive film at that point. 
The second aperture is fitted with a magenta filter (trans- 
mitting blue and red light), behind which moves ordinary 



View of a Technicolor Three-Color Camera. 



bipack film. The red-ortho film which forms the front 
component of the bipack, natutally receives the blue im- 
age; its dyed outer surface, in contact with the rear film 
(Supersensitive Panchromatic), ccts as a red filter, so that 
this third film receives only the red image. On exterior 
scenes a light yellow filter is usually placed on the lens, 
presumably to exclude the ultra-violet and curtail some of 
the violet, maintaining the proper chromatic balance. 

The camera was designed and built by Technicolor, 
with special Mitchell movements. While it is more silent 
than many earlier color cameras, the triple-film movement 
makes it necessary to use the comera heavily blimped for 
sound work. Naturally, it is considerably larger and heav- 
ier than ordinary black-and-white cameras, but not unduly 
so. It is a decidedly modern design, and definitely built 
for hard service. The beam splitting optical system — the 
weak point of previous Technicolor cameras — has been so 
simplified that it is not only foolproof, but extremely 
rugged. It can easily be removed, but the design is such 
that it can only be replaced in the proper manner, and 
in exactly the right adjustment. The camera-head is 
box-form in shape, and somewhat reminiscent of several 
of the silent (black-and-white) cameras lately introduced. 
Above it are mounted the special 1,000-foot magazines. 
These magazines are of triple width, to contain the three 
films; and, unlike conventional magazines, they are loaded 
from the right-hand side, with the take-up mechanism on 
the left. Ingress to the two movements is had through 
three openings — one at each side and one in front. All 
three must be used in threading the camera. A conven- 
tional sunshade and finder are fitted in the customary 
manner. 

Focusing is primarily by scale, for which the lenses are 
calibrated with unusual accuracy. It is possible, however, 
to check the focus on a ground-glass screen through an 
eyepiece at the side of the camera. However, as this screen 
receives only a small part of the light from the lens, due 
to the beam-splitter, the image is generally very dim, and 
it is best to rely on the lens-calibrations for focusing. 

Continued on Page 12 




10 American Cmematographer • January 1935 



X 



PHOTOGRAPHY 



"FATHER BROWN, DETECTIVE" (Paramount) 
Theodor Sparkuhl, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Daily Variety (November 21, 1934): "Theodor Sparkuhl 

has turned in a fine job with the camera — ." 
Hollywood Reporter (November 21, 1934): " — well pho- 
tographed." 

"BRIGHT EYES" (Fox) 

Arthur Miller, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 

Daily Variety (November 22, 1934): "Photography by 

Arthur Miller is good." 
Hollywood Reporter (November 22, 1934): "Arthur Mil- 
ler's photography passes with a high mark." 

"WEST OF THE PECOS" (Radio) 

James Van Trees, A.S.C., Russell Metty, A.S.C.: Directing 
Cinema tographers 

Hollywood Reporter (November 22, 1934): "Beautiful 
photography of the great open spaces provides the last 
requisite touch." 

Daily Variety (November 22, 1934): " — exterior pho- 
tography by Van Trees and Metty is tops." 

"BEHOLD MY WIFE" (Paramount) 
Leon Shamroy, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (November 22, 1934): "Shamroy's 
photography is excellent throughout." 

"THE MIGHTY BARNUM" 

Peverell Marley, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Daily Variety (November 22, 1934): " — well photo- 
graphed." 

"STRANGE WIVES" (Universal) 

George Robinson, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (November 24, 1934): "Robinson's 

photography is very good." 
Daily Variety (November 24, 1934): " — plus fine pho- 
tography — ." 

"JEALOUSY" (Columbia) 

John Stumor, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (November 24, 1934): " — and the 
photography by John Stumar helps considerably." 

"FORSAKING ALL OTHERS" (M-G-M) 

Gregg Toland, A.S.C., George Folsey, A.S.C.: Directing 
Cinema tographers 

Hollywood Reporter (November 26, 1934): " — and Gregg 
Toland's photography adds its particular artistry to the 
elegant whole." 

Daily Variety (November 26, 1934) : "Piece is exception- 
ally well photographed." "Joan Crawford gets from 
Gregg Toland and George Folsey the best benefit of 
camera she has had in a long time." 



of the MONTH 



"GRAND OLD GIRL" (RKO) 

Lucien Andriot, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (November 26, 1934): "Photography 
throughout the picture is okay." 

"THE MARINES ARE COMING" (Mascot) 

Ernest Miller, A.S.C., William Nobles, A.S.C.: Directing 
Cinema tographers 

Hollywood Reporter (November 27, 1934) : "Camera work 
is first class throughout — '.' 

Daily Variety (November 27, 1934) : "Excellent photog- 
raphy by Ernest Miller and William Nobles. — " 

"HERE IS MY HEART" (Paramount) 

Karl Struss, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 

Hollywood Reporter (November 28, 1934): "Photography 

and mounting are first rare throughout." 
Daily Variety (November 28, 1934): "Some outstanding 

camera work reflects painstaking effort on the part of 

Karl Struss." 

Motion Picture Daily (NovemDer 30, 1934) : "Karl Struss' 
photography embellishes the exquisite backgrounds." 

"SWEET ADELINE" (Warner Bros.) 
Sol Polito, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Daily Variety (November 28, 1934): "Sol Polito deserves 
high praise for handling of the camera." 

"THE FIGHTING ROOKIE" (Mayfair) 
James Brown, Jr., A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (November 30, 1934): "Good Pho- 
tography." 

"MAN WHO RECLAIMED HIS DEAD" (Universal) 
Merritt Gerstad, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Daily Variety (December 1, 1934) : "Photography by Ger- 
stad is excellent — ." 
Hollywood Reporter (December 1, 1934): "Merritt Ger- 
stad's photography is beautiful throughout, with a few 
scenes at the beginning of the picture that are stand- 
outs of the art." 

"HELLDORADO" (Fox) 

John Seitz, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 

Hollywood Reporter (December 5, 1934): " — and the 

camera work by John Seitz is very lovely, particularly 

the scenes shot through cobwebs." 

"LOTTERY LOVER" (Fox) 

Bert Glennon, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (December 5, 1934): "Bert Glennon 
has turned in his usual good photography." 

"ENCHANTED APRIL" (Radio) 

Edward Cronjager, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (December 6, 1934): "Photography 
very good." 

Continued on Page 18 



January 1935 • American Cinematographer 11 




The Din-Scale 

New Measure 
of Photographic 
Sensitivity 



by 

Martin Biltz, Dessau* 

•Translation from: Die Naturwissenschaften, 21: Oct. 13, 1933, 
734-6. 



THE sensitivity of a photographic emulsion can be 
characterized in an exact sense only by a great num- 
ber of exposure steps. In picture photography, how- 
ever, one desires the sensitivity represented by a single 
number, where the correct diaphragm setting and ex- 
posure time can be chosen from existing exposure meters 
and exposure tables. In order to accomplish this wish, no 
efforts were spared during the past century. However, 
only lately has a practical serviceable method been 
obtained. In what follows, the sensitometric systems of 
Scheiner, Hurter and Driffield, Eder-Hecht, used up to 
the present time for this purpose will be briefly described. 
Mainly, however, the new system proposd by the Stan- 
dardizing Committee on Sensitcmetry of the German So- 
ciety for Photographic Research, is to be considered. 

If it is desired to characterize exactly the sensitivity 
then the density S produced on a photographic plate after 
development and fixing must be specified as a function 
of the intensity of the exposing light (measured in e.g. 
watts/cm 2 ), the exposure time, and the wavelength of the 
exposing light. 2 In order to obtoin a single sensitivity num- 
ber for use in practical exposures, the following simplifi- 
cations are made. 1 . The American viewpoint on this 
question was recently made public by o report of the re- 



3. Apparatus for making the exposure by the DIN 
method. The light emerging from the light source (1), 
behind which is placed a black body (2), passes through 
diaphragm (3), liquid filter (4), diaphragmed tube IS) 
to the test strip placed in the dark slide (6) behind the 
gray wedge. The exposure follows the drawing of the 
pin (7), whereby the falling shutter (8-9) provided with 
a slot falls freely and admits light to the plate holder for 
.05 second. The spring (10) serves as a guide for the 
shutter, which after exposure is raised again by means of 
the lever (11). 



search by Davis and Neeland on this point. (Naturwiss. 
21, 340, 1933.) 2. S = log I = intensity of the 

incident light, I the intensity of the transmitted light. 

1. In order to eliminate the complication of the 
variation of sensitivity with light of varying wavelength 
in the visible spectrum, the sensitivity is considered for a 
complex spectrum containing mGny wavelengths. This sim- 
plification is permissible providing that the spectral energy 
distribution of the light source (for determining sensitivity) 
is the same as that of the light source for the practical ex- 
posure. 

2. Either the intensity of the incident light or the 
exposure time is maintained constant and the dependence 
of density entirely upon one of these two factors is con- 
sidered. 

3. Among the abscissa values of the density curve 
(exposure time or light intensity) a single value is chosen^ 
as characteristic of the sensitivity. In this manner, a num- 

intensity x time 
ber of the dimensions — -r-. — — - r — , which may also be 
- emulsion surface 

expressed in ergs/cm 2 , is obtained. 

The above so-called simplifications have been accom- 
plished differently by the different sensitometric systems. 

Scheiner accomplished the simplification by employing 
a Benzin flame; Hurter and Driffield employed burning 
magnesium ribbon. Of all these light sources, none cor- 
responded in spectral energy distribution to that of the 
sun, which is the source most often used in practical pho- 
tography. In comparison with the energy distribution in 
sunlight, the energy distribution of the lamp used by 
Scheiner and Hurter and Driffield rises especially high 
toward the red end of the spectrum, so that a comparison 
of the speeds of orthochromatic and particularly panchro- 
matic emulsions with the speed of unsensitized emulsions 
tested with these light sources show a much greater differ- 
ence than they would for a practical exposure to sunlight. 
Also the light of burning magnesium ribbon differs greatly 
in its spectral distribution from sunlight. 

The simplification was accomplished by Scheiner and 
by Hurter and Driffield by holding the light intensity con- 
stant. This intensity is defined by the output of the light 
source. The exposure time is graduated, and in both meth- 
ods a disk provided with cutout segments placed between 
the light source and the photographic emulsions admits 
the light for different lengths of time on different parts 
of the emulsion. In this manner a time scale is impressed 
on the emulsion. Eder and Hecht chose the exposure time 
constant and varied the light intensity by means of a gray 
wedge placed in front of the photographic emulsion. 

The simplification was accomplished in the same man- 
ner in the methods of Scheiner and of Eder and Hecht 
The sensitivity is characterized by that single exposure time 
(Scheiner), single light intensity (Eder and Hecht), which 
produces on the photographic emulsion a density which 
appears to the eye just higher than the density of a neigh- 
boring unexposed point (fog density). The visual deter- 
mination of this just perceptible density, the so-called 
threshold value, on the test strip is very uncertain. This 

Continued on Page 16 



12 American Cinematographer 



• January 1935 



Explanation of the Trichrome Technicolor 



Continued from Page 9 



The actual operating methods are in- 
teresting. The lenses are calibrated with 
a special system of stop numbers totally 
unlike any of the systems generally used. 
The maximum aperture of the standard 
lens used is arbitrarily taken as unity, 
and numbered i; the smaller openings 
bear progressively larger numbers. How- 
ever, in order to double the amount of 
light passed at any given opening — No. 
1 6, for example — one does not open up 
to the next smaller number, but halves 
the indicating digit — in this case, open- 
ing to No. 8. 

On all interior scenes, arc lighting is 
used almost exclusively. The method of 
computing the exposure — which is an 
even more vital factor than in mono- 
chrome cinematography — is unusual. A 
standard Weston illuminometer is used. 
This is a photoelectric light-measuring 
device, operoting on the same principle 
as the familiar Weston photronic ex- 
posure-meter, but more sensitive, and 
calibrated to read in lower brightnesses. 
This is placed in the position of the sub- 
ject, and three separate readings are 
taken: one with the photocell pointed 
directly at the camera, one aiming 45 
degrees to the right, and another 45 
degrees to the left. These are averaged, 
and this average forms the basis of the 
exposure calculation. If necessary, of 
course, special readings are taken in 
shadow areas, and the like, as the ex- 
posure latitude of the process is not so 
great as that of ordinary black-and- 
white. A further important factor is the 
color of the objects and surfaces being 
photographed, as the reflectivity of dif- 
ferent colored surfaces is more import- 
ant than in monochrome. When work- 
ing out-of-doors, the illuminometer is 
fitted with a neutral-density filter, to 
offset the excess illumination from the 
sun. 

Inevitably, natural-color cinematog- 
raphy requires a good deal more light 
than is normally used in monochrome. 
Exactly how much cannot be said, due 
to the extreme variations in the lighting 
technique of individual cinematograph- 
ers. It is understood, however, that 
photometric measurements recently 
made by an impartial observer have 
shown that the light intensity used for 
black - and - white cinematography by 
some cinematographers, and that nor- 
mally used on sets where three-color 
Technicolor is being used, are very 
nearly the some. Mr. J. A. Ball, Tech- 
nicolor's Chief Engineer, states that the 
three-color process requires only a slight 
increase in illumination over the stand- 
ard normally maintained for black-and- 
white by the average "heavy lighter." 

However, the process demands much 



more careful attention to lighting bal- 
ance than does black-and-white. The 
lighting must be extremely even; bril- 
liant, but with neither excessive high- 
lights nor shadows. The high-lights, 
especially, must be watched, lest they 
be "washed out." Back-lighting, while 
effective, is not generally used in any- 
thing like the degree normal in mono- 
chrome cinematography. In exterior 
scenes, a three-quarter cross-light seems 
preferred, though back-lightings, when 
amply balanced by reflectors or booster- 
lights, are often very effective. Colored 
light, while it plays surprising tricks 
with the color-rendition of objects upon 
which it falls, can be extremely effective 
if intelligently used. 

It is perhaps expressive of the con- 
fidence which the Technicolor author- 
ities have in their new process that they 
have executed an abrupt about-face in 
their policy as regards camera person- 
nel. Heretofore, it will be remembered, 
Technicolor maintained its own camera 
staff of specialized Technicolor Cinema- 
tographers, Operatives and Assistants, 
who were sent to any studio making 
Technicolor pictures, and had complete 
physical charge of the camerawork, 
though the Technicolor Cinematograph- 
er usually cooperated with a Directing 
Cinematographer from the studio's staff 
in the photographic direction of the film. 

Now, however, Technicolor's policy is 
to be different. According to Mr. Ball, 
Cinematographers, Operatives and As- 
sistants from the major studios (and 
possibly some free - lance Cinematog- 
raphers of standing, as well) will be in- 
vited to the Technicolor plant, and given 
a special course of instruction in Tech- 
nicolor cinematography. In the end, it 
is hoped to have a complete Techni- 
color-trained camera-crew in every ma- 
jor studio, so that when a producer de- 
cides to film a production in Technicolor, 
he will be able to entrust its photog- 
raphy entirely to members of his own 
staff. This policy should be of great 
benefit to Technicolor, for it will not 
only develop greater variety and indi- 
vidual style in Technicolor productions, 
but it will also eliminate the divided 
responsibility (and its inevitable fric- 
tion) which seemed inseparable from 
the old arrangement. 

According to Cinematographers who 
have already used the new process, it 
is extremely easy to master, and very 
practical. Ray Fernstrom, A.S.C., re- 
cently spent several months in Europe, 
filming travel films in three-color Tech- 
nicolor for james A. Fitzpatrick Travel- 
talks (MGM release). He states that 
before he left on the trip, he was able 
to photograph only 1 ,000 feet of tests 



- — which constituted his only introduc- 
tion to the practical aspects of the pro- 
cess. Thersafter, he photographed thou- 
sands of feet of film, under unfamiliar 
conditions, with no failures or difficul- 
ties of any nature. Moreover, he re- 
marks, the camera stood up, not merely 
under the normal treatment incident to 
such a tour, but under the far from 
tender ministrations of French baggage- 
men, who do not consider any package 
set down unless it bounces at least a 
foot! 

The laboratory manipulation of tri- 
chrome Technicolor allows at once both 
more and less control than is usual in 
ordinary work. The three negatives are 
developed by machine, to a rigidly fixed 
time. A very considerable degree of con- 
trol is possible in printing, however, not 
alone over density, but also over the 
color-balance. 

The prints are made by the imbibition 
process. In this process, a matrix is 
made from each of the three color- 
separation negatives, by printing onto a 
special film coated with dichromated 
gelatin instead of the conventional 
emulsion. This is "developed" in warm 
water, which causes the portions affect- 
ed by the printing- light — that is, the 
shadows — to expand, forming a relief 
image. This matrix is then dyed— -each 
matrix being dyed the complementary 
color of its negative: the red negative's 
matrix being dyed cyanin blue-green; 
the green matrix, magenta; and the 
blue matrix, yellow. The three matrices 
are then successively printed in accurate 
register onto clear film: as each matrix 
has absorbed its dye only in the relief 
portions of its image (that is, in the 
shadows), it prints only where the orig- 
inal negative has recorded little or no 
color, while its complementary-colored 
matrix prints in the color actually re- 
corded by the first separation-negative. 
(In this stage, incidentally, the word 
printing is used in the printer's sense, 
for the matrices print in exactly the 
same general manner as type.) When 
the positive has been so printed, and 
dried, it is complete, and ready for use. 

During the Technicolor boom of 
1929-30, there was a great deal of dis- 
satisfaction with imbibition prints, due 
largely to the "bleeding" of the colors, 
to lack of shcrpness, and to the absence 
of uniformity of color. The greater part 
of these difficulties, however, have been 
overcome, and modern "IB" prints are 
generally quite pleasingly sharp, with a 
minimum of bleeding and color-varia- 
tion. 

A great deal of control is possible 
through the processes of matrix-print- 
ing, dying and printing, and the density 
and color-balance can be modified al- 
most as much as is the density of a 
normal black-and-white print. Colors 
can be increased or decreased; a strictly 
accurate rendition can be had, or a 



Still 

UNIQUE 



WHEN it was introduced in 193 1, 
Eastman Super-Sensitive Panchro- 
matic Negative was definitely a "new and 
different"product. And there is still no other 
film like it. ..no other has wrought compa- 
rable changes in motion picture procedure, 
or contributed as much to motion picture 
quality. It is only natural that this Eastman 
film should be unique, also, in the enthu- 
siasm which it continues to arouse among 
cameramen and producers. Eastman Kodak 
Company. (J. E. Brulatour, Inc., Distribu- 
tors, New York, Chicago, Hollywood.) 



EASTMAN Super-Sensitive 
Panchromatic Negative 



14 American Cinematographer • January 1935 



chromatically distorted one, for special 
effect, can be produced. 

At present, the cost for photography 
and print of trichrome Technicolor is 
high: approximately thrice that of 
monochrome. Naturally, three times as 
much negative must be used as would 
be necessary for black-and-white. This 
is understood to cost 7 '/2c per foot. 
Negative developing is stated to cost 
2c per foot, while rush printing is priced 
at 1 2c per foot, with release-printing 
figured at 5 '/2c per foot. These charges 
will undoubtedly lower as the volume 
increases. The cameras are, of course, 



beam-concentration rather than substi- 
tuting a unit of another type. The same 
applies to the "hard" arc-light, which is, 
however, extremely useful for photo- 
graphing dead, heavy blacks, such as 
formal evening dress, for the bluer light 
of the arc reveals more detail in the 
black masses than does the more easily 
absorbed incandescent light. 

Similarly, it is by far the best practice 
when working on a sequence in which a 
definite source-lighting has been estab- 
lished, to adhere closely to this source- 
light pattern throughout, substituting, 
perhaps, smaller units, greater diffusion, 



provided on a leasing basis. At present, 
there are nine of the three-color cam- 
eras ready for use (complete with 
blimps), and several more are in process 
of construction. With the present pol- 
icy, no large camera staff will be built 
up: the present staff, possibly slightly 
augmented, will probably be retained, 
with, of course, on adequate mechanical 
staff for repairs, etc., consulting color 
Art-Directors, and the like: but here- 
after, the majority of Technicolor films 
will be photographed by the men already 
in charge of camerawork in the major 
studios. 



or less concentrated beams in the closer 
shots, rather than altering the source- 
pattern and considering the closer shots 
as more or less independent of the basic 
long-shot. 

These observations, however, are 
purely elementary, and have only a rudi- 
mentary bearing on the discussion. T ie 
real art of lighting for mood and tempo 
must depend primarily upon the individ- 
ual Cinematographer's artistic sense, and 
upon his ability to visualize in terms of 
lighting. 

Since the majority of Cinematograph- 
ers have developed this faculty to a 



marked extent, it would be of incalcu- 
lable benefit tc the Industry if more Pro- 
ducers and Directors made it a rule to 
consult the Cinematographer earlier in 
the preparatory stages of production, 
and to allow him more ample time to 
familiarize himself with the script before 
actual filming commences. There would 
result, of course, an immediate com- 
mercial advantage gained through more 
complete pre-production cooperation be- 
tween the Cinematographer and the Art- 
Directors and Costumers, in that the 
physical production and the photography 
would be better coordinated beforehand, 
with less need of alterations during ac- 
tual shooting. But mechanical details 
— while vastly important — are actually 
secondary to the importance of visualiz- 
ing the artistic treatment of the produc- 
tion. A vital phase of this, incidentally, 
is the coordination of this treatment with 
the style and concepts of the Director. 
Given the same script and physical pro- 
duction, two Directors might turn out 
radically differing productions, each of 
which would demand basically different 
photographic treatment, to suit the dif- 
ferences in dramatic mood, tempo and 
general conception. The story of "Cleo- 
patra," for example, might have been 
interpreted in innumerable different 
ways by different Directors: one might 
have chosen to concentrate upon the 
purely emotional phases of the character, 
while another might have made Cleopa- 
tra herself of secondary importance to 
Caesar and Antony. In either case, the 
photographic treatment — especially the 
style of lighting — would have to be 
basically different. Cecil De Mille, in 
his recent production of the story, which 
I photographed, emphasized yet another 
angle: the feet that Cleopatra was es- 
sentially a "showman," who instinctively 
dramatized her every surrounding, and 
amazed the luxurious Roman world with 
her calculatedly lavish display of Egypt's 
incredible wealth. Thus in this produc- 
tion, the photographic keynote was rich- 
ness, and in every scene — even the most 
dramatic — the lighting was kept richly 
brilliant, to keep the audience subtly 
aware of the splendor of the settings and 
costumes. Similarly, Cleopatra's enter- 
tainments of Caesar and Antony were lit 
and photographed primarily as sensuous 
spectacles, the high-lights of her exhi- 
bitionistic nature. 

I have photographed many of Ernst 
Lubitsch's sparkling comedy- romances, 
and more than a few similar stories di- 
rected by other Directors. Few, if any, 
Directors can impart to action and dia- 
log the peculiarly brittle brilliance which 
characterizes Lubitsch's work; and where 
one might stress the romantic phases, 
requiring much softer lighting and pho- 
tographic treatment, and another might 
play everything for broader comedy, re- 
quiring more conventional, highly-keyed 
lighting, Lubitsch's own style demands 
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CREATING MOODS WITH LIGHT 

Continued from Page 7 



A 



January 1935 • American Cinematographer 15 



Nance in photography and lighting which 
is rarely applicable elsewhere. 

About the time that this appears in 
print, I expect to begin photographing 
Cecil De Mi lie's "The Crusades." While 
like most of De Mille's pictures, this will 
naturally stress the spectacular element, 
the interest (photographic as well as 
dramatic) centers mainly on two out- 
standing men — Richard of England and 
Saladin, the Saracen. This has a very 
important bearing on the photographic 
treatment of the film; especially upon 
the camera-angles and the lighting. 
Through my study of the script, and my 
daily conferences with Mr. De Mille, the 
Art-Directors, Costumers and others, I 
am carefully building up a mental image 
of the picture — scene by scene — as I 
want it to reach the screen. I am trying 
to visualize every angle, every phase of 
lighting, so that when I actually film 
each scene, I will have a definite, mental 
plan of the technical steps that must be 
followed so that the lighting will not 
only be in tune with the dramatic mood 
and tempo of the action, but will bring 
out the fundamental traits of each char- 
acter. 

The two principal characters are in 
every way of heroic proportions. Richard 
the Lion-Hearted, King of England and 
Duke of Notmandy, characterizes the 
epitome of European Chivalry o f t h e 
Middle Ages. Saladin, Sultan of Egypt, 



represents all that was Knightly in the 
more highly cultured Saracenic nation. 
Both characters represent the flower of 
hardy, virile manhood, and tower above 
their fellows in body and in character. 
This gives an unusual opportunity for 
psychologico - dramatic cinematography. 
Strength and virility must predominate 
in the lighting of these men, who should 
be shown in strong relief against the 
pictorial, but less commanding back- 
ground of the period and of their fol- 
lowers. To this end, I hope to depart 
from the conventional lighting tech- 
nique; instead of avoiding contrasts and 
strong shadows, for instance, I plan to 
heighten them and to use them to ex- 
press visually the strength of the two 
men. Using as little as possible of the 
conventional flat front-lightings and 
outlining back-light, I plan to simplify 
my personal lightings, throwing features 
into strong relief, modelled by heavy 
shadows that emphasize the note of 
ruggedness. 

To this end, I expect to use very little 
diffusion, either in the camera or on the 
lights, and instead of carefully elimin- 
ating all the resulting shadows under 
cheek-bon'is, noses and chins, I plan to 
foster them, using them for dramatic 
effect. Wherever possible, I intend to 
enhance the effect of towering physical 
strength, so that these men tower phys- 
ically as well as dramatically above the 



other players. One scene in particular 
creates an especially strong mental pic- 
ture in my mind: the scene where the 
two meet for a parley, surrounded by 
their aides. As I visualize the scene, the 
two men stand together in the center of 
the picture, strongly, boldly illuminated, 
and towering above their men, who are 
grouped behind them in a semicircle, 
partly obscured in shadow. The strength 
of the characters of Richard and Saladin 
can be expressed quite as much through 
the lighting as through dialog or action. 

On the other hand, the women in the 
story demand the softest, most delicate 
lighting possible to fittingly express the 
Medieval ideal of womanhood. The 
"emancipated woman" of today was 
nearly ten centuries in the future, and 
the twelfth century Chivalric concept of 
womanhood was as of something fragile, 
ethereally lovely; almost too wonderful 
for the rough men of the period to even 
touch. This concept can be carried out 
in the lighting: soft, delicate lighting, 
possibly higher keyed and attuned to a 
greater degree of photographic diffus- 
ion. The contrast between the virile, al- 
most harsh photographic rendition of 
the men, and the delicate, pictorial pre- 
sentation of the women should go a long 
way to establish in the audience-mind 
this important dramatic contrast. 

All of these concepts can be carried 
out in the personal lighting — the light- 



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16 American Cinematographer • January 1 935 




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ing of the players — while, like a musical 
undertone, the lighting of the settings 
synchronizes with the dramatic tempo 
of the action. Where the action moves 
at a dramatically swift pace, the set- 
lighting can be of a relatively high key; 
where it grows melodramatic, there can 
be greater brilliance in the general light- 
ing. Where the action moves at a 
slower tempo, the lighting can strike a 
lower key. Moreover, the spirit of the 
period can likewise find much expres- 
sion in the lighting. The buildings of 
the time were built for defense, rather 
than comfort; accordingly, the only 



point on the curve is dependent upon 
the absolute light intensity, and there- 
fore upon the light source by which it is 
read and upon the amount of the fog 
density. (See the range indicated in 
Fig. 1 by Schaeffur.) 3. The primary 





illumination within them was from 
torches and candles, aided, in the day- 
light hours, by thin shafts of sunlight 
filtering in through tall, narrow win- 
dows and loop-holes. To be historically 
correct, the lighting of such sets will 
have to reproduce, in some measure, 
this known condition — and the photo- 
graphic effects so produced will con- 
vey a perfect visual impression of the 
rough hardihood of the age. With this 
background for the light- treatment of 
the players, there is an unusual oppor- 
tunity for true dramatic cinematog- 
raphy and lighting. 



light energy (intensity x time) employed 
is accurately constant, since a definite 
quantity (2 mg) of Mg-ribbon is burned. 

Finally it must be emphasized that 
this kind of evaluation of the speed is 
not good in practice. In picture pho- 
tography it is not so very essential to 
know what exposure is required to pro- 
duce a just visible impression on the 
emulsion as, the much more essential 
quantity, what exposure produces a good 
image. For the evaluation of speed ac- 
cording to the Hurter and Driffield sys- 
tem, a tangent to the density curve ob- 
tained from the exposed sensitometric 
strip is constructed. For the determina- 
tion of the H and D sensitivity number, 
the number 34 is divided by the light 
energy measured in m.c.s. corresponding 
to the point a1 which the tangent crosses 
the abscissa. Apart from the considera- 
tion that this method of speed determi- 
nation is very bothersome on account 
of the necessity of constructing the en- 
tire density curve, the value obtained 
does not correspond to that which in 
practice corresponds to sensitivity. So 
much trouble has arisen from the sen- 
sitometric systems spoken of, that it was 
resolved, in Germany, to produce a new 
method. The problem was to find a sys- 
tem of sensitometry capable of exact 
reproducibility of speed number, one 
which designcted the sensitivity of a 
photographic emulsion in a useful man- 
ner for practice, the system to be adopt- 
ed for perhaps three years by the Ger- 
man Society for Photographic Research 
and executed by one of its committees 
on sensitometry. The numerical value 
necessary for practical work has been 
worked out in detail in the laboratories 
of the Scientific Photographic Institute 
of the Technical High School of Dresden, 
the I.G. Farbenindustrie A.-G. (Agfa), 
and the Zeiss Ikon A.-G. also with the 
support of the Perutz G.m.b.H. A de- 
scription of this work is to be found in 
an article by R. Luther in the Proceed- 
ings of the VIII International Congress 
for Scientific and Applied Photography, 
1 93 1 , in Dresden. For an account of the 




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THE DIN-SCALE 

Continued from Page 1 1 



i 



January 1935 • American Cinematographer 17 



details, the reader is referred to this ar- 
ticle. From this point forward this new 
method of speed determination shall be 
considered with reference to the for- 
merly outlined three simplifications. 

1. The light source used possesses 
approximately the same spectral distri- 
bution as sunlight. It is obtained by 
means of a vertical filament tungsten 
vacuum lamp at a temperature of 2360° 
Abs. in combination with a liquid Davis 
and Gibson filter. The energy distribu- 
tion of this light source in combination 
with this filter is compared with the en- 
ergy distribution of the sunlight meas- 
ured by Abbot. 

2. The exposure time is constant 
and amounts to 0.050 sec, the light in- 
tensity is groduated by a gray step 
wedge in contact with the emulsion to 
be tested. The step wedge has 30 steps, 
each 4 mm. wide, which carry numbers 
1-30. The first step (No. 1) has the 
density 0.10, the second a density 0.20, 
etc., the last step (No. 30) a density 
3.0. 

The density difference between each 
third step amounts to 0.3, the ratio of 
the transparency of the first to the 
fourth step, the second to the fifth step, 
the fourth to the seventh step, etc., has 
the value 2. The apparatus (Zeiss Ikon) 
which is employed for making the ex- 



posures has been described by Gothel 
and Seifert and is shown in Fig. 3. 

3. The sensitivity is characterized 
by that energy for square cm. of emul- 
sion surface, which is required to pro- 
duce a density of 0.1 above fog. For 
the determinction of this energy, it is 
not necessa.y to plot the density curve 
as in the case of the Hurter and Drif- 
field method of evaluation; instead, one 
proceeds by laying a comparison strip 
of density 0.1 on the unexposed part of 
the sensitometric strip (image of the 
gray step wedge) and places it optically 
adjacent to the density scale. The num- 
ber of the step which has the same den- 



sity as the fog plus the comparison den- 
sity, characterizes the sensitivity and 
gives the DIN-Speed of the photographic 
emulsion considered. Bringing the two 
densities optically adjacent may be ac- 
complished with the help of a biprism. 
The higher the number read, the higher 
the sensitivity of the emulsion and in- 
deed a jump of three step numbers des- 
ignates a rise by a factor of 2 in sensi- 
tivity. The choice of the density 0.1 
above fog has various bases. A specifi- 
cation of sensitivity based on this value 
of density has regard for the rendering 
of shadow detail, which is absolutely 
necessary for the attainment of pleas- 




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18 American Cinematographer • January 1935 



ROY DAVIDGE 

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ing pictures, while a good rendering of 
the mean tones and high lights can be 
obtained through proper choice of the 
printing materials. In addition, exten- 
sive research, which has been carried 
out, especially in Dresden, shows that 
the differences in sensitivity of the 
emulsions which are available for prac- 
tical photography can be quantitatively 
represented by the DIN-scale. A very 
important advantage of the method out- 
lined consists in the fact that by this 
method the eye is not employed as an 
"absolute instrument" for the observa- 
tion of a threshold value, but as a "null 
instrument" in which it has the task 
merely of observing the equality between 
densities. Hereby individual differences 
should be largely eliminated. 

In contrast to all former systems of 
sensitometry, the method of develop- 
ment of the sensitometric strip is here 
accurately specified. The developer is 
sulphite metol-hydrochinon developer 
and optimal development is to be given, 



"NIGHT LIFE OF THE GODS" (Uni- 
versal) 

John Mescoll, A.S.C.: Directing Cinema- 
tographer 

Hollywood Reporter (December 7, 
1934): "The photography is fair." 

Daily Variety (December 7, 1934): 
"Photography of John Mescall is ex- 
cellent, particularly the process foot- 
age of the transformations." 

"MYSTERY WOMAN" (Fox) 

Ernest Palmer, A.S.C.: Directing Cinem- 
atographer 

Hollywood Reporter (December 7, 
1934) : "Ernest Palmer's photography 
is at all times interesting." 

Daily Variety (December 7, 1934) : 
"Photography is excellent, particular- 
ly night shots at sea." 

"LITTLE MEN" (Mascot) 

Ernest Miller, A.S.C.: Directing Cinema- 
tographer 

Daily Variety (December 7, 1934): 
"Photography by Ernie Miller and 
William Nobles is excellent." 



i.e. development for such a time that 
the highest possible DIN-number is ob- 
tained. However, the density of the fog 
is not to be higher than 0.4 in case it 
is not specified under the DIN-Speed by 
the factory. 

The sensitivity of a photographic 
emulsion can be accurately determined 
to -)- DIN-number. In order to furnish 
latitude for a small loss of sensitivity of 
an emulsion during storage, a tolerance 
of 3 DIN-stsps has been established, i.e. 
for a later test it is permitted that the 
sensitivity be (at the most) 3 steps-DIN 
lower than it was given by the factory. 
An arbitrary sensitivity change (to one- 
half) is insignificant in comparison with 
the enormous exposure latitude of many 
modern photographic emulsions. 

The problem of DIN-speed, as well as 
a trustworthy sensitivity designated for 
photographic emulsions, has long been 
desired. This must be seen as a real 
and, for the practical photographer, very 
delightful aavancement. 



"BIOGRAPHY OF A BACHELOR GIRL" 

(M-G-M) 

James Wong Howe, A.S.C.: Directing 
Cinematographer 

Hollywood Reporter (December 1 5, 
1934): "And James Wong Howe 
succeeds in making things look their 
best with his photography." 

Daily Variety (December 15, 1934): 
"Photography of James Wong Howe 
is above par, particularly his exter- 
iors." 



CRONJAGER PASSES 

Jules Cronjager, 62, veteran cinema- 
tographer, died at his home Christmas 
night following a heart attack after be- 
ing ill for several weeks. 

Cronjager had been a cameraman for 
25 years. He is credited with some of 
the big productions of the industry dur- 
ing the silent days. He is survived by 
his widow and a brother Henry. Edward 
Cronjager, A.S.C., of the RKO Studio, is 
his nephew. 



PHOTOGRAPHY OF THE MONTH 

Continued from Page 10 



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January 193 5 • American Cinematographer 23 



AMATEUR 
MOVIE 

SECTION 



Contents . . . 

EQUIPMENT Prize Winners 24 

NON-SYNC Setup for Silent Pictures 

by Arthur H. Smith 25 

TALK on Wide Angle Lenses 

by Wm. J. Grace 26 

FORMULA for Reversing Film 28 

ADAPTING Professional Lighting 

by Frank Good, A.S.C 29 

WHEELS of Industry 30 

HERE'S How 

by A.S.C. Members 32 

TRICKS and Gadgets Winners... 34 



Next Month . . . 

• We will give you the details of the 1935 
Amateur Movie competition. There will be a 
little change in the date and a little change 
in the classifications. Everything will be sim- 
plified more. 

• There will be articles pertinent to problems 
you encounter frequently. We will tell you 
something more about animated cartooning 
and how sound is synchronized with the action 



24 American Cinematographer • January 1935 



Equipment 

Prizes 

Awarded 



DURING the past month the judging committee of 
the American Cinematographer 1934 Amateur 
Movie Makers Contest completed its work and 
designated the winners of the equipment prizes and those 
who were to receive Honorable Mention. 

The prize given by Eastmcn was awarded John E. Earl 
for his picture "The Traveler." This picture was selected 
because it was felt by the committee that it not only was 
a good travel subject, but also cne that had as its central 
theme the family of the producer. 

The Bell & Howell prizes according to the rules went 
to the winners of prizes in the cash awards to those who 
used Bell & Howell cameras. 

The Victor Animatograph Camera was given outside 
of the regular awards. In evsty case where this was pos- 
sible the committee attempted tc separate the equipment 
awards from the cash awards. "Footsteps" would easily 
have won in one of the classifications, but the picture was 
of a calibre that the committee believed should receive a 
higher award. 

The Agfa contributions were also rated in the same 
way. If the picture was made on Agfa film it was first put 
in the class to be judged for the Agfa prize as that prize 
was greater than the cash prize except in the case of the 
first winner. Under this arrangement Mr. Nixon of Cleve- 
land, Ohio, was given the prize of the Super Pan film for 
his fine picture "Christmas." This combined fine photog- 
raphy, both interior and exterior, with a splendid record 
of the holidays. In view of the fact that the Calvin Co. 
award came under this same classification Mr. Nixon also 
won that prize. 

The second prize of the Agfa Ansco Corp. went to 
Arthur Wolff of Chicago for hi is film "All for Beauty," a 
documentary picture. 

The Harrison & Harrison prize was awarded to Chas. 
E. Coles and Robert Coles of New York City for their pic- 
ture "Rainbow Trail." Last year these two gentlemen won 
the second prize for photography. 

The Craig Splicer and Rewind went to W. McFarlane 
of Rochester for his picture "Two Tramps Abroad," a 
splendid record of a honeymoon trip cleverly edited and 
titled. 

The Sunny Schick prize of cne Model M.S. A. Electro- 
phot went to J. J. Urban of Ft. Atkinson, Wis., for his 
picture "Our Family." 

In addition to these prizes the committee felt that 
the following were highly deserving of Honorable Mention: 

Allan F. Seaver, New Bedtord, Mass., for his picture 
"New York City." 



Equipment Winners 

Eastmon Model K-75 Projector, Val- 
ue $235.00, to John E. Earl, for his 
picture "The Traveler." 

BELL & HOWELL, Merchandise to 
the value of $125.00 to Van Dee 
Sickler for his picture "Mischief." 

Bell & Howell, Merchandise to the 
value of $75.00 to H. Demarest of 
Hackensack, N. J., for his picture 
"Story of Water." 

Victor Animatograph Corp., Model 5, 
16mm Camera with f2.9 lens, value 
$175.00, to J. R. Coming, St. Louis, 
Mo., for his picture "Footsteps." 

Harrison & Harrison Universal Filter 
Holder and set of Multi Filters, value 
$14.00, to Chas. H. Coles and Rob- 
ert Coles. New York City, for "Rain- 
bow Trail." 

Craig Movie Supply Co., Senior Re- 
wind and Splicer, value $19.50, to 
John W. McFarlane, Rochester, N. 
Y., for "Two Tramps Abroad." 

Agfa A- co Corp., 12 one-hundred- 
foot rolls Super Pan Reversible 16mm 
film, value $94.00, to C. E. Nixon, 
Cleveland, Ohio, for "Christmas." 

Agfa Ansco Corp., 12 one-hundred- 
foot rolls Plenachrome Reversible 
Film, value $54.00, to Arthur Wolff, 
Chicago, III., for his picture "All for 
Beauty." 

The Calvin Co., Complete Set of 
Tailor Made Titles, value $50.00, to 
C. E. Nixon, Cleveland, Ohio, for 
"Christmos." 

Sunny Schick, one Model M.S. A. 
Electrophot, value $17.50, to J. J. 
Urban, Ft. Atkinson, Wis., for "Our 
Family." 



Dr. Harold F. Kaufman, San Francisco, Calif., for his 
picture "Around the Clock with Muriel." 

C. J. Kostich, Long Island City, N. Y., for his picture 
"Peasants." 

Dr. S. H. McAfee, New Orleans, La., for his dental 
picture. 

Delmir DeCaralt of Barcelona, Spain, for his picture 
"Memmortigo." 

Claude W. A. Cadarette, Los Angeles, Calif., for his 
picture "California Missions," an 8mm subject. 

Cinema Club of San Francisco for their picture "Shades 
of Bacchus." 

Joyn F. Criswell of Los Angeles for his picture "Amer- 
ica Thru the Ages." 

M. P. Gamber, Grand Rapids, Mich., for his 8mm pic- 
ture "Hooked." 

Continued on Page 3 5 



January 1935 • American Cinematographer 25 



Non-Sync 
Setup for 
Silent Pictures 

by 

Arthur H. Smith 

THE following describes a "non-sync" setup which is 
portable and which incorporates a monitoring circuit 
and a feature whereby sound effects may be simul- 
taneous with the background music. This arrangement 
is built into two cases for ease in transporting and is very 
convenient for temporary setups. 

Two plywood suitcases about 24"xl5" are used to 
house the complete setup. The first case contains two 
33 1/3-78 r.p.m. electric turntables, two electric pickups 
and the associated wiring. The second case contains the 
amplifier. This amplifier is really two amplifiers. The 
first, or main amplifier, is for the sound and the second is 
the monitor amplifier. 

The operator, at times, wishes to pick out sections of a 
record for accompaniment with the picture. In this system 
I have provided a means whereby the operator may moni- 
tor on the incoming pickup with a pair of headphones and 
find the exact spot for setting his needle. For instance the 
action might be slow and light, then a fadeout and a quick 
fadein on fast exciting action. One record may have fast 
exciting music about halfway in it. Yet, the operator will 
not wish to play the first part of this record as a better 
record may be on hand for the slow action preceding the 
excitement. So, he plays the slow music, sets the incoming 
pickup about where he wishes to pick up the hurry-hurry 
and listens for the start and then fades over to catch the 
opening notes. 

Two outlet jacks and a 1 I °V. A.C. input are mounted 
on one end of the turntable case One output jack is con- 
nected by means of a patching cord to the input of the 
main amplifier and the other output jack is connected by 
means of a second patching cord to the monitor amplifier. 
The input for the 1 1 °V. A.C. is an ordinary outlet recep- 
tacle and a special cord is made up with two male plugs 
for connecting to a power outlet. Each motor has its own 
on-off switch. Each pickup comes with a volume control 
as part of the pickup assembled in one unit. Therefore, 
no volume controls need be mounted on the case. However, 
for each pickup circuit there is a four-pole three-position 
switch. For this switching arrangement a Kellogg anti- 
capacity switch may be used, but, a slight adjustment will 
have to be made on the inner contacts. These must be 
bent so as to contact with the swing arms when the key 
is in the center position. The diagram of the turntable 
case shows such a position on the right hand pickup while 
the left hand pickup in the diagram has the key in the 
down position. 

Here is an explanation of operation. 
The amplifier and speakor are set up, and the dual 
turntable case is connected with the patching cords. With 




The dual turntable case, showing the input A. C, 
the two output jacks and patching cords. The 
two off-on switches, two control switches and 
the fader. The pickups and motor turntables are 
mounted on the top. 




Wiring Diagram for Dual Turntable. 



the key associated with its particular pickup in the down 
position that pickup is on the main amplifier channel and 
will feed music into said channel provided the fader is 
turned to that pickup. With the key in the center posi- 
tion the pickup is on the monitor channel and can be 
heard in the headphones. With the key operated up it 
throws the pickup in parallel with the playing pickup. 
This is used in the following case. The action on the screen 
shows a train thundering along a track. Background music 
is being played. Now, as special records may be secured fcr 
almost any type of sound we will say a record has been 
secured for a train whistle. That is put on the vacant turn- 
table and the motor started. Now at the critical moment 
the key is thrown up and through the background music 
will come the "toot-toot" of the train whistle. 

The amplifier is built into one chassis. It is mounted 
in the cover of the second case and the loud speaker is 
mounted in the base. It will be necessary to remove the 
hinges and replace them with clasps similar to those on the 
front of the suitcase. These may be obtained in a suitcass 
repair shop. Then, the speaker may be detached and 
placed near the screen. 

The main amplifier consists of 2-56's into 47's in push- 
pull and the 80 rectifier. The monitor amplifier is a single 
56 into a single 45 with its 80 tube. The monitor amplifier 
also supplies field to the dynamic speaker. Of course, va- 
riations can be used. The main thing is to supply two am- 
plifier channels so that one amplifier channel is available 
for the sound while a second channel is available for moni- 
toring. If an A.C. speaker is used then of course it is un- 
necessary to supply field from the monitor amplifier. 

If it is desired a microphone may be fed into the input 
of the amplifier for explanations during the picture. A 
mike transformer and battery is all that is necessary and 
this may be built into a small box which will fit into the 
amplifier-speaker case when transporting. 

Music with pictures improves their entertainment value 
about 50%. 



26 American Cinematographer • January 1935 




BBI 



Let's Talk 




Figure 9. By combining a dispersing lens with a 
converging lens, the telephoto effect of enlarg- 
ing the image is obtained without correspond- 
ingly longer mounting length and large diameter 
required by a normal long-focus lens. 



I N THE first two articles of this series in which we have 
I become better acquainted with the whys and where- 
I fores of our camera lenses, the rudimentary optical 
faults of the single common lens have been discussed with 
the idea of realizing more fully why the lens of our 
cameras is so important to the quality of our picture work. 
And, altho intricate mathematics was purposely avoided, 
the discussion at least, I trust, has made us aware of the 
problems confronting lens designers and manufacturers, and 
perhaps their ceaseless efforts to supply us movie fans with 
better and better lens equipment have increasd our respect 
for their talents. 

The third article of the series (which appeared in last 
month's AMERICAN CI NEMATOGRGAPHER ) was an at- 
tempt to learn, in at least cursory fashion, the progress 
which has been made in modern lenses, with illustrations 
of the general types of modern anastigmats. In order to 
correct for as many optical faults as possible simultan- 
eously, groups of lens elements were combined in proper 
manner, to be followed by later advances which increased 
the speed of lenses without increasing the aberrations by 
the simple expedient of selecting glasses and shapes which 
minimized the number of lens elements and thus increased 
the optical efficiency. 

This month we shall discuss in more particular fashion 
two special members of the lens family — the wide angle 
and the telephoto lens. 

When the gasoline-powered conveyance was first mar- 
keted, it was offered in only one body style, the two-seat 
open model. It was the plaything of the rich and nothing 
more. With the spread over the country of such a conven- 
ient mode of transportation, people not-so-rich visualized 
the motor car as having possibilities in other directions 
than the mere Sunday-promenading of the first models. 
The salesman who seldom had a passenger found a road- 
ster or single-seat model more easily maneuvered bcause 
of its smaller size Families in wet or cold weather began 



to demanad more comfort in their transportation. Truck- 
ing companies realized that different models of the motor 
car might be built to more economically and more quickly 
carry heavy burdens of freight than the horse-drawn ve- 
hicle could accommodate. In short, the more general and 
widespread the knowledge of the advantages of motor 
transportation, the more widely varied became the models 
of the motor car. 

The amateur motion camera and its lens are paral- 
leling the history of the motor car in that as more and 
more enthusiasts are recruited into the field, the more 
widely varied are the models of cameras and lenses which 
manufacturers offer. Up to a certain point in this evolu- 
tion, there is a great deal of heclthy competition, but be- 
yond a certain saturation point, there will be the reverse 
swing to simplicity. 

Just at present, there are so many different focal 
length lenses on the market that there is actually sales 
resistance to all cine amateur equipment. Perhaps I should 
modify or qualify that statement by the explanation that 
because so little is told of the reasons for the existence 
of all these lenses, there is a definite reaction against get- 
ting into the game because "it's a rich man's game." 

But we don't shy away from owning a modest automo- 
bile just because the rich man's equipage consists of a 
town car, a country car, and a few incidental pieces of 
motoring equipment do we? We might have a longing 
for a better car, but you can bet your last bottle of film 
cement that we feel that should we ever be fortunate 
enough to be financially able to possess more motor equip- 
ment, we'll know exactly what we need. 

So it is with lens equipment for our amateur movie 
camera. Until we know more about our possible future 
needs, we start out with a normal focal length lens, a 
good, safe choice. But as we aren't ever satisfied with 
our past and present achievements, it will be a good idea 
to store away knowledge of what we might need in the 
future. 

And that brings us to wide-angle lenses and tele- 
photos. What are they? Why are they? What good can 
they do us? If we approach c case full of lenses with 
itching fingers and loose-stringed pocketbook, let's ask 
three questions of every lens the dealer shows us, and then 
blame no one but ourselves if the wrong choice is made 
in auxiliary lens equipment. 

What is a wide-angle lens? Why is it offered to us? 
What good would a wide-angle lens in our camera be to 
better filming? 

In the first place, a wide-angle lens is a lens which 
gathers optical impressions for our film in a wider sweep 
than does our normal lens. A wide-angle lens is offered 
to us because in interior filming so many amateurs have 
complained of the regular lens being too "narrow-eyed" 
to include enough scene taken in our small-roomed mod- 
ern homes and apartments. If we have a wide-angle lens 
in our equipment, we can him family movies indoors and 



January 1935 • American Cinematographer 27 



About Lenses 
Wide-Angl es 
and Telephotos 

by 

Wm. J. Grace 

Not to be reproduced in any other publication 
without the permission of the author. 



get plenty of adjacent scenery to establish the fact that 
it is really a room and not just a two-walled artificial 
movie set. 

The diagonal of a frame of 16mm film is about Vz". 
With a 1" lens (sometimes called a 25mm lens), then, 
the included angle is about 26 Vz° . If you're mathemat- 
ically inclined, the angle is the anti-tan of half the diag- 
onal divided by the focal length. Consequently, a 1 5mm 
wide-angle lens will cover about 33° on the diagonal 
(again, the anti-tan of half the diagonal divided by the 
focal length). It isn't difficult mathematics to prove 
that 33° is about 25% wider angle than 26 Vz° , and it 
likewise isn't difficult for the layman to realize that a 
picture made with a 15mm wide-angle lens will include 
25% more scenery all around than the normal 1" lens. 

Why aren't still wider-angle lenses on the market? 
Simply because the need hasn't developed to such propor- 
tions as to warrant paying the salary of a high-priced lens 
designer or investing in optical grinding equipment neces- 
sary to such short focal lengths. When the need becomes 
great enough, we shall have wider-angle lenses, have no 
fear. True, the focal length will be so short that the 
lens may practically ride on the film, but if we want them, 
lens makers will come thru in fine style, never fear! 

As an example of what has actually been done in the 
way of wide-angle lenses, the Goerz Optical Co. developed 
a few years ago a lens which was anastigmatically flat- 
tened over a field of about 135°! But the Hypergon, as 
it was trade-named, was not for the 16mm enthusiast, for 
i* overcame the uneven illumination of the film surface 
(a fault common to wide-angle lenses, but, of course, cor- 
rected in commercial lenses) by the complicated expedi- 
ent of exposing with the film for about 1/6 total time 
with the lens alone, and the remaining 5/6 was exposed 
with a star-shaped auxiliary field stop, which was spun in 
front of the lens by an air blast, swung before the lens. 
Imagine doing this 16 times per second! One would have 
to be a bit agile, as it were, would one not! 

You wide-angle fans who have been crying for "wider, 
wider, wider" angles to your lenses, digest the above de- 
scription of a really wide-angle lens, and be content with 
what you have. 

And now to the other side of the normal lens — the 
telephoto lens. What is a telephoto lens? Why is it of- 
fered to us? What improvement would come to our film- 
ing thru the use of telephoto lenses? 




Figure 8. The wide-angle lens "takes in" a wider 
angle of view than the normal lens. Its chief use 
is in filming interiors where the camera cannot 
be backed far enough away from the scene to 
include the proper amount of surroundings. 



Well, a telephoto lens is a hybrid lens, in the first 
place. It's a long focal length lens with a short focal 
length mounting tube. It is existent only because we have 
demanded that even long focus lenses for our tiny ama- 
teur movie cameras must be in keeping with the physical 
dimensions of our compact cameras. Surely, they cost 
more than a regular lens would cost, because of the extra 
lens element in it. It is an important lens for us, tho, be- 
cause it allows us to film objects in a larger size than if 
we had to depend on the normal lens, from the same 
camera-object distance. 

If you are a still camera enthusiast as well as a movie 
bug, as most of us in 16 and 8 are, you are familiar with 
the rather large backward and forward travel of the lens 
of, say, a 2 , /4"x3 , /4" Graflex having the normal 5Vz" 
lens. Your own camera may be smaller or larger than this 
and have a correspondingly shorter or longer focus lens, 
but you do know that the lens on your still camera must 
travel an appreciably longer distance in moving from per- 
fect focus for a close-up to sharp focus for a distant scene. 

As an example, the 5Vz" lens of my Graflex moves 
about 5" between the extremes of a closeup and a distant 
object, while my 6" telephoto on my Bell & Howell only 
moves about 5/16" for the same adjustment. Moreover, 
when racked out to shoot a closeup, the 5Vz" Graflex 
lens is about 10" or more away from the film, while the 
6" Cooke telephoto is only about 4" away. 

The short mounting of a telephoto lens not only is a 
boon to the amateur cinephotographer because of com- 
pactness, but it does not unbalance the camera as much 
as would a normal lens of the same focal length. The 
longer the focal length of a small cine camera lens, the 
more highly is magnified any slight movement of either 
the lens or the camera, and if the barrel of the lens is 
kept short, as is possible with telephotos, there is less dan- 
ger from lens movement to spoil the shot. 

Continued on Page 36 



28 American Cinematographer • January 1935 



Formula for Reversing Films 



Editor's Note: So many requests have reached us for a formula for 
reversing 16mm film that we are reprinting herewith the article 
as it was originally printed in the Cinematographic Annual Vol. 2. 



THE making of direct positives, whether by the re- 
versal-film process generally used by amateurs, or 
by converting an ordinary negative into a positive, 
consists in making a negative on a strip of film, develop- 
ing it, and then printing that negative on the same strip 
and destroying the original negative chemically, but leav- 
ing the positive print to be developed, etc., in the usual 
way. 

In 35mm use, where regular reversal film is not avail- 
able, either negative or positive film may be used, but 
where the light permits, positive is preferable, as it gives 
snappier results, although it is not corrected for color- 
values. As positive stock is far slower than negative, it 
can only be used under the best light conditions, and al- 
ways with a much wider diaphragm opening than would be 
used with negative. It is not recommended for interiors. 
In any case, the exposure must be rather full. 

The apparatus needed is a SOLID drum of metal or 
wood, painted with a dead black photogrqphic enamel 
which must be resistant to the action of photographic 
chemicals. A SKELETON-TYPE DRUM, WITH ONLY 
RIBS, CANNOT BE USED FOR REVERSAL PROCESSING. 

Any high-contrast developer can be used. The fol- 
lowing is a good formula: 



HYDROQUINONE 1 ounce 

Sodium Sulphite (dry) 11 ounces 

Sodium Carbonate (dry) 7 ounces 

Potassium Bromide 1 ounce 

Water 1 gallon 

Alcohol 1 pint 



The alcohol may be omitted, but permits development 
at a higher temperature, giving greater contrast. 

Development should be slow, by dim, red light, so as 
to give a snappy negative with pure whites and deep blacks. 
Be sure to develop fully. 

Wash for five minutes or more, to remove all traces 
of developer. 

At this stage, any swelling of the film should be taken 
up by tightening the film on the drum. Then the film 
should be exposed to a diffused, white light until the white 
portions of the film become visibly grayed. 

The next step is to destroy the negative image by im- 
mersion in: 

Water 1 gallon 

Potassium Bichromate 1 Vi ounces 

Nitric Acid 3 ounces 

The film is immersed in this bath until the negative 
has entirely disappeared, and only the creamy white of the 
remaining, undeveloped silver bromide is visible. After 
this, the film must be thoroughly washed, and the final, 
positive image then developed in the usual manner. This 
may be done in the same solution in which the negative 
was developed, or in some softer-working solution. 



After this development, the print is fixed and washed 
in the usual manner. 

Another set of formulae, especially intended for sub- 
standard reversal emulsions, ate recommended by Messrs. 
Pathe for use with their Pathex system. 

The formula for the first development is: 



Paraphenylenediamine 150 grains 

Sodium Sulphite (crystals) 1 ounce 

Caustic Soda 150 grains 

Potassium Bromide 60 grains 

Phenosafranine (solution 1:1000) 160 minims 

Water 35 ounces 



If ANHYDROUS sulphite is used, only '/ 2 ounce is 
needed. There are also several commercial desensitizers, 
such as "Desensol," etc., which can be readily substituted 
for the safranine solution required. 

This developer must be used at temperatures between 
60 and 65 degrees F. 

The developer should be filtered before use. Remem- 
ber, too, that the caustic soda is bad for the eyes, so do 
not splash the developer. 

In developing reversal film, the film should look al- 
most opaque when the development is finished, and the 
black portions of the negative should appear of almost 
equal density from either side of the film. The following 
table will be useful in timing the development: 



If the First Signs of Image Appear in: Develop for 

Up to 20 seconds 5 to 8 minutes 

30 10 " 

40 12 

1 minute 1 5 " 

1 Va to 1 Vz minutes 20 to 25 

Reversion is in this case carried out chemically, by use 
of the following reversion bath: 

Potassium Permanganate 30 grains 

Sulphuric Acid 170 minims 

Water 35 ounces 



The acid should be added last in a slow stream, stir- 
ring the while. Sodium Bisulphate (380 grains) may be 
substituted for the acid, but is not so effective. 

In reversion the negative is dissolved away and the 
film takes on a red color. This normally takes from seven 
to ten minutes, but should in any case be continued until 
all of the black image is dissolved. If the amateur has 
both orange and red lights on his dark-room lamp, the 
red one may be removed after the film has been five min- 
utes in this bath. 

After reversion the film is washed until it bcomes a 
clear yellow — usually about seven minutes. The remaining 
operations may be carried out in white lights. 

The next step is bleaching, by the following formula: 

Sodium Sulphite (crystals) 150 grains 

Sulphuric Acid - 35 minims 

Water 35 ounces 

Continued on Page 36 



January 193 5 • American Cinematographer 29 



Adapting 
Professional 
Lighting to 
Amateur Movies 

by 

Frank Good, A. S. C. 

THERE is no gainsaying the fact that the average 
amateur-movie interior is either too flat, or too ex- 
cessively contrasty. The fault, in the first instance, 
is that a general flood of light (from one or more sources) 
is indiscriminately thrown on the set — with no accentuat- 
ing shadows or high-lights. In the other case, the light is 
from a single source, as a rule, so placed as to "burn up" 
most of the high-lights, and leaving a lot of heavy, black 
shadows. 

Now, how shall we correct this? In the first place, why 
not begin with a general illumination from two or three 
well-placed lamps, fitted with silk or tracing-cloth diffusers. 
This is good insurance against unpleasant shadows; but it 
won't, naturally, give you anything but a flat, well-illum- 
inated picture. If we want character in it, we will have to 
build up our high-lights from this foundation. 

This is a good start; but now, how about the high- 
lights and shadows that will give our set character? These 
can come from other units — not diffused — and placed here 
and there about the room where their beams will make 
little catch-lights on irregular wo 1 1 -surfaces, curtains, arch- 
ways, and furniture. The various types of inexpensive 
Photoflood units are fine for this. The light-source in a 
Photoflood bulb is fairly small, and so the light is intense 
enough to give a strong beam, which will accentuate our 
high-lights nicely, and also cast interesting shadows. In 
addition, Photofloods placed in ordinary table or bridge 
lamps will add to the naturalness of the effect, putting 
more highly-illuminated splashes of light in the logical 
places. 

Clearly, if we build our light up this way, we're likely 
to get so much more than merely enough illumination to 
make an exposure, that we'll have to stop down quite a 
bit. Well, why not? Stopping down will give us more 
depth of focus — and it will also allow us to control the 
effect we get; closing down will give a darker, more con- 
trasty picture, while opening up will give us a lighter, softer 
one. The best guide, of course, is an accurate exposure- 
meter (preferably one of the photoelectric type) : normally, 



follow its reading; but for effects, note the reading, and 
then modify your exposure to get your effect. 

Now let's consider an actual example, and see what 
can be done under normal conditions. Take the room rep- 
resented in the sketch — a living-room of average size. Our 
shot will be made with a 15mm lens, centering on a person 
seated in a chair, and including a corner of the room. (It 
is always better to show two of the walls of a room this 
way, rather than a single wall.) Beside our chair are a 
book-table, on one side, and a reading-lamp on the other. 
Now, let's begin to light our picture! What do we want 
first? Our foundation-light: the soft, general illumination, 
from which we can build up our high-lights. We will start 
with lamp "A" — a 500-watt photographic lamp, fitted 
with a diffuser. Placed as it is, it will give us a nice, soft, 
general illumination over the picture-area. Used alone, it 
would give us an even, general illumination sufficient for 
an exposure — but the picture would be flat and uninterest- 
ing. You could balance it, of course, with another, similar 
unit placed on the other side of the camera-line, and a bit 
closer to the subject: this would result in a fairly good, 
ordinary lighting on subject and background. But, if you're 
like most amateurs, with none too many lamps at your dis- 
posal, I think you couid get j better lighting for your set 
with but a single front-light unit. 

Now, what do we want next? Well, some high- lights 
along the folds of that curtain in the background would 

Continued on Page 33 




Above — How the Amateur can do it. 
Below — How the Professional does it: how Ernest Palmer, 
A.S.C., set the lights for a scene from "Cavalcade." 



30 American Cinematographer • January 1935 




WHEELS 



Craig Moves 

• Craig Movie Supply Company an- 
nounce the removal of their offices on 
January 1st to 1053 S. Olive St., Los 
Angeles, Calif. 

This is almost next door to the local 
Agfa offices. The new and larger quar- 
ters were made necessary by the many 
new pieces of equipment and material 
that are being handled by this company. 
In addition to home movie materials 
the Craig company is also handling still- 
picture equipment. 

Boulder Dam Films 

• The Boulder Dam Service Bureau of 
Boulder City, Nev., announces six sub- 
jects available of this project. Some are 
in 16mm and some in 35mm. 

In addition to film the company also 
has lantern slides of the building of this 
vast dam. 

The 16mm subjects range in length 
from 100 fset to 2,400 feet. 

Changes Name 

• Educational Projecto Film Co. of Hol- 
lywood has changed the name to Camera 
Mart. This company has also moved 
from its former location on Cahuenga 
to 1611 N. Cahuenga Boulevard. 

Agfa Color for Rolleiflex 

• According to an announcement from 
Burleigh Brooks, distributor of the Rol- 
leiflex camera for America the new Agfa 
Color will be available for that camera 
about the first of January, 1935. An- 
nouncement would indicate that this 
process is developed to such a point that 
it is much faster and much easier to use. 

Single Exposure Device 

• A new accessory for the Leica camera 
is announced by E. Leitz, Inc. The Single 
Exposure Film Holder is a thin metal de- 
vice which holds a strip of standard 35- 
mm film of from two to three inches 
long. This carrier slips into the regular 



OF INDUSTRY 



Leica camera and makes possible the 
exposing of a single negative. 

To make single exposures in this 
manner, the camera is of course loaded 
and unloaded in a darkroom, and the 
device is intended primarily for testing 
purposes, which it serves admirably well. 

This single exposure apparatus is not 
to be confused with the "Oligo" Single 
Exposure Camera, which is a complete 
camera in itself. The device is for use 
in any standard model Leica camera. 

Kodak Retina 

• This tiny newcomer in the miniature 
field takes thirty-six pictures on a roll 
of film supplied in a daylight-loading 













magazine. Two emulsions are available: 
Kodak "SS" Panchromatic Film (No. 
SSI 35) and Kodak Panatomic Film INo. 
F 1 35 ) . The actual picture size is 24x 
36 mm. 

Loaded as easily as a Brownie, Kodak 
Retina carries all of its controls within 
easy finger-tip range. Two large knurl- 
ed knobs facilitate the winding and re- 
winding of the film. The film is always 
locked in position. At a turn of the con- 
veniently located film-release knob only 
enough film for the next exposure can 
be wound forward, when it again auto- 
matically locks. This eliminates any 
chance of overlapping, resulting in 
wasted film. Once set at the first ex- 
posure, the succeeding exposures, up to 
36, are automatically shown on a dial. 
In a split second the picture taker is 
ready for the next exposure. This speed 
in operation is invaluable when and if 
it is necessary to take a series of pictures 
of moving subjects. 



The film is numbered from 1 to 36 
and when developed the number of each 
picture appears on the margin of the 
Kodak Panatomic or "SS" Panchromatic 
Film loaded in the new Kodak film mag- 
azine. This new feature enables the 
user to order prints and enlargements 
for his film strip by number. 

With eight speeds, including 1/300 
second, time and bulb action, the well- 
known Compur shutter is capable of 
handling almost any subject. 

The shutter versatility is matched by 
the speed of the f .3.5 anastigmat lens. 
When the Retina is closed it affords 
complete protection to the lens. 

Two Kodak Portrait Attachments and 
three color filters are available. The 
"A" portrait attachment, with distance 
set at "infinity," reduces the focal dis- 
tance to 41 inches; "B" reduces it to 
25 inches. When the camera is focused 
at 3 Vi feet these distances are reduced 
to 21 inches and 16 inches, respectively. 

The three color filters are: light yel- 
low (N-l), medium yellow (N-2), and 
green (N-3), with filter factors under 
daylight of 1 .6, 1 .9 and 2.2 respectively. 

Filters and portrait attachments screw 
into the lens mount and are so compact 
that the camera can be shut with either 
— but not with both — in position. Filter 
and portrait attachment may be used 
together when the camera is open. 

The retail price of the Kodak Retina 
is $52.50. 

New 16mm Film Reel 

• Herman A. DeVry Inc. announce a 
new 1 600- ft. 16mm reel. The rims and 
spokes of this reel are of spring steel 
bands, bending easily but instantly re- 
turning to their original alignment. The 
spokes are riveted to the rims, but at 
the hub they slide under a steel band to 
allow for the molecular expansion which 
metal suffers when bent or subjected to 
any violent strain. 

Another innovation is a well in the 
top of the hub to hold the film in the 
reel when starting the rewind. The film 
is laid over the well and pressed lightly 
with the finger; film perforations catch 
on prongs ond hold '.he fiim securely 
until end of run. 

Continued on Page 37 



CINE-KODAK SPECIAL 

I I ^ 




Ground-glass focusim 




I nterchangeable film 
chambers 

Long-running spring 
motor 

One- and eight-frame 
cranks 

Variable speed 

Single-frame release 

Fades 

Dissolves 

Double exposures 

Slow motion 

Animation 



slipping mash into position between lens and film 



FREE 



♦ ♦.A large-sized 16-page book- 
let detailing the advantages of this 
finest of 16 mm. motion picture cam- 
eras. Write to Eastman Kodak 
Company, Rochester, N. Y., for "Pre- 
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Only Eastman makes the Kodak 




32 American Cinematographer • January 1935 




HERE'S HOW 



by A. S. C. Members 



HOW can I hyper-sensitize film 
for use in my miniature camera? 

— A. R., Rangoon, India. 

For those who wish to hyper-sensitize 
film for greater speed, the following pro- 
cess may be employed: 

The strongest form of commercial am- 
monia should be used. This is 28%. The 
bathing of the film must be done in total 
darkness and in a clean room free from 
dust. A clean miniature film developing 
tank is suggested for convenience. Use 
one part of ammonia to twenty-four 
parts of water and be sure that the solu- 
tion is kept at 50 degrees F. Pour the 
solution in the tank and agitate gently 
for one minute. Care must be taken to 
prevent the formation of air bubbles on 
the film. Trcnsfer film to a bath of 
equal parts of water and grain alcohol. 
This is to facilitate drying. Dry quickly 
in front of an electric fan, being careful 
to avoid dust The film should be used 
as soon as possible. 

— Clarence Slifer, A.S.C. 

WHAT developing formula would 
you suggest to secure maximum 
density u>ith miniature camera 
negatives? 

—A. R. C, New York City. 

The D82 formula for maximum den- 
sity development is as follows: 

Water ( 1 25 degrees F. ) 24 ozs. 

Wood Alcohol 1 Vz ozs. 

Elon 200 grs. 

Sodium Sulphite (desiccated) ....1 % ozs. 

Hydroquinone 200 grs. 

Sodium Hydroxide 125 grs. 

Potassium Bromide 125 grs. 

Water to 32 ozs. 

Developing time is four to five min- 
utes at 65 degrees F. 

If the solution is diluted and the wood 
alcohol left out, it will lose its develop- 
ing energy. 

— Clarence Slifer, A.S.C. 

WHAT would you consider the 
slowest shutter speed with a 
hand-held camera? 

— A. M., St. Louis, Mo. 

While it was suggested that l/20th 
second be considered as the slowest shut- 



Ter speed that may be safely used with 
the hand-held camera, it was not meant 
to discourage you from using slower ex- 
posures. They may be used, when it is 
the question of a fair picture or no pic- 
ture at all. With my model F Leica, I 
have made many satisfactory hand-held 
exposures up to one second in duration. 
However, the greatest care must be ex- 
ercised. An extremely valuable aid for 
slow exposures is the Grace Beltipod (a 
unipod camera support that slips over 
the belt or overcoat button). Such a 
support facilitates the using of slower 
or longer focal length lenses for night 
photographv. Just imagine the exposure 
and photographic possibilities obtainable 
with an f2:0 lens and one second ex- 
posure. 

— C. W. D. Slifer, A.S.C. 

IS IT possible to print 16mm neg- 
ative on 35mm positive stock, that 
is, enlarge 16mm to 35mm? 
Would this procedure cause the 
grain to become coarse? Is there 
any fine grain developer that 
would overcome this difficulty? 

— L. G., Chicago. III. 

While it is physically possible to en- 
large 16mm to 35mm it is not consid- 
ered practicable because of the coarse- 
ness of the grain. This has been done 
on several occasions when no other type 
of negative cr print was available. At the 
time of the Lindbergh kidnapping the 
prints of the Lindbergh baby shown in 
the newsreels were enlargements of 1 6- 
mm pictures made by the Colonel of his 
baby. 

The present newsreel shots of the 
Galapagos Island mystery showing some 
of the people who are down there are 
seemingly enlargements of 16mm. It is 
a well-known fact that G. Allan Han- 
cock, the scientist who is familiar with 
these islands and who has cruised them 
frequently, has taken many 1 6mm pic- 
tures of thsm and the people on them. 
In recent news reels he is given credit 
for the pictures of the islands and the 
people on them. It is possible that these 
pictures were also enlargements of 16- 
mm. At least they have every evidence 
of being dupes or enlargements. 

— Ray Fernstrom, A.S.C. 



SOMETIMES in close shots, I 
find that although I carefully 



frame my shots in the finder, on 
the scrsen the subjects often have 
the tops of their heads cut off. 
Why is this? 

— W. L. D., Cambridge, Mass. 

This is caused by what is known as 
parallax between the finder and the lens. 
Obviously, your finder is on top of the 
camera; when you get close to your sub- 
ject, the finder and the lens do not cover 
exactly the some field, due to the dis- 
tance between the finder and lens. Most 
modern cameras have an adjustment on 
the finder — usually a means of sliding 
the eyepiece up to alter the finder's 
angle of field — to compensate for this. 
(If the finder is at the side of the cam- 
era, the error and adjustment are, of 
course, to {he side.) If your camera has 
no such adjustment, the only thing to do 
is to remember whenever your subject is 
closer than ten feet from the camera, 
and sight through your finder allowing 
more than ample head-room at the top 
of your picture. 

— David Abel, A.S.C. 



WHY is the film for the 8mm 
cameras furnished in the 16mm 
width and slit after exposure and 
development? Why isn't this film 
furnished us already split in the 
8mm width? 

—S. R. C, New York City. 

According to tests made by the East- 
man Company it was found that the 
furnishing of the film split in advance 
would not be so practical as furnishing 
it in 16mm length. If you have attempt- 
ed to develop motion picture film in any 
lengths you know it will stretch. It was 
found in testing film split into an 8mm 
width that the stretching of this film 
was greater than in the 16mm width so 
much so that it was inclined to come iff 
the drying drums longer than before it 
was processed. This would mean a lot of 
trouble in accurately-made projectors. It 
might also keep the operator busy with 
the framing lever attempting to keep 
his picture in frame. In my own exper- 
ience I have found that this film will 
stretch a little even after it is processed 
because of its very narrowness. The 
strain in the projector and in the re- 
winds is to pull this film, so the ten- 
dency would be to lengthen it. 

— Arthur Miller, A S.C. 



January 1935 • American Cinematographer 33 



"I Took a LEIGA to the 
Stratosphere" says 




JEAN PIGCARD 



"The pictures we took 
came out very well. I 
am very content with 
the results. For mak- 
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the instruments in- 
side the gondola I 
appreciate specially 
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depth of the Leica 
camera. The possibil- 
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pictures without hav- 
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camera is always an 
additional asset." 



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U.S. Patent No. 1,960,044 

E. Leitz, Inc., Dept. 637 

60 East 10th St., New York City 



Adapting Professional Lighting 
to Amateur Movies 

Continued from Page 29 

relieve the flatness of that part of the 
view, so we'll place lamp "B" either on 
the bookcase to the left, or on a high 
stand near it. Lamp "B" can be either 
another 500-watt unit (undiffused I , or 
a Photoflood unit. It will give us these 
background high-lights we want, and, if 
properly placed, it can also simulate the 
light falling on the subject from read- 
ing-lamp 'F.' 1 Not being diffused, it 
will give us a harder, snappier light. The 
respective distonces between the subject 
and lamps "A" and "B" can be balanced 
so as to get any desired light-balance. 
Bear in mind, of course, that the light 
from lamp "B" should naturally be a 
bit the more intense, as that is to be 
the high-light side of the picture. 

Now, our picture will show a little of 
the room beyond; so there will have to 
be some light there. If you are getting 
enough of the room in your picture to 
warrant it, it might be advisable to cast 
some shadow-patterns on its farther 
wall, with Photoflood units. However, 
the first thought we have when we think 
of an illuminated room in the distance, 
is that some light must stream out. 
Therefore we take lamp "C," another 
500-watt unit, and place it as shown, 
using a diffuser if it appears advisable. 
As the sketch shows, it will give us the 
patch of light apparently streaming out 
from the back room, and also a nice 
edge-lighting (or back-light) on the 
edge of ths curtains. 

On the wall behind the subject, there 
is a wall-fixture, which we will assume 
is fitted with ordinary, flame-tinted 25- 
watt globes. We can turn these on — 
not for actual illumination, to be sure — 
but for the natural effect their glow will 
give. To heighten this, we can place a 
diffused spotlight on the mantelpiece, 
focused on the wall-fixture, so that it 
gives us precisely the patch of light that 
such lamps cast on the wall behind them 
— but (thanks to the spotlight) raised 
to photographable intensity. Now, in 
reality, such c wall lamp would have an 
effect upon the furniture in front of it — 
and of course, upon the people, too. 
This result would be an edge-light or 
backlight: so we simulate this by placing 
a Photoflood unit — lamp "D" — in line 
between the chair and the wall-fixture, 
and in such a position that it is screened 
from the camera by the book-table. This 
will give us the effect we want — a back- 
light on the edges of the chair, table, 
and subject which will separate them 
from the background. Lamp "D" should 
be as high oft the floor as is practicable, 
and well behind the subject. Remember, 
we are shooting with a 15mm lens: and 
at this distance our vertical field is 3.4 
feet; we will naturally cut the picture 
some little distance from the floor. 
Therefore, we can, if necessory, put 



lamp "D" right on the floor, and it 
would probably be out of the picture: 
but we will get a better effect if it is 
raised a couple of feet from the floor, 
and masked by the table. If we include 
the legs of the table, this lamp can be 
placed at such an angle, that, while still 
doing its primary work, it will also give 
us a back-lit effect along these legs. 

The main source of our apparent light 
is, of course, reading-lamp "F." We can 
deal with this as seems most advisable: 
either putting a Photoflood into it, and 
using it as part of our bona-fide lighting, 
or merely putting a moderately strong 



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bulb (say 150 watts) into it, simply to 
suggest that it is a major light-source, 
and letting the actual light come from 
lamp "B." 



34 American Cinematographer • January 1935 




TRICKS 

and GADGETS 



• For the past two months this depart- 
ment was replaced by the description 
of the trick titler by Ed Lucas. That was 
a contribution by Lucas to the Tricks 
and Gadgets contest. 

We have such a wealth of material 
submitted it is going to take us several 
months to catch up with the supply. 

Film Viewer 

Here's a mighty practical gadget and 
at the same time one that can be built 
by almost anyone, whether he is handy 
with tools or not. 

It was submitted by J. D. Cochrane 
of North College Hill, Ohio. Cochrane 
tells us of other interesting things he 
has built, but submits his View Finder 
in the contest. 

If you will study the photograph and 
little sketch as we describe this gadget 
we are sure you will realize that it can 
be built by anyone who owns a saw and 
a few other tools. 

The first thing you will need is a 
light source. Cochrane used a small 
reading light, the type which clamps to 
a book. This as you know comes equip- 
ped with a reflector. If you will look at 
the photo you will be able to see the 
electric wire leading in from the right 
edge of the photo. 

Next a condenser is necessary. If 
you haven't one you can purchase one 
from Eastman Kodak Company. Coch- 
rane used one he had in an old Model 
C Kodascope. This condenser you will 
have to place in front of your light 
source, but back of your film. Look at 
your projector and you will see in what 
order these things are used. You will 
find a reflector, the light, a condenser, 
then your film gate, and then your pro- 
jection lens. 

Next in order Cochrane placed a 
piece of frosted glass to give a diffused 
light and also to protect the film from 
excessive heat coming from the light 
source. 

A film gate was the next item in or- 
der. This you will note from the little 
sketch is made up of layers of polished 
metal, bakelite or heavy film. I t i s 



through this gate that the film is con- 
veyed, touching only the outer edges of 
the film, Thereby eliminating the pos- 
sibility of scratching the emulsion or 
film. This slide or guide will give you 
the desired width, you, however, will 
have to mask off for the height so as 
to take in only one frame at a time. 
You can build the mask from the same 
material you use for constructing the 
guide; you lay this mask, however, on 
top or below the guide. 

Next you will need a lens. This you 
merely take from your projector. In 
other words your projector lens will live 
a double life. It will continue to serve 




on the projector and will double on your 
viewer. You will have to mount this in 
such a way that it can be raised or 
lowered for focusing. 

The last piece for the viewer is the 
frosted or ground glass on which the 
picture will be viewed. You will note 
from the picture that this was attached 
very simply. This glass has only one 
upright support, a board on the left. 
Cochrane did not box this in; the three 
sides are left open and the glass fitted 
on top with a frame of some sort. 

So as to use this with his rewinds he 
built a special support for a 400-foot 
reel as shown on the right of the photo. 
In view of the fact that this support 
does not have to have a rewind it will 
not be difficult to make as it will merely 
be necessary to have an upright piece 
and a peg of some sort on which to 
place the reel. 

The framework of the viewer is basic- 
ally two pieces of board, one at the 



bottom for the main support and one 
at the side to support the ground glass 
used for the screen. A simple angle- 
iron mounting will permit you to place 
this at any angle you desire. These 
angle-irons secured at any 5 and 10 
can be bent easily. 

While this is not a beautifully fin- 
ished viewer, still it is practical. Care 
should be taken in building that portion 
which makes up the guide and gate and 
the method used to bring it toward the 
other rewind. The photo would indicate 
that Cochrane has used a roller on that 
side. Whether this is made up of an 
ordinary spool or something else is hard 
to determine, but it would be well to 
have a roller of some sort at this point, 
and depending upon the angle of this 
viewer, to have one at the other side 
so as not to scratch the film. 

Home-Made Humidor Can 

J. R. Newhart of Milwaukee writes 
in how he has made a humidor can from 
some of the old 400-foot 16mm positive 
cans which he had on hand. These cans 
are not made with humidors. Newhart 
secured a small supply of copper screen- 
ing, the kind used on doors and win- 
dows. He selected copper as this will 
not rust. 

Next he purchased some liquid solder. 
This can be secured from the 5 and 10 
for 10c. In addition to this he merely 
needed either strong scissors or tinsnips. 
He tells us he bought a pair of tinsnips 
from the 5 and 10 for 15 cents, and 
that the screen wire cost him 12 cents. 
From this wire he made 8 humidor cans. 

This was his method. He cut a piece 
of screening the size he wanted for the 
bottom of the can. He cut a piece of 
blotting paper smaller than this wire, 
then he placed the wire over the blot- 
ting paper in the bottom of the can, ap- 
plied the liquid solder to the edges of 
the wire, and he had a humidor can. 

The reason for fastening the wire was 
so that it would not fall out overy time 
the can was turned over. Of course, it 
is not necesscry to fasten this wire, it 
merely acts as a separator between the 
reel and the blotter. Also this wire can 
be cut oblong and fastened at each end 
only, so that new blotters can be placed 
under it from time to time. 



January 1935 • American Cinematographer 35 



• SOUND-ON-FILM 



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Send self-addressed, stamped envelope 
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There is yet another possibility open 
to us in some cases, for getting our back- 
lighting — from the ostensible source of 
the wall-lamp. This is to hang a lighting 
unit, professional-style, from the mould- 
ing on the wall. It would replace lamp 
"D," of course, or supplement it, if we 
want that lemp's effect on the table- 
legs. It would naturally have to be in- 
clined in such a way as to avoid directly 
striking the camera lens; and a deep 
lens-hood is always advisable when 
working with artificial lights. When us- 
ing this method, remember that you can 
do a great deal with such lights which, 
while they may be in front of the cam- 
era, are actually out of the area being 
photographed. 

The photographic illustration, aside 
from giving on idea of how professional 
sets are made to order for photography, 
and giving some hints as to this type of 
lighting (note the "baby" spot on the 
wall, in the same service as our lamp 
"E"), also illustrates a point we have 
not as yet mentioned: this is the high- 
lighting of the picture on the wall. You 
will notice, just over the portrait of 
Queen Victoria, a "Baby Spot" (not dif- 
fused, but well "flooded out") which is 
hung on the wall just outside the cam- 
era-line, so that its beam strikes down 
across the picture, high-lighting it and 
its frame — and also the door-frame be- 
yond. This is a useful idea for empha- 
sizing any particular feature of a room. 
Similar methods can easily be adapted 
to the individual requirements of the 
amateur. 

Equipment Prizes Awarded 

Continued from Page 24 

Robert F. Gowen, Ossining, N. Y., for 
his picture "The Menace." 

Frank Gunnell, Staten Island, New 
York, for his picture "From Winter 
Snows to Summer Sunshine." 

Howard J. Hargraves, Chicago, III., 
for his picture "Dark Horizon." 

Duncan Mac D. Little of New York 
City for his picture "Circus." 

Dr. Donald H. Miller, San Leandro, 
Calif., for his picture "Hobby Within a 
Hobby." 

Walter Mills, Grand Rapids, Mich., 
for his 8mm picture "Noon Hour." 

Sylvanus F. Nye, Kenmore, New 
York, for his picture "Christmas l 933." 




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36 American Cinernatographer • January 1935 



AN ADVERTISEMENT 



BY 



AMPRO MODEL A OWNERS 

Here are a few excerpts from 
numerous letters in our file. 

The Ampro is suitable for large audi- 
toriums. Read this letter. 



No. Edmonton, Aha. Can. 
Franciscan College, 
"I recommend the Ampro Model A 
Projector for parish halls and high 
schools for visual education." 

Sincerely, 
Fr. Alphonse Claude 



Bass . . . Cine Headquarters . . . 
sold more 16 mm. projectors in 1934 than 
in the peak years of '28 and '29. Significant! 

The Ampro is easy to operate. Read 
this letter. 



Cobleskill, N. Y. 
"The Ampro Model A is a fine 
machine, easy to operate. I am much 
pleased with it." 

Yours truly, 

F. H. Ryder. 



You will be satisfied with the Ampro 
Model A. 



DOLLAR FOR DOLLAR 

The Ampro Model A is the best value 
money can buy. Fifteen points of super- 
iority. 400 watt long-life Biplane Mazda 
equal in illumination to 500 watt . . 
High power cooling . . lO 1 /^ to 1 kick- 
back movement . . High speed auto 
rewind . . Die-cast machined body . . 
Centralized lubrication . . Centralized 
controls . . Fibre gears . . Still 
picture feature . . Forward and reverse 
. . Venturi type aluminum chimney - 
cooler . . Oversized motor - largest in 
any projector . . Licensee 1 : for Kodacolor 
, . Light in weight . . Beauiifu 1 in 
appearance . . Ampro exclusive tilt. 

You can buy this fine instru- 
ment complete with case, ready 
tc use factory guaranteed for 
a year. A true $135.00 value - 
nothing near it ior 41 »^^__ 
almost double the $0050 
money 

ORDER FROM THIS AD. 

WRITE FOR FURTHER DETAILS AND 
BASS BARGAINGRAM. 

MORE LIVE DEALERS WANTED WHO 
KNOW GOOD VALUE. 

Bass will refund your money 
if not satisfactory. 




R. F. Oden, Pasadena, Calif., for his 
8mm picture "Symphony Mechanicus." 

Dr. G. L. Rodenburg, New York City, 
for "The Butterfly." 

Alvin D. Ross, New York City, for 
"Interlude Between Acts." 

K. G. Stephens, San Francisco, Calif., 
for "Holiday." 

Freeman F. Taylor, Llanerch, Pa., for 
"Zoorilla." 

K. Tsukamoto, Japan, for "An Alpine 
Conquest." 

H. W. Voss, Ft. Meyer, Fla,. for 
"Florida Montage." 

E. W. Walker, Beverly Hills, Calif., 
for "Death Valley." 

L. Clyde Anderson, Salt Lake City, 
Utah., "Canyons of Romance." 



W. R. Anderson, Salt Lake City, Utah, 
his 8mm picture "Our Family Album." 

H. M. Armstrong, Cape Cottage, Me., 
for "The Corning Forth of A Nation." 

E. M. Barnard, Kansas City, Mo., for 
"Christmas, 1932." 

Lawrence Legg, Council Bluffs, la., 
for "Us Guys cn Vacation." 

Y. Kaneko, Japan, for "A Fishing 
Village." 

F. C. EUs, Yokohama, Japan, for 
"Tambo." 

Vincente Mills, Manila, P. I., for "Fla- 
gellation in the Philippines." 

Nemo, London, England, for "A Day 
Excursion." 

J. B. S. Thubron, Fleet, Hants, Eng- 
land, for "Her Second Birthday." 



LET'S TALK ABOUT LENSES 



Continued from Page 27 

And now for a word on suggesting spective.' 
the right focal length telephotos for 
your jobs. Many cinephotographers find 
the 2" telephoto (sometimes also called 
a "long focus" lens) very well suited to 
such things as street scenes. Its included 
field is just half as high and half as 
wide as that of the 1 " lens, and is re- 
garded as a connecting link between the 
normal 1" and the telephoto series. Per- 
haps the most popular telephoto lens is 
the 3", because its field is such as to 
appreciably magnify distant objects, 
such as the players of a football team, 
and because of its relative cheapness 
compared to still longer telephotos. 
Also, it is possible to obtain a fair pic- 
ture with the 3" telephoto even tho the 
camera is hand-held. 



BASS CAMERA COMPANY 

179 W. MADISON ST. - CHICAGO, IU- 



Beyond the 3" are the 3V2", the 4", 
the 6", and now comes the latest thing 
in telephotos — the 10", 12", and 14" 
telephotos. Except for special work, 
which the average amateur may never 
even dream of encountering, anything 
over a 6" lens on a 1 6mm camera is to 
be bought with our eyes wide open to 
the extremely ominous possibilities of 
blur thru wobble of the camera, even 
tho it be used on a tripod. Even the 
most rigid of tripods will transmit vibra- 
tions too slight for us to notice to a 
camera, and the longer the focal length, 
the more trouble we're likely to get into 
from jumpy pictures. 

Perhaps you've noticed that there 
seems to be a form of "distortion" in 
your films made with any lens other 
than the normal 1" 16mm lens or the 
V2" 8mm lens. A shot made with the 
wide-angle lens has the peculiar flat 
appearance of a Brownie camera pic- 
ture, and shots made with telephotos 
don't seem to have the proper "per- 



You've no doubt noticed, 
even on the professional screen, that a 
telephoto shot of, say, a landing air- 
plane shows the plane practically the 
same size several hundred feet away 
from the camera as it does fifty feet 
away. 

I thought we'd get around to discuss- 
ing this "distortion" this month, but 
inasmuch as the effect in cinephotog- 
raphy is really tied up with projection, 
suppose we defer the matter until next 
month's concluding article of the lens 
series. If you've been reading articles 
on lenses lately and have been led to 
believe that there is no such thing as 
distortion in viewing, please draw up a 
chair at next month's session and pre- 
pare to watch the fireworks. See you 
th°n. 



Formula for Reversing Film 

Continued from Page 28 

Immerse the film in this until the ports 
formerly densest become quite trans- 
parent. If there are found to be dark 
spots on the film, reversion is not com- 
plete; rinse the film thoroughly and 
return it to the reversion bath. Then 
wash, and bleach again. 

The final step is darkening; this is 
done in a solution prepared by adding 
150 grains of Sodium Hydrasulphite 
(NOT hyposulphite) to the bleaching 
bath. The film is placed in this, and 
the image steadily darkens until a good, 
brownish-black positive is produced. It 
is important that the Sodium Hydrosul- 
phite be perfectly fresh: otherwise the 
image may not darken sufficiently, or 
may turn an unsatisfactory sepia tone. 

After darkening, the film should be 



January 1935 • American Cinematographer 37 



GOERZ 



The professional and amateur alike, 
will, if they are discriminating, select 
Goerz Lenses for their cinematic re- 
quirements. The various focal lengths 
of the Kino-Hypar, Cinepror and Tele- 
star afford a definite lens for every 
purpose. 

Send for 24-page catalog which de- 
scribes these lenses in detail and 
which lists such useful devices as 
the Effect Device and Mask Box. 
the Variable View Finder and the 
Reflex Focuser. 

C. P. Goerz American Optical Co. 

317 East 34th Street New York 



KIN- O- LI TE 

for Viewing 16mm, I,eica, Miniature, 
X-Ray and other films. 



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B 



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cord and attachment plug ready to in- 
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KIN-O-LUX, Inc., 

107 West 40th Street New York 



ANNOUNCEMENT 
— • — 

A New Three Color 
Multifilter 

Green Yellow ■ — Yellow — Red 

All the Essential Filters in One 
To Use in the Harrison Sunshade 



HARRISON & HARRISON 

645 N. Martel Ave. 



Cinematographic 
Annual Vol. 1 
Now $2.50 



thoroughly washed in running water — 
at least 15 minutes — and then dried. 
Each of these solutions is sufficient for 
about 30 feet of sub-standard film, al- 
though the developer will last for about 
90 feet. The quantities given here are 
those intended for use in the tanks 
made by the Pathex people in Europe, 
which hold 26 feet of film (one full 
Pathex charger) . They are not as yet 
available '.n America, but may be had 
either from MM. Pathe-Enseignement, 
20 BIS rue La Fayette, Paris, 9e, France, 
or from Pathescope, Ltd., 5 Lisle Street, 
London, W.C.2., England. The solutions 
recommended can, of course, be made 
up in any lorger quantity for use in 
larger tanks. Incidentally, the chemical 
type of reversion does not require a solid 
drum developing system. 

With regard to the processing of re- 
versal film by individual amateurs, most 
of the manufacturers state that while 
methods outlined above will work with 
their products, they do not recommend 
individual processing, as an individual 
is rarely equipped to exercise the same 
exact control of all operations that the 
regular processing stations do. If an in- 
dividual feels it is necessary to process 
his own film, the manufacturers point 
out that far more satisfactory results can 
be obtained by developing the film (re- 
versal or otherwise) as a NEGATIVE and 
subsequently making prints from it. 

Wheels of Industry 

Continued from Page 30 

16mm Recording Unit 

• The Hollywood Motion Picture Equip- 
ment Co. crnounces a very small re- 
cording unit for 16mm cameras that 
consists of c glow tube about as big 
around as a pencil and one inch long, 
an amplifying set made up of one tube 
using a 2-volt battery. These items, to- 
gether with the B battery and micro- 
phone, make up the netire Recording 
Unit. 

Present plans are to sell the unit to 
the individuals and they to have local 
machinists fit them to their existing 
cameras. 

16mm News Reel 

• Peerless Cine News, America's only 
16mm newsreel, will release its first is- 
sue early in January. Among the out- 
standing news events, unusual and nov- 
elty subjects featured in this first release 
are : 

The Tourncment of Roses Parade at 
Pasadena and the New Year's Rose Bowl 
Game between Stanford and Alabama; 
intimate shots of Huey "Kingfish" Long 
and Mrs. I ong enjoying a long-delayed 
honeymoon; modern "49'ers" earning a 
living by panning gold in the famous 
Mother LoHe country of the "gold rush" 
days; a turkey that is bigger than a 
horse; a recently discovered elephant- 



Sound Specialis 



1 6mm 

Cameras 

Recorders 

Recording 

Projectors 

Dual Turntables 

Complete Studio 

Amplifiers and Microphones 

Single System Sound Pictures 

Double System Sound Pictures 

Sound Added to Silent Pictures 

CURRENT SPECIALS 

RCA Photophone 16mm sound projec- 
tor. New tested machines in original 
factory cartons _ $195 

Standard dual turntable outfit, with 
amplifier and microphone, complete in 
two portable cases >. $109.50 

Deluxe dual turntable, with crystal 
pickups, crystal microphone, amplifier 
and two speakers in portable carrying 
cases, 7% watts output $206.50 

Motion picture and sound equipment 
for any purpose designed and built, re- 
paired or improved. 

G. A. BUSCH & COMPANY 

33 WEST 60TH ST. NEW YORK 

Phone Cir 7-2408 




nouncing 

America's Only 16mm News Reel 

Peerless Cine News 

A 400-foot reel of national and 
international news events, educa- 
tional and nature subjects, histor- 
ical events, doings of famous peo- 
ple, novelty stunts, oddities and 
unusual material. A reel of the 
most diversified short subjects yet 
offered the public. 
Released once each month in both 
SILENT AND 16MM SOUND ON 
FILM 

Ask to see 

Peerless Cine News 

At your dealers. 
Literature on request. 

PEERLESS MOTION PICTURE 
INDUSTRIES 
1327 N. Highland 
Hollywood, Calif. 



38 American Cinematographer 



January 1935 



Fotoshop Film Specials 

16mm 100-foot rolls 

Super Speed Panchromatic $3.79 

Super Sensitive (Neg. and Pos.).... 5.50 

Panchromatic (Neg. and Pos.) 4.75 

Regular Ortho „ _ 2 75 

These prices include processing and re- 
turn uf film to you. Our regular guar- 
antee^ — a new roll replaced free of 
charge if you are not satisfied — ap- 
plies. 

We can supply any make of negative 
film you may desire — Eastman, Agfa, 
Dupont, Gevaert- at these same prices. 

FOTOSHOP LABORATORY 
SERVICES 

TITLING EDITING 
REVERSING PRINTING 
Duplicating and Fine Grain Developing 

FOTOSHOP, INC. 

136 W. 32 St., New York City 



CAMERA 
CRAFT 



CAMERA 


CRAFT 



























A MONTHLY MAGAZINE 
OF PHOTOGRAPHY 

William A. Palmer is 
Editor of our new 
Cinema Department. 

He is an ardent ama- 
teur who knows his 
hobby from A to Z. 

• 

Send your movie 
problems to him. 

• 

SEND 25 CENTS 
FOR 

A LATE COPY 



CAMERA CRAFT 

PUBLISHING COMPANY 

703 Market Street 
San Francisco, California 



CLASSI FIED ADVERTISING 



Rotes: Seven cents a word. Minimum 
charge, one dollar per insertion. 



FOR SALE— MISCELLANEOUS 

BELL & HOWELL-Mitchell-Eyemo Cameras, 

lenses, magazines, tripods, moviolas, splicers, 
rewinds. All kinds of sound and laboratory 
equipment. Inquiries invited. CONTINEN- 
TAL FILM CRAFT, 1611 Cosmo St., Holly- 
wood, Calif. Cable address "Tomwhite." 

ARTREEVES latest model 1935 portable 
double sound recording unit with double 
sprocket recorder, automatic speed control 
motor, twin fidelity optical unit. Latest type 
camera motor. New type microphone. Com- 
plete, factory guaranteed, $2,400. This is the 
only authentic ArtReeves equipment for 
sale in Hollywood outside factory. Camera 
Supply Co., Ltd., 1515 Cahuenga Blvd., Ho.- 
lywood, Calif. 

MITCHELL STEEL GEAR CAMERA, perfect 
condition, all standard Studio equipment, 
Astro Pan Tachar lenses, net $1450. Came: a 
Supply Co., Ltd., 1515 Cahuenga Blvd., Hol- 
lywood, Calif. 

LENS CAPS— Non-tarnishing, alloy. Attrac- 
tive. For all types of 35mm or 16mm lense , 
$2.00. Slip-over diameter required when or- 
dering. R. E. STUART CO., 4130 N. Merid- 
ian, Indianapolis, Ind. J 

TWO USED Powers 35mm projectors com- 
plete with Mazda equipment and Cinephor 
condenser. One Moon enclosed motor-driven 
rewind. W. Chas. Swett, 705 Hollywood Se- 
curity Bldg., Hollywood, Calif. HO 5893. 

3 400-ft. reels and 3 Humidor Cans., all for 
$2.25 plus postage. F'otoshop, Inc., 136 W 
32nd St., New York City. T 

LIKE NEW— Sound Moviola Model UC, price 
$450.00. Also new H.C.E. free-head and 
legs for Bell & Howell, Eyemo or DeVry 
portable cameras, $75.00 complete. Holly- 
wood Camera Exchange, 16O0 Cahuenga 
Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 

IN GOOD condition, Bell & Howell Camera 
120-degree, three lenses, four 400-ft. maga- 
zines, tripod, carrying case, complete — $550. 
Hollywood Camera Exchange, 1600 N. Ca- 
huenga Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 



LIKE NEW, Mitchell Camera, silenced Acad- 
emy aperture. Pan Tachar lenses, free head 
tripod, 1000-ft. magazines, complete — $2000. 
Hollywood Camera Exchange, 1600 N. Ca- 
huenga Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 

LIKE NEW, Artreeves portab'e double sound 
recording outfit with Bell & Howell Silenced 
camera, complete in every detail. A real 
bargain, price $3500. Price without camera, 
$2500. Hollywood Camera Exchange, 1600 
N. Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. Cable 
address: HOCAMEX. 



WANTED 

MOTION Picture— Still Picture — Laboratory 
and Cutting Room Equipment — Lenses — 
Finders — Tripods. Highest prices paid. 
CONTINENTAL FILM CRAFT, 1611 Cosmo 
St., Hollywood, Calif. 



MOTION Picture and Still Cameras, all types 
Lenses, Finders, Tripod Heads, Leica or 
Contax Cameras. Cash for bargains. Cam- 
era Suppy Ltd., 1515 Cahuenga Bivd., Hol- 
lywood, Calif. 



WANTED— Number 1 Eastman Stereopticon 
camera. Harry Perry, OXford 1908. 



WANTED — Daylight Developing tank for 3%- 
x4'/4 cut film. Box 246, American Cinema- 
tographer, 6331 Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood, 
Calif. 



WILL PAY CASH FOR: Bell & Howell, 
Mitchell, Akeley or DeBrie Cameras, lenses, 
motors, parts and accessories. Motion Pic- 
ture Camera Supply, Inc., 723 7th Ave., 
New York, New York. T 



MISCELLANEOUS 

WE BUY — sell or rent everything necessary 
for the malcing — taking — or showing ol 
motion pictures. Sound or Silent — 35mm 
and 16mm. We specialize in equipping ex- 
peditions. Ruby Camera Exchange, 729 7th 
Ave,. New York Oity. T 

INTRODUCTORY Offer. 8mm subjects, 50-ft. 
ree.s, $1.50. Interesting variety of subjects 
now available. Also 16mm sound and silent 
film. Sales, rentals and exchanges. Harry 
Mendelwager, 317 West 50th St., New York, 
New York. 



shoped fungus; national championship 
auto races and other interesting short 
subjects. 

Peerless Cine News will be released 
once each month in both silent and 16- 
mm sound-on-film and will contain news 
events of national and international im- 
portance, historical events, odd and in- 
teresting people and places, human in- 
terest storiss and educational subjects. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC ANNUAL 

The 1935 Annual has been issued by 
the American Photographic Publishing 
Company. 

This year's edition contains much for 
the miniature camera user. One article 
that will undoubtedly interest is by John 



Lanctot on "The Control of Graininess." 
The artistitc side is recognized by such 
articles as "Line and Tone as Expressive 
Factors in Composition" by William S. 
Davis. "Home Portraiture with the Min- 
iature Camera" is the subject handled 
by E. T. Howell. 

Focus in Cine Work and Cinema Evi- 
dence in Courts will undoubtedly inter- 
est those in amateur movie activity. 

Other interesting articles are "A Uni- 
versal Focal Slide Rule," "Filters in 
Press Work," "Notes on Infra-Red Pho- 
tography," "Possibilities with Photoflash 
Lamps," "Standard Darkroom Proce- 
dure," "Home Portraiture with Minia- 
ture Camera," "Pictorial Possibilities in 
the Portrait Studio," "Night Photog- 
raphy in Natural Colors," "Aerial Pho- 
tography," and other pertinent subjects. 



TRICKS GADGETS 

Another Contest 



Here's how it works. Send us in tricks you have done in filming with your 8mm, 
9 ] /2mm or 16mm camera . Explain them to us so that we can explain them to others 
in the pages of American Cinematographer. 

For every one we publish you will be entitled to your choice of one of the prizes 
listed below. 

By Gadgets we mean little pieces of equipment you have built, designed or devised. 
Equipment that works. Little gadgets you have added to your camera, projector or 
otherwise. For instance, we heard of one fellow who built a splicer out of a mouse- 
trap . . . that's a gadget. 

What kind of gadgets have you made . . . what sort of tricks do you do with your 
camera or equipment? If necessary send us a rough sketch or a snap shot of vour 
equipment if it will help describe it better and quicker. 

Here's Your Chance to Win Equipment or Film 

Frequently we have published what might be termed tricks. Such as making distorted 
effects by pouring sweet-oil over a glass in front of the film. Others have been pub- 
lished from time to time. 

In the way of gadgets we have reported many things from the building of a complete 
16mm camera by amateurs down to making their own reels. 

What Have You Done? 

Here are the prizes . . . you may make your choice of any one of them. 
Beltipod Two Rolls of 8mm Film 

Filter Holder 8mm Splicer and Rewind 

Choice of Filter Humidor Can Case for 12 Reels 



22x30 Beaded Screen 



Splicer 

Half-Dozen 16mm Reels 
Half-Dozen 16mm Cans 3 Clam P Lam P Reflectors with 

3 Reels and 3 Cans 3 Photoflood Lamps 

100-ft. Roll of 16mm Pan Film One Dozen Photofloo-d Lamps 



Send Your Entries to Editor 

American Cinematographer 

6331 Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 



Prosperity for 1935! 

♦ 

Everything points to an industrious 
and prosperous Year. It is our sin- 
cere hope and wish that you will share 
liberally in that prosperity and that 
the Mitchell Camera will continue 
to play its important role in the pro- 
duction of successful pictures 

♦ 

Mitchell Camera Corporation 

665 N. ROBERTSON BOULEVARD 
WEST HOLLYWOOD, CALIF. 

Cable Address "MITCAMCO" Phone OXford 1051 




The Motion Picture CAMERA Magazine 



FEBRUARY, 
1935 

Price 25c 




Y JOHN P. GATY 



DU PONT SUPERIOR FILM -LENS 
APERTURE F2.3-NO FILTER-1/40 
SECOND-TIME AFTER SUNSET- 
ALTITUDE 8,000 FEET - WEST OF 
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THE <5SJp> TRADE MARK HAS NEVER BEEN PLACED ON AN INFERIOR PRODUCT 



AMERICAN 
CINEMATOGRAPHER 



A Technical and Educational publication 
of motion picture photography. 

Published monthly by the 
AMERICAN SOCIETY 
OF CINEMATOGRAPHERS, INC. 
6331 Hollywood Boulevard 
Hollywood, California 

Telephone GRanite 2135 

JOHN ARNOLD, President, A.S.C. 

GEORGE SCHNEIDERMAN, Treasurer, A.S.C. 



Volume 16 FEBRUARY 1935 Number 2 



What to Read 



LET'S Stop Abusing Camera Movement 

by Victor Milner, A.S.C 46 

CINEMATOGRAPHERS Play Leading Part 

In Group of Creative Minds 

by Lindsley Lane, A.S.C 48 

VARIETY Names Ten Best 

Cinematographers 50 

LANG'S Photography Has Vitality 

by James L. Fritz 51 

STRUSS Photography "Luxurious" 

says James L. Fritz 52 

AMERICAN Cinematographers Influence 
World 

by Charles Christie 53 

EXPRESSING Tempo in Lighting 

by John F. Seitz, A.S.C 54 

PHOTOGRAPHY of the Month 55 



Next Month 



• Lindsley Lane will give us another compre- 
hensive article on the relation of the camera- 
man to production. 

• James L. Fritz, the noted dramatic editor, 
will give us an interview with several leading 
cameramen. He will analyze their photography 
from the newspaper man's standpoint. 

• Other members of the American Society of 
Cinematographers will express their views on 

^JH^ cinematography and its creative phases. 



ESTABLISHED 1918. Advertising Rates on application. 
Subscription: U.S. $2.50 a year; Canada $3.50 a year; 
Foreign $3.50 a year. Single copies 25c. Foreign 
single copies 35c. COPYRIGHT 1935 by American 
Society of Cinematographers, Inc. 



1 




The Staff 

EDITOR 

Charles J. VerHalen 

TECHNICAL EDITOR 

Emery Huse, A. S. C. 

ASSOCIATES 

Walter Blanchard 
Karl Hale 
CIRCULATION MANAGER 

M. Miller 

ADVISORY 
EDITORIAL BOARD 

Victor Milner, A. S C. 
Chas. G. Clark, A. S C. 
Hatto Tappenbeck, A. S C. 
Jackson J. Rose, A. S C. 
Fred Gage, A. S. C. 
Dr. J. S. Watson, Jr., A. S. C. 
Dr. L. M. Dieterich, A. S. C. 
Dr. L. A. Jones, A. S. C. 
Dr. C. E. K. Mees, A. S. C. 
Dr. W. B. Rayton, A. S. C. 
Dr. Herbert Meyer, A. S. C. 
Dr. V. B. Sease, A. S. C. 



FOREIGN REPRESENTATIVES 

Georges Benoit, 1 00, Allee Franklin, 
Pavillions-sous-Bois. France. Seine. Tele- 
phone LeRaincy 13-19. H. T. Cowling, 4700 
Connecticut Ave., Washington, D. C. 

NEW YORK REPRESENTATIVE 

S. R. Cowan, 19 East 47th St., New York 
City. Phone Plaza 3-0483. 

Neither the American Cinematographer nor 
the American Society of Cinematographers 
is responsible for statements made by au- 
thors. This magazine will not be responsible 
for unsolicited manuscripts. 



44 American Cinematographer • February 1935 



THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CINEMA- 
TOGRAPHERS was founded in 1918 for 
the purpose of bringing into closer con- 
federation and cooperation all those leaders in 
the cinematographic art and science whose 
aim is and ever will be to strive for pre-emi- 
nence in artistic perfection and technical mas- 
tery of this art and science. Its purpose is to 
further the artistic and scientific advancement 
of the cinema and its allied crafts through un- 
ceasing research and experimentation as well 
as through bringing the artists and the scien- 
tists of cinematography into more intimate 
fellowship. To this end its membership is com- 
posed of the outstanding cinematographers of 
the world with Associate and Honorary mem- 
berships bestowed upon those who, though not 
active cinematographers, are engaged none 
the less in kindred pursuits, and who have, by 
their achievements, contributed outstandingly 
to the progress of cinematography as an Art 
or as a Science. To further these lofty aims 
and to fittingly chronicle the progress of cine- 
matography, the Society's publication, The 
American Cinematographer, is dedicated. 



AMERICAN 
SOCIETY OF 
CINEMATOGRAPHERS 



OFFICERS 

JOHN ARNOLD 
VICTOR MILNER 
JOHN W. BOYLE 
ELMER G. DYER 
GEORGE SCHNEIDERMAN 
FRANK B. GOOD 



President 
First Vice-President 
Second Vice-President 
Third Vice-President 
Treasurer 
Secretary 



BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

John Arnold Frank Good 

John W. Boyle Fred Jackman 

Dan Clark Ray June 

Elmer Dyer Charles B. Lang, Jr. 

Arthur Edeson Victor Milner 

George Folsey George Schneiderman 

Alfred Gilks James Van Trees 

Vernon L. Walker 

Frederick L. Kley, Executive Business Manager 



PAST PRESIDENTS 

Philip E. Rosen 
Gaetano Gaudio 
James Van Trees 
John W. Boyle 

Fred W. Jackman 



HONORARY MEMBERS 



Hal Mohr 
Homer Scott 
John F. Seitz 
Daniel B. Clark 



Mr. Albert S. Howell 
Mr. Edward O. Blackburn 



PUBLIC RELATIONS COMMITTEE 



John Arnold 
Frank Zucker 
Charles Bell 
Charles J. Davis 
Paul H. Allen 
George Benoit 
Glenn MacWilliams 
Ariel Varges 

Max B. DuPont 



Herford T. Cowling 
Edwin L. Dyer 
Charles W. Herbert 
Mack Stengler 
Ross Fisher 
John Dored 
Philip M. Chancellor 
W. H. Jansen 



PRODUCTION COMMITTEE 

Daniel B. Clark 
John W. Boyle 



Elmer G. Dyer 
Ned Van Buren 



MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE 

Charles G. Clarke 

George Folsey 



Alfred Gilks 



RESEARCH COMMITTEE 

Victor Milner, Arthur Miller, Dr. Herbert 
Meyer, John Arnold, John F. Seitz, 
Emery Huse, Dr. L. M. Dietrich 



ENTERTAINMENT COMMITTEE 

John W. Boyle 
Charles B. Lang, Jr. 

Alvin Wyckof f 

WELFARE COMMITTEE 

Ray June 



Frank B. Good 
Vernon Walker 



James Van Trees 



Fred W. Jackman 



\QO% CARBON ARC 



Ice Cream Color Fantasy of "Kid Millions,'''' 
Eddie Cantor's fifth annual screen musical 
comedy for Samuel Goldwyn. Eddie Cantor 
and Doris Davenport are on the free ice cream 
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are in the small cur behind. 

Technicaliir Phuto/traphy by Bay Rennahan 
Chit'J Electrician, Walter Strohm 





NATIONAL 



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• Many pictures are now being made 
with 100% carbon arc illumination. 

The penetrating power of carbon arc illumina- 
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a necessity for color production. 

Its superiority for black and white photography 
is also gaining increasing recognition. 

U RE STUDIO CARBONS 

• LESS HEAT • MORE PHOTOGRAPHICALLY EFFECTIVE LIGHT 



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Silent, steady burning lamps — side arcs, 
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NATIONAL CARBON COMPANY, INC. 

Carbon Soles Division; Cleveland; Ohio 

Unit of Union Carbide II m ond Carbon Corporation 5* . . 

Branch Sales Offices: New York ♦ Pittsburgh ♦ Chicago ♦ San Francisco 



46 Amerxan Cinematographer • February 1935 




Above is a picture of a crane ready to go into 
action; to follow the girl as she walks up the 
stairs. 



THE OTHER day as I was discussing photography with 
one of the stars of my forthcoming picture, the act- 
ress said to me, "Mr. Milner, the man who photo- 
graphed my last picture certainly had an awful problem 
on his hands. The director insisted on keeping the camera 
moving in almost every shot; even I could see that this 
gave the cameraman an almost impossible task. Time 
after time this director would dolly from an extreme long- 
shot to a big-head close-up of me. It didn't help the story 
any — and I'll never understand how the Cinematographer 
managed to photograph me as well as he did; surely, he 
got no help from the director! Why in the world do so 
many directors overdo this moving-camera business so 
badly?" 

I couldn't answer that question immediately. It has 
been my good fortune to work with several directors who 
understand the use of the moving camera, and employ it 
wisely — even brilliantly. It has also been my bad luck to 
work with other directors whose use of travelling shots 
can only be described as stupid, or worse. Certainly, no 
trick of film-craftsmanship can be more effective when 
correctly used: but for the past few years we have endured 
a veritable orgy of indiscriminate dollying. Many times a 
Cinematographer will begin a picture by putting his cam- 
era on a dolly — and never remove it (or stop moving) until 
the picture is finished. There is far too much truth in the 
joke that Cinematographers, instead of asking "How many 
scenes did you shoot today?" now ask "How many miles 
did you dolly today?" 

In my own experience, two directors stand out for their 
intelligent use of the moving camera: Ernst Lubitsch, and 
Cecil B. de Mille. Both of them use camera-movement 
only to emphasize a definite climax in dialogue or panto- 
mime. Lubitsch, for example, regards camera movement as 
something to be used as precisely as punctuation. When 
he moves the camera, he invariably does it at a time when 
it is necessary to bring the audience closer to some impor- 



Lets Stop 



tant bit of business — some word, act or expression which 
high-lights a whole scene or sequence. And he makes sure 
that the technique of the shot is so flawless that the move- 
ment is virtually imperceptible to the audience — natural, 
inevitable, and wholly subservient to the story-action. 

De Mille's use of the technique is best illustrated by 
two shots in "Cleopatra." The first is in the atrium of 
Caesar's palace in Rome, where the camera moves through 
the crowd, picking up a word from this group, a sentence 
from that, showing that every tongue is wagging with gos- 
sip about Caesar, and finally coming to rest upon the 
climax of the scene — Brutus and the three conspirators 
plotting Caesar's assassination. The second was more or 
less the reverse of this, for it began with a close shot of 
Antony making love to Cleopatra on the barge: then the 
curtains were dropped around them, and the camera re- 
ceded to reveal the immensity and splendor of the setting, 
thus pointing the intimacy they achieved in spite of such 
regal and public surroundings. 

On the other hand, I have worked with other directors 
who insisted on dollying frequently — seldom for any posi- 
tive cinematic or dramatic reason — and with at least one 
whose only thought of sets was that there be sufficient 
room to dolly continuously! 

I decided to see if other outstanding Cinematographers 
did not agree with me that the moving camera is being 
gravely abused by a great many directors, to the detriment 
of their productions. Charles G. Clarke, A.S.C., says, "The 
average moving-shot is simply a sign of directorial weak- 
ness. Of course, a moving-camera shot — in its right place 
— can be very effective; but to me the majority of such 
shots are simply indications that the director is not sure of 
his craftsmanship. All too often, they are dragged into a 
sequence without rhyme or reason — many times when more 
sure direction would make normal shots and cuts tell the 
story far more effectively. In such cases I believe that the 
director is simply fooling himself in one of two ways. It 
may be that he is unable to give the scene its proper 
tempo — to keep it moving fast enough — so he introduces 
the false movement of a dolly or crane shot in order to 
make himself (and his superiors) believe that the scene 
is moving properly. 

"In other instances, the misuse of such shots is an even 
more pitiable admission: that the director feels his methods 
growing 'old-fashioned.' In such a case, he resorts to the 
meving-camera technique as a visible means of showing 
that he, too, can be 'modern.' " 

James Wong Howe, A.S.C., said, "The average mov- 
ing-shot results simply in injecting a sort of false move- 
ment into a scene or sequence. It interrupts the progress 
of the story, and wastes valuable film-footage. For ex- 
ample, suppose we have a long-shot of a man, and want to 
bring the audience closer to him for some reason. If we 
move the camera toward him, and truck to a close-up, we 



February 1935 • American Cinematographer 47 



Abusing 

Camera 

Movement 



by 

Victor Milner, A.S.C. 



delay the dramatic action, and waste much valuable screen- 
time. Moreover, the camera should always be regarded as 
representing either the eye of the audience or, in rare in- 
stances, the eye of another player. Now the audience can- 
not move closer to the player in the theatre, and our scene 
has not showed any other player approaching him. There- 
fore if we must bring the audience's attention to the play- 
er's face, the natural thing to do is to progress by direct 
cuts from the long-shot to the closer one. Yet if the sit- 
uation emphatically calls for the moving camera, the way 
to make the trick appear natural — and hence undisturbing 
to the audience — is to have the actor start toward the 
camera and then — and only then — allow the camera to 
move forward. If the camera in its motion is to represent 
the eye of another player, the logical treatment would 
be a shot of the second player starting to move forward, 
followed by the trucking shot. In either instance, the 
movement is coordinated with something which makes the 
changing viewpoint believeable. 

"It is always a breach of cinematic good taste to dolly 
around a player. Such treatment is largely used in in- 
stances where surprise is dramatically vital — but it gives 
the audience very clumsy warning that something is to be 
seen 'just around the corner.' 

"Scenes in which the camera follows players walking 
through a set are illogical and distracting — once more a 
case of false motion. It is far better to use an ordinary 
shot through which the player walks, for this gives a more 
definite impression of movement. 

"From the purely photographic viewpoint, most mov- 
ing-shots take us right back to the deplorable 'early talkie' 
conditions. Even though the scene may be a close angle, 
it must, due to the physical requirements of the camera 
movement, be lit as a long-shot. This of course precludes 
the refined lighting of a true close-up, and makes it virtu- 
ally impossible to maintain a uniform quality throughout 
the picture. Where stars who require a definite type of 
lighting are concerned, this is most unfair to both star and 
Cinematographer, and wastes time, effort and money with- 
out an adequate dramatic return." 

Gaetano Gaudio, A.S.C, remarked, "A crane or dolly 

Above, view of a crane set to pick up the 
acters on the staircase and to follow them, 
low, a perambulator in what would look I 
tight spot for follow up work. 



shot is just like any other photographic trick — diffusion, 
character lighting, flat lighting, etc. — good only when 
used in its proper place, and bad when used at any other 
time, or in any other way. 

"I think that there are three points that should be 
considered. First of all, the physical equipment we have 
for making moving-camera shots is as yet far from perfect. 
Aside from ordinary panning shots, where the camera is 
actually motionless, and the movement is produced by a 
skilled operative, we have to make our dolly and crane 
shots with equipment that is in some degree a makeshift. 
To be technically perfect, a moving-camera shot should be 
as smooth as is our own vision when we turn our head 
slowly. I don't think anyone has ever made a travelling- 
shot that smooth! Consider the problem: on a floor-area 
only a few feet square, we are combining the weights of 
the Cinematographer, the Director, the operative camera- 
crew, the microphone-man, a microphone-boom, lights, a 
heavy blimped camera, and the weight of the perambu- 
lator itself (which may be several tons alone). This will 
inevitably show up any weakness or irregularity in the 
stage floor: and when we do put down some sort of a 
track, it is usually flimsy, and often a makeshift affair 
thrown together out of rough planks. How can such a shot 
be smooth? 

"Secondly, moving-shots interfere with good composi- 
tion. You may be able to begin with a good composition, 
or to end with one. Sometimes you may even manage to* 
begin and end with good compositions — but you can't for 
the life of you make every last frame of a dolly-shot where 
the camera trucks forty or fifty feet through a set a satis- 
factory composition! And in motion pictures, composition 
isn't just an artistic talking-point — it's good business, for 
it focuses the audience's attention where you want it, and 

(Continued on Page 58) 



char- 
Be- 
ike a 




48 American Cinematographer • February 1935 



THROUGHOUT time in life there is change — inevit- 
able flux and cumulation. Man gives various inter- 
pretations to this change, sometimes calling it Prog- 
ress. Possibly there is no more interesting and perfect ex- 
ample of progressive development than the motion picture, 
because of its spectacular and rapid growth, its importance 
as a phase of modern times, and the fact that the screen 
is a broad reflector and interpreter of life, depicting past 
and present manifestations of that continuous changing. 

The motion picture is indigenous with modern times, 
it could have no being until the present economic, scien- 
tific and cultural conditions prevailed; and because it is so 
significantly integrated with the life of today and is the 
most human aesthetic medium, it is potentially the greatest 
living art, with fascinating possibilities of becoming the 
most powerful civilizing and aesthetic influence in the 
futu re. 

The entire process of motion picture creating is one 
of selection, synthesis and emphasis, the purpose of which 
is to stimulate the picture-goer's imagination. During the 
showing of a picture the percipient's imagination is directed 
and controlled, so that there is indicated a fuller signifi- 
cance in the picture's philosophy than is specifically de- 
lineated. Also there is a far broader range of visual and 
aural images conjured before the mind's eye and ear than 
is actually shown on the screen. Furthermore, the various 
story characters gain many solidifying attributes, becoming 
more real and human than the limited number of times, 
places and situations that they appear in a picture would 
alone make the observer believe them to be. In other 
words, it is as though the picture were a leading melody; 
and the supplementary imaginings stimulated by the pic- 
ture in the percipient's mind, a counter-melody; this coun- 
ter-melody forming with the picture a whole experience of 
great satisfying completeness. 

The relative presence or lack of this complete exper- 
ience of imagination stimulated in the percipient exerts 
decidedly more influence upon the success or failure of a 
picture than is generally appreciated. Frank Capra is today 
the most consistent exponent of full composite melody 
through picture stimulating counter-imagination; and as a 
consequence his pictures are referred to as being "alive." 
Such "aliveness" is exemplified in the phenomenally suc- 
cessful "It Happened One Night" and "Broadway Bill." 

Counter-melody, as thought of here, is composed of 
two general factors: (1) the sum of the percipient's own 
personality (past experiences) projected into thoughts, 
characters, things and situations portrayed on the screen; 
plus (2) his specifically conditioned responses to certain 
technique, symbols and implications (matter and form), 
conventionalized through repeated employment in extend- 
ing the scope of the temporally and spatially limited cine- 
matic medium. 

Time goes on and motion pictures improve. There is, 
first, the cumulation of experience within the community 
obtained through contact with life; and, secondly, the ac- 
customing of motion picture audiences to a language that 
becomes more diverse as they learn its idiom. Each of these 
two factors inter-acting with and influencing the other, 
and in turn being stimulated by and stimulating the other 
to further growth. 

So it is that the motion picture in its continuing prog- 
ress of refinement and range of expressiveness is becoming 
less and less a simple universal tongue and ever more a 
language to be understood only by the cultivated initiate. 
And it is this fact, fundamentally, which commands each 
of the medium's creative contributors to a common high 




Sound hampered photography; made it static as 
speech was considered of paramount importance, 
but photography is again coming into its rightful 
important place. 



Gnematographer 

Plays 

place culturally and aesthetically. The philosophical con- 
cepts bearing upon the picture's construction and story, 
possessed by the director and author must likewise be the 
property and working basis of the cinematographer, other- 
wise no consistently mature dramatic-pictorial result is 
possible. 

As the Director of Photography approaches the ideal 
of his function, his work will become increasingly intellec- 
tual. This is not to say that his control over lights and 
camera will be lessened; on the contrary, it will be ampli- 
fied. Released from the confining operations of mechanical 
routines, he may more ably watch over the broader aspects 
of synchronizing his instruments to the fullest cinematog- 
raphic unification of the photoplay material and form with 
its subject matter. 

And, for the same reasons that the director of photog- 
raphy is compelled to take on larger respnosibilities, and 
to detail certain duties and trusts to his operative camera- 
man and assistant that he formerly exercised himself, so 
must the operative and assistant realize and assume their 
new responsibilities. The operative will know the story; 
will anticipate more closely new set-ups and changes that 
occur during shooting; must know his chief and his meth- 
ods better, so that he can work with the cinematographer 
more perfectly; and of most importance, the director and 
cinematographer must be able to rely implicitly on the 
operative's judgment as to the correctness and effective- 
ness of the camera and its movement in recording the 
scene. That means the competent operative will be a 
thorough student of his work as it applies through the psy- 
chology of fluxing composition to the dramatic content of 
the story. As an ambitious cameraman, he will constantly 
train himself in the basic concepts essential to eventual 
directorship of photography. 



February 193 5 • American Cinematographer 49 




A. 

Lindsley 
Lane, A.S.C. 



Leading Part 
in Group of 
Creative Minds 



By 

A. Lindsley Lane, A.S.C. 

It is now generally acknowledged that four main ele- 
ments constitute the substance of motion picture creating: 
Author, Director, Cinematographer and Actor — all bound 
together by a common purpose under the supervision of 
the producer. As the screen has progressed, each of these 
co-workers, starting from lowly beginnings, has advanced 
his technique and improved the quality of his individual 
contribution to the finished photoplay. Of these four the 
Cinematographer has realized least recognition; for the 
scientific development of his tools and the tremendous 
impetus given his work by the introduction of ever more 
sensitive film have, to a large extent, confused the issue 
and overshadowed his own achievements as a creative art- 
ist. However, because of the motion picture medium prov- 
ing itself through time to be exactly what it is — the means 
of telling a story primarily through the motion picture 
camera — the Cinematographer must eventually arrive at 
his logical place in the group of creative motion picture 
co-workers. 

The Cinematographer made steady artistic progress 
from the inception of the first features until the advent of 
the "talkie," at which time he suffered a severe set-back. 



Major technical changes affected him adversely, and tem- 
porarily pushed him aside floundering in a slough of un- 
certainty and stilted cinematography. 

Gradually, as the novelty of sound wore away, and the 
newly begotten problems of audible screen characters were 
partially solved, some of the pictorial restrictions were 
loosened, largely through the insistent efforts of the Cine- 
matographer; and in time not only was the "silent photo- 
play cinematography" of mobility and expressiveness re- 
gained, but also (and partly because of the new conditions 
imposed on cinematography by sound) a higher degree of 
artistry was attained than theretofore. For example, it was 
now possible to mix hard and soft light, with the attendant 
extended range of monochrome vitality and delicacy in 
dramatic contrast giving a finer illusion of naturalness and 
reality. 

Then too, the formal separation of camera operation 
from general photographic supervision and lighting was 
forced upon the industry at this juncture because of mul- 
tiple-camera shots and the much added bulk of sound 
cameras over the compact and more easily manipulated 
silent cameras. Also the nascent sound-picture tempo made 
necessary a greater mobility of camera, which, with the 
camera equipment's increased inertia, made inevitable an 
advancement of the second cameraman to operative cam- 
eraman, he assuming responsibility for all physical opera- 
tion of the camera; the director of photography and the 
operative now working together as a unit of augmented 
effectiveness. The beneficial results of this apportionment 
of endeavor failed to show at first, but later when everyone 
concerned with the making of talking pictures knew better 
what they were doing, and the multiple-camera shots were 
fast losing favor, there came a marked improvement in 
cinematographic-dramatic interpretation. 

Going back again to early sound - cinematography 
troubles, there was the uncinematic bias of dialogue itself. 
Much of the static quality of the first talkies was due to 
over-long dialogue scenes, resembling the manner of the 
legitimate theatre. These extended moods were difficult of 
capturing and sustaining, so directors often demanded that 
entire sequences be photographed in a continuous multiple- 
camera shot; thus devitalizing the fluency of the camera 
eye. 

So the tendency of the talkie was to remove cinema- 
tography further away from its inevitable function — that 
of more than a mere vehicle for dramatic photoplays — -that 
of a part of the dramatic expression and intent itself. The 
talkies stigmatized cinematography as a necessary evil to 
be tolerated. 

As the ruinous results of this short-sighted attitude be- 
came evident, producers and directors re-awakened to the 
essential need for cinematography as an integral part of 
the emotional flow of a photoplay if the success of talking 
films was to become permanent. And the tortuous way back 
to the old silent days' technique of many angles and rapid 
cuts, plus sound-camera equipment, was begun. 

But it was discovered that simply to go back brought 
no basic solution; aesthetic obstacles intervened which were 
impossible of attack with the old methods. An almost 
entirely new medium had arrived with the audible charac- 
ter. For one thing, adjusting and balancing the components 
of the silent picture to and with the audible screen pre- 
sented a fine problem of tempo. It became apparent that 
a strange paradox existed in the tempo of the talkies, as 
compared with the simpler construction of temporal pro- 
gression in the silent picture. 

(Continued on Page 58) 



50 American Cinematographer • February 1935 

Variety 
Names 
Ten Best 
Cinematographers 



"Variety" Issue of January I, 1935 

Editor's Note: This year "Variety," one of the Show World's leading 
trade papers, names the Ten Best Cameramen and comments upon 
these selections and the camera crew in general. We hand you 
herewith Variety's article in full. 



STARS will tolerate supervisors, producers or directors. 
They will argue over stories or scripts, battle over 
clothes and give in most of the time. But when it 
comes to a cameraman — that's where the star will stand 
like Gibraltar. The favorite cranker must be or the picture 
dosen't start. 

Several of the femme stars demand their own particu- 
lar cameraman, even have it specified in studio contracts 
that certain cinematographers be assigned to their pic- 
tures. Others hold verbal agreement with the contracting 
studio that they have the right to select the man who is 
to photogtraph them. 

Top stars seem to figure that the cameraman holds 
the key to the problem of keeping on top of the heap. And 
make no mistake, a regular cinematographer who intently 
studies setups for both close and long shots, to protect 
the player against either poor lighting or composition that 
plays down the star, is worth fighting for. 

Many times top ranking players, and in some instances 
directors, have refused to start pictures until the camera- 
men desired are available. The situation leaves nothing for 
a studio to do but pull the demanded photographer off 
another production or stall the picture until he is available. 

Daniels and Garbo 

For instance, William Daniels has photographed Greta 
Garbo since her first picture at Metro nearly 10 years ago, 
and the Swedish girl will not go to work until Daniels is 
behind the lens. He has also photographed Norma Shearer 
for the past several years. Should both Garbo and Shearer 
happen to be in production at the same time, or their pic- 
tures overlap, Daniels goes with Garbo. 

George Folsey got a break to handle a Marion Davies 
feature more than a year ago. Now she won't have an- 
other cameraman on her pictures. With the star moving 
over from M-G to Warners it is likely that a loan-out deal 
for Folsey will be arranged. Up to the coming of sound, 
John Arnold handled the Davies productions and was al- 
ways held by Metro for her. 

Rollie Totheroh has been chief of the camera staff for 
Charles Chaplin since 1917 and was carried between pic- 



10 BEST CAMERAMEN 

William Daniels — Metro 
George Folsey — Metro 
Ray June — Goldwyn 
Charles Lang — Paramount 
Victor Milner — Paramount 
Karl Struss — Paramount 
James Wong Howe — Metro 
Charles Rosher — 20th Century 
George Barnes — Warners 
Arthur Miller — Fox 

• 

SECOND TEN 

Tony Gaudio — Warners 

Bert Glennon — Fox 

Oliver Marsh — Metro 

John Seitz — Fox 

James Van Trees — Warners 

Leo Tover — Paramount 

Peverell Marley — 20th Century 

George Schneiderman — Fox 

Joe Walker — Columbia 

Sol Polito — Warners 

• 

TOP SPECIALISTS 

Exteriors — Clyde DeVinna, Joe Val- 
entine, M-G. 

Airplane photography — Elmer Dyer, 
WB. 

Process and trick work — Fred Jack- 
man, WB; Farciot Edouarr, Par; 
Vern Walker, Radio. 



tures by the comedian up to about five years ago. Walter 
Lunden has been with Harold Lloyd since the comedian 
started his own production unit some 10 years ago. 

Victor Milner, perhaps the dean of cinematographers 
in point of service now consistently working, has the inside 
track as head cameraman on any picture Ernst Lubitsch 
directs. Pair split when the director went to Metro to make 
"Merry Widow," as Milner was tied up with DeMille on 
"Cleopatra" at Paramount, where he is under contract. 
Milner goes on the next DeMille picture and no one knows 
what will develop if Lubitsch is ready to start his next 
Paramount around the same time. 

Until his sudden death some weeks ago, Henry Gerrard 
had first call on any and all pictures Katharine Hepburn 
made at Radio. Joe Walker must be behind the camera 
when Frank Capra rolls up his sleeves at Columbia. Walker 
made a trip back from London, where he was offered sev- 
eral pictures in a row, to camera for Capra on "It Hap- 
pened One Night." 

Clark's 87 for Mix 

Of the old-time star-cameraman teams Dan Clark 
probably holds a record in photographing 87 straight Tom 
Mix westerns between Fox and Universal. Charles Rosher 
was exclusive cameraman for Mary Pickford for a long 
time and Tony Gaudio was the first pick when Norma 
Talmadge was starring for Joe Schenck. The late Billy 
Bitzer was with D. W. Griffith for years and Pev Marley 
seemed to be the camera shadow for Cecil DeMille over a 

(Continued on Page 56) 



February 193 5 • American Cinematographer 51 




At the camera is Charles Lang, A.S.C. Cinema- 
tographer Lang was last year awarded the trophy 
for Photography by the Academy of Motion Pic- 
ture Arts and Sciences. 



Lang's Photography 
Has Vitality 
Says Critic 

by 

James L. Fritz 

Formerly Dramatic Editor of St. Louis 
Post Dispatch and N. Y. Daily Mirror. 

AFTER talking to this quiet and unassuming young 
man who rose from the lowly rank of an assistant 
in the laboratory, to become the winner of the 
1934 Academy Award, you can readily see why his pictures 
possess the dynamic vitality that almost makes them live 
and breathe, instead of remaining an inanimate piece of 
celluloid. 

Charles Lang, who studied to become an attorney and 
then changed his entire life, so that he would be able to 
follow the one thing that meant most to him, cinematog- 
raphy, has, beneath his calm exterior, this same gripping 
vitality and dynamic energy that you feel in his art. 

In his latest picture, "Lives of a Bengal Lancer," this 
something that has made him one of Hollvwood's best 



cinematographers, is undeniably present. True, in this pro- 
duction, Lang had a great deal to work upon, but on the 
other hand, the picturesque beauty of the native costumes, 
as it is captured by his lens, makes the production seem 
almost real. Again, in the last scene of the picture, this 
vital something makes itself strongly felt by bringing out 
the dramatic pathos and stirring action, which, in Lang's 
work is always so remarkably apparent. 

Lang never allows his subject to become drab and col- 
orless. He endeavors, at all times, to place himself in the 
frame of mind of the audience, so that his camera, instead 
of remaining the cold mechanical eye that it is, becomes 
the eye of an artist. An artist who is able to see more 
than what appears on the surface, but is gifted with an 
ability to capture and hold the throbbing undercurrent of 
life itself. His dealing thus with a subject, also brings out 
the true underlying qualities of the subject, therefore mak- 
ing what we see, more than merely a reproduction of the 
subject, but allows us to absorb with our eyes, the per- 
sonality and emotion embodied in the subject. 

Lang admits that he does not know how he manages 
to inject this gripping vitality into his pictures. He also 
admits that there is no set rule or formula to follow, to 
obtain this effect. Yet he tells us that it is not a special 
gift of talent, but that any cinematographer may create 
the same illusions, by delving into extensive research in 
the art of cinematography. When working on a picture, 
Lang is not merely the man behind the camera. He be- 
comes a combination of a sculptor and painter. His lens 
is the chisel with which he molds his subject into a thing 
of life and beauty, and his lights are the brush with which 
he endows it with vitality and color. 

Any cinematographer knows that there is no definite 
course to follow to obtain these effects. He, like a painter, 
merely learns through his past mistakes, which are oft 
times many, and the old recognized school of long exper- 
ience. We compare a cinematographer to a painter, be- 
cause he too, is an artist. Where the painter works with 
oils, the cinematographer brings out his picture with lights 
and shadows. To illustrate this, we will go far back into 
history. 

The first photographers endeavored to bring out their 
subjects in a hard, cold print. The result of this was often 
brutal. The following generation of photographers went 
to the other extreme and began shading and softening 
their subject, until the result was even worse. The lines 
became blurred and fuzzy, and the subject, instead of tak- 
ing on the appearance of a painted portrait, the effect they 
were trying to capture, became an unintelligible mass of 
shades, with no definite outline. 

Where those pioneers of the lens made their mistake, 
was in trying to copy. To copy is wrong — to create is the 
ambition of every true artist, and the cinematographer 
has proven himself to be a true artist. The first pictures 
were made on the old principle of the hard, cold print, 
and from there, the cinematographer progressed, until to- 
day, he has arrived at a product which, in many cases 
equals the beauty captured by the old masters. 

In all of his pictures, Lang uses a black and white 
color treatment. By color treatment, we mean the ability 
of the artist to give the illusion of many and varying colors 
when using but black and white. This is done, Lang tells 
us, by creating an illusion with light. For instance, on a 
clear day, the sky, to the naked eye, has an unfathomable 
appearance. It is this appearance, by the use of filters, 
that Lang endeavors to capture, when photographing cloud 
formations. At night, the aspect changes from unfathomable 

(Continued on Page 56) 



52 American Cinematographer • February 1935 



Struss 

Photography 
Luxurious 



Says 

James L. Fritz 

Formerly Dramatic Editor, St. Louis Post 
Dispatch and New York Daily News. 

A RECENT review of "Belle of the Nineties" contained 
the words, "Karl Struss is able to make black and 
white look more like color than any camerman now 
in Hollywood." Struss has his own ideas about color pho- 
tography and the treatment of color when using black and 
white. He was one of the pioneers in color experiment, 
having used it in "Ben Hur," many years ago. 

Struss, at present, is one of the "most-in-demand" 
cinematographers in Hollywood. The reason for this de- 
mand for Karl Struss is because of his ability to make a 
glowing epistle of life and beauty of all the pictures he is 
called to work on. Struss is undoubtedly a cinematographer 
who admits no limitations with the camera. He realizes 
that both the special feats of the machine and its possible 
perversions are equally manifest. The injection of a glow- 
ing quality and the effect of luxuriousness which makes 
Struss' pictures more than merely a replica of what is 
transmitted through the lens, illustrates the typical devel- 
opment of the art of cinematography and its students. 

Struss attempts to penetrate and capture the unique 
esthetic moment that singles itself out of the thousands 
of uncrystallized and insignificant gestures that occur in 
the course of a day. It is his constant striving toward this 
impressionism that brings out the characterization of his 
subjects. Not only do the living subjects benefit by this 
imaginativeness on the part of the cinematographer, but 
the settings and backgrounds also take on a richer and 
more voluptuous aspect. This quality of imaginativeness 
in Karl Struss is the one underlying quality that has 
brought him to the fore. His objectif ication and under- 
standing of the subject he is photographing, are important 
developments in the progress of a cinematographer. 

Struss recognizes, in his camera, an instrument with 
manifold and conflicting possibilities. It may be used as 
a passive substitute for experience, or it may be used to 
concentrate and intensify and express new forms of ex- 
perience, but it cannot be used as a short cut to escape 
the necessity of organic experience. Struss points out that 
just as the microscope is useless unless the eye of the 
user is trained to its possibilities, so also, does the camera 
depend for its success upon the cultivation of the organic, 
physiological and spiritual aptitude of the man that stands 
behind it. 

Struss has several important cinematographic discov- 
eries to his credit, including the generally used Struss lens, 




and the "lupe" light. He won the photographic award of 
the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Science, with 
"Sunrise" in 1926. It has been through the untiring ef- 
forts and diligent research into the arts of cinematography 
of men like Karl Struss, that the motion picture became 
a glowing and beautiful interpretation of the inner realms 
of fantasy, instead of remaining an indifferent reproduc- 
tive device, less satisfactory in most cases, than the poor- 
est melodramatic legitimate stage production. 

The cinematographic success of Struss cannot be laid 
wholly to his understanding of the machine with which 
he is working, alone. His imagination must be called upon 
to clothe his subject in an atmosphere coinciding with 
its intended characterization. To obtain these effects, 
camera angles that might appear freakish or affected, are 
sometimes necessary. Not only must the background be 
subordinated to the subject, but its relationship to the 
subject must be made clear and justifiable. 

Struss is one of the few cinematographers who have 
weathered the radical changes and revolutionary introduc- 
tions of new technicalities into the art of cinematography. 
He has advanced and kept pace with these introductions 
since the beginning of motion pictures, until today finds 
him, in some phases, even advanced in the field of cine- 
matographic research and discovery. It is his theories on 
the treatment of color to which this reference is made. 
Struss maintains that the best color photographic effects 
can be obtained through the use of pastel shades. Art 
directors and costume designers have been involving for 
some time the already complicated problems of the cinema- 
tographer. It is here, Struss points out, that the basic 
fault with present method of color treatment can be found. 
The ideal photographic results can be obtained in mono- 
tones, ranging from black to white. These are the only 
colors that reproduce on the screen. "So why not?" he 
asks, "begin with the basic tones?" He admits that it is 
true colors photograph to a certain extent, according to 
their brilliance. That is, a touch of gold or silver will lend 
flash to a scene, but throwing together of greens, blues and 
purples, plainly distinguishable to the eye, results in a 
single color effect on film. This is not only a problematic 
issue to the cinematographer, but in some cases becomes 
detrimental to the subject. 

(Continued on Page 60) 



February 1935 • American Cinematographer 53 




Charles 
Christie 



American 
Cinematographers 
Influence 
World 

by 

Charles Christie 

Vice-President, Mitchell Camera Corp. 

Editor's Note: Charles Christie, vice-president in charge of sales for 
Mitchell Camera Corporation recently returned from a trip around 
the world. He visited studios in both Europe and the Orient. We 
are pleased to publish his opinion and findings. 



RECENTLY the American Cameraman not only in- 
vaded but practically overran British studios. Great 
Britain is looking toward world markets. 
Central Europe, however, is opposite in its view of the 
American technician and cameraman. They want nothing 
of him. Not that they feel they have superior talent, but 
they want those jobs for their own people. 

The Orient would welcome American cameramen with 
open arms. They would import every one they could induce 
to come to their country if they could afford to pay the 
salaries, not only demanded, but the salaries these men 
are worth to their industry. 

Unfortunately, however, I do not believe we will see 
the day in our time when these oriental studios will be able 
to put into production, and cinematographic brains, the 
money that will always be available here and in the Central 
European countries. I say this because the market for the 



productions turned out by Japan, India, and other oriental 
countries is confined to their own borders. 

This means small budgets, but not pictures in the 
sense of our quickies, because India usually takes about 
60 days for one feature. When so much time is consumed 
in the making of a production it is natural that salaries 
and other overhead expense must be kept down. 

It is not unusual for a feature production in both Japan 
and India to run fourteen reels in length. Often the at- 
tending of a picture show is an event that requires a whole 
day; people take their lunches on many occasions so as 
to take in the entire program. 

The techniuqe of the Orient is especially backward. 
They do not have the many technical facilities originated 
here in Hollywood. I did not notice one case of background 
projection. Any special effects the cinematographer wishes 
to procure he must do with his camera. They do not have 
optical printers. 

It isn't that they do not have the desire for these 
things or the need of them, the earning power of their pro- 
ductions will not permit them to invest in luxuries of this 
nature. It doesn't take much analysis to know that the 
Japanese pictures will be shown in Japan only, that the 
pictures in India do not have a great market even in their 
own country because of the many languages spoken within 
their own borders. In both countries also theatres are lim- 
ited. 

In the early days of this industry the cinematographic 
capitals were in Italy, France and Berlin. Today their 
studios are working at low ebb. Especially Italy, the coun- 
try that gave us "Caberia" and "Quo Vadis," the first 
really great pictures, is practically non-existent as a pro- 
ducing center. 

France continues to make pictures for itself and the 
other countries speaking French, but Germany is rapidly 
declining. Before a picture can be put into work in that 
country the script must be read, censored and approved. 
This does not mean that that picture can be marketed 
when it is finished. After it is made it is then censored 
by another department and they may turn it down in spite 
of the fact that the script was altered to the opinion of 
the script censor. Money will not take these risks in Ger- 
many with the result that some of the producing compan- 
ies have gone into bankruptcy. 

Of course, all eyes are still toward America. The 
American cinematographer and the American technician, 
they realize, could give them the foundation necessary to 
look toward world markets. They know they must have 
the technicians even before they have the stars and direc- 
tors, because they dare not present the work of those 
great names less artistically than they are presented here 
in America. 

All foreign camera men study the work of the Ameri- 
can cinematographer very closely. They conscientiously at- 
tend every showing of an American picture. They espe- 
cially follow the work of some of the leading men behind 
the camera here in the Hollywood studios. However, it is 
not possible in most instances for them to even attempt to 
duplicate the work of these men because they do not have 
the lights, the facilities and accoutrements that will permit 
them to recreate these conditions even if they know how it 
is done. 

The foreign stars who have come to this country to be 
photographed and then return again realize the great art- 
ist the American cameraman is, realize how important he 
is to their success. They then thoroughly understand why 
some of the American stars insist upon certain men pho- 
tographing all of their productions. 

(Continued on Page 56) 



54 American Cinematographer • February 1935 



Expressing 
Tempo 



n 



Lighting 



by 

John F. Seitz, A.S.C. 




THE relationship between tempo and lighting in Cin- 
ematography is difficult to analyze: it undoubtedly 
exists, yet it is not easy to express it in concrete 
terms. Tempo is essentially dynamic; lighting is generally 
static. None the less, there is o fundamental point of con- 
tact between the two in that both are means of producing, 
by visual means, positive psychological responses, and 
must, as such, be closely coordinated. 

Tempo itself may be defined as indicating the degree 
of swiftness or slowness with which a scene or sequence 
moves. Further, it may be subdivided into two interde- 
pendent categories: physical tempo, and dramatic (or nar- 
rative) tempo. 

The former obviously refers to the physical pace of 
the action filmed. Clearly, if action moves at a swift phys- 
ical pace, it will consume less screen-time; accordingly, 
the eye of the beholder must react more swiftly, in order 
to see and to transmit to the brain a clear mental image 
of the action in the brief time allowed. If this is to be 
done, the Cinematographer's presentation of the action 
must be such as to aid this quick visual reaction. The 
composition should be simple, leading the eye at once to 
the salient portions of the field of view. The lighting should 
be incisive and brilliant (though not necessarily of a higher 
key), in order to facilitate visual perception, and mental 
comprehension. 

In a swift-moving battle sequence, for example, the 
visual treatment should be such as to reveal the vital 
points of the action at a glance. Primarily, this would 
logically be achieved by maintaining the low visual key 
which the mood of the action demands, but increasing the 
brilliance: minimizing the diffusion introduced in camera 
and lighting, and simplifying the visual scale to an easily- 
read range of positive highlights and shadows, with a mini- 
mum of intermediate half-tones. 

In a more slowly moving sequence, on the other hand, 
speed in visual perception is not so necessary. Therefore, 
the photographic tempo may be slower. A greater degree 
of visual softness is possible, and the lighting and compo- 
sition may become more intricate. 

Where there is a definite sense of physical movement 



to be conveyed, the lighting can do a great deal to enhance 
this effect. For example, suppose we are to film a scene 
of a parade, or of an army on the march. Here is a definite 
instance of forward physical movement, which can be ac- 
centuated through lighting. ! doubt if any cinematog- 
rapher would care to light such a scene flatly. No matter 
whether natural or artificial illumination were used, the 
natural thing to do would be to strive for a cross-lighting, 
creating, if possible, parallel stripes of pronounced light 
and shade across the line of march. The movement of the 
actors across this light-and-shade pattern, progressing al- 
ternately from light to shadow, will heighten the sense of 
physical movement, and accordingly enhance the tempo. 

The same principle is used in the familiar scenes show- 
ing players apparently inside a moving automobile at night. 
Without in any sense detracting from the importance of 
process backgrounds, which of course lend realism to the 
scene, it must be admitted that a great part of the sense 
of movement is imparted by the changing light and shade 
thrown on the players in simulation of the effects of the 
street lights as the car passes. 

Musical films, of course, offer the greatest opportunity 
for lighting-tempo. In them, or, rather, in their musical 
and dance sequences, there is a definite, physical move- 
ment, usually strongly rhythmic. Such sequences offer tre- 
mendous opportunity for imaginative lighting, which can 
greatly enhance the sense of rhythmic movement, and in 
consequence, of tempo. 

In this connection, may it not be remarked that our 
present approach to the problem of staging musical films 
appears decidedly illogical? The conventional practice is 
to design and build the sets first, after which the musical 
people fit their compositions and lyrics to the setting, 
while, in turn, the Cinematographer (and the Director, 
too) must attempt to coordinate the two in the filming. 
To my mind, it would appear to be more logical to have 
the music and lyrics completed first, after which the set- 
tings could be designed to suit the mood and tempo of 
the song, and the Cinematographer could have a more co- 
herent unity with which to work. The same, in a great 
measure, applies to dance-scenes, as well. 

The matter of dramatic tempo is rather less tangible 
than physical tempo. It will be recognized that a scene 

(Continued on Page 60) 



February 1935 • American Cinematographer 55 



PHOTOGRAPHY 



"THE BAND PLAYS ON" (M-G-M) 
Leonard Smith, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Daily Variety (December 17, 1934) : " — and fine photog- 
raphy — ." 

Hollywood Reporter (December 17, 1934): "Leonard 

Smith's photography is uniformly excellent." 
Film Daily (December 22, 1934) : Photography "Good." 

"CHARLIE CHAN IN PARIS" (Fox) 
Ernest Palmer, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (December 22, 1934) : " — and pho- 
tography and mounting are first class." 

"LIVES OF A BENGAL LANCER" (Paramount) 
Charles Lang, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (December 26, 1934): " — and the 
most beautiful photography ever seen in such settings." 
Daily Variety (December 24, 1934): "Photography by 
Charles Lang is a thing of magnificence, especially the 
scenes in the rocky terrain of the fighting and march- 
ing." 

Motion Picture Daily (December 26, 1934) : "The photog- 
raphy by Charles Lang is exceptionally fine." 

"THE GILDED LILY" (Paramount) 
Victor Milner, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Daily Variety (December 24, 1934): "Photography and 
production are both excellent." 

"THE BEST MAN WINS" 

John Stumar, A.S.C. : Directing Cinematographer 

Daily Variety (December 27, 1934): "Best thing in the 

picture is the underwater photography." 
Hollywood Reporter (December 27, 1934): "The diving 

stuff is all excellently done, both photographically and 

for suspense." " — and the photography, which is swell, 

is all to Stumor's credit." 
Film Daily (January 2, 1935) : "Photography Good." 

"ONLY EIGHT HOURS" (M-G-M) 
Lester White, A.S.C: Directing Cinematograher 
Hollywood Reporter (December 31, 1934): "The pho- 
tography was exquisite — ." 
Motion Picture Daily (January 4, 1935): "Lester White 
photographed well." 

"THE NIGHT IS YOUNG" (M-G-M) 
James Wong Howe, A.S.C: Directing Cinematographer 
Motion Picture Daily (December 22, 1934) : "James Wong 
Howe, one of Hollywood's ace cameramen, photo- 
graphed well." 

"WHITE LIES" (Columbia) 

Benjamin Kline, A.S.C: Directing Cinematographer 
Motion Picture Daily (December 22, 1934): "Benjamin 

Kline's photography is good." 
Film Daily (December 27, 1934): Photography "Good." 



of the MONTH 



"DAVID COPPERFIELD" (M-G-M) 

Oliver T. Marsh, A.S.C: Directing Cinematographer 

Hollywood Reporter (January 7, 1935): "Marsh's camera 

work was in Marsh's most brilliant manner." 
Daily Variety (January 7, 1935): "Photography of Oliver 

T. Marsh is exceptionally fine." 
Motion Picture Daily (January 6, 1935): "Good, too, is 

Oliver Marsh's photography." 
Film Daily (January 8, 1935) : Photography "A-l." 

"NOTORIOUS GENTLEMAN" (Universial) 
David Abel, A.S.C: Directing Cinematographer 
Daily Variety (January 9, 1935) : "Some excellent photog- 
raphy has been turned in by David Abel, particularly 
the night scenes around the old Southern mansion." 
Hollywood Reporter (January 9, 1935): "Photography by 
David Abel is above standard." 

"THE WINNING TICKET" (M-G-M) 

Charles Clarke, A.S.C: Directing Cinematographer 

Daily Variety (January 9, 1935) : "Photography by Charles 

Clarke is excellent." 
Hollywood Reporter (January 9, 1935) : "The photography 

of Charles Clarke was excellent." 

"WINGS IN THE DARK" (Paramount) 

William C Mellor, A.S.C: Directing Cinematographer 

Dewey Wrigley, Aerial Cinematographer 

Hollywood Reporter (January 10, 1935) : " — and the pho- 
totgraphy, both aerial and studio, is first rate." 

Daily Variety (January, 1935): "Fulfilling the high ex- 
cellence of the picture is the striking aerial photog- 
raphy by Dewey Wrigley and the camera work of Wil- 
liam Mellor — ." 

"ROCKY MOUNTAIN MYSTERY" (Paramount) 
Archie Stout, A.S.C: Directing Cinematographer 
Daily Variety (January 11, 1935): "Photography of Archie 
Stout, as is usual on his outdoor assignments, is excel- 
lent." 

"BORDERTOWN" (Warner Bros.) 

Tony Gaudio, A.S.C: Directing Cinematographer 

Daily Variety (January 14, 1935) : "Photography and pro- 
duction are on the general high plane of the picture." 

Hollywood Reporter (January 14, 1935): " — and Ton/ 
Gaudio's photography and the mounting are first rate." 

"CLIVE OF INDIA" (20th Century) 
Peverell Marley, A.S.C: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (January 16, 1935) : "Photography by 
Peverell Marley is beautiful." 

"THE WHOLE TOWN'S TALKING" (Columbia) 
Joseph August, A.S.C: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (January 17, 1935) : " — and the pho- 
tography by Joseph August excellent, with the double 
exposure shots very well done." 
Daily Variety (January 17, 1935) : "Camera work of Jos- 
eph August deserves a palm, particularly the trick 
split film stuff necessary for *he dual photography." 



56 American Cinematographer • February 1935 



Variety Names Ten Best Cinematographers 



long period of time. Joe August was 
tabbed as chief cinematographer for Bill 
Hart, cranking on most of his westerns. 
John Seitz was attached to all of the 
Rex Ingram pictures for seven years and 
then handled the camera for Corinne 
Griffith, who had a clause in her con- 
tract to that effect. 

John Arnold, now head of the Metro 
camera department, photographed all of 
the Viola Dana features for the old 
Metro company and was also in charge 
of the camera crew on the King Vidor 
productions at Metro up to the time he 
took charge of the department. James 
Brown, Jr., has been photographer on 
all of the Larry Darmour pictures for 
several years — and doubles in brass as 
unit production manager. Frank Good 
photographed all but two of the Jackie 
Coogan features produced by Sol Lesser 
and is now back with the latter as head 
cameraman. 

Len Powers, who was with Hal Roach 
for around 12 years, photographed 
practically all of the Warren Doane 
shorts for Universal up to a few months 
ago. 

Clyde DeVinna was the camera globe- 
trotting companion with W. S. Van 
Dyke when the latter made pictures for 
Metro in the South Seas, Africa, and the 
Arctic. DeVinna is a cinch to swing 
back with Van Dyke when, and if, the 
latter takes any other expeditionary 
jaunts. 

Ray Rennahan is rated the outstand- 
ing color photographer in the business 
today. He has been with Technicolor 
for years, was an expert on the old two- 
color process and is now tops in shooting 
the new three way development. 

Leon Shamroy, under personal con- 
tract to B. P. Schulberg, has been doing 
all of the Sylvia Sidney productions for 
the past two years, while John Mescall 
made a tie-up with James Whale, at 
Universal, to shoot his pictures exclu- 
sively about a year ago. George Barnes, 
under Warner contract, naturally draws 
the camera assignment on all pictures 
where his wife, Joan Blondell, holds a 
featured spot. And you can imagine if 
Barnes doesn't help make his bride look 
okay. 

Salaries 

There has been a general increase in 
salaries to first grade cameramen during 
the past year. Top weekly paychecks 
are now about $550 to $600, either on 
contract or on a free lance basis. Des- 
pite there are about 130 first camera- 
men listed for production on the Coast, 
studios occasionally find it hard to se- 
lect grade A men for available jobs when 
a production peak exists. Undoubtedly 
there are a number of capable first men 



(Continued from Page 50) 

who would click if given a chance on a 
major lot, but they are generally passed 
up because camera department heads, 
producers, directors or players refuse to 
take chances with them. 

As a whole, the Metro and Para- 
mount camera departments are deemed 
to have the best rounded out camera 
crews from firsts down through seconds, 
assistants and still men. It is worth 
pointing out that these are the only two 
studios which have experienced camera- 
men as heads of their respective camera 
departments. 

John Arnold, at Metro, is a pioneer 
cameraman having started in the busi- 
ness prior to 1910. Virgil Miller, at 
Par, was a first man for many years and 
the background of practical experience 
is invaluable to companies when camera 
organizations are being maintained at 
top efficiency. Outstanding first men 
are naturally valuable on a camera de- 
partment roster, but they must depend 
on their crews to a great extent to get 
the desired results. 



Few From Europe 

Only three European cameramen have 
come over here to make the grade dur- 
ing the past eight years — Karl Freund 
(now directing for Universal), Theo- 
dore Sparkuhl, and Rudy Mate. In com- 
parison, American cinematographers 
have gone to Europe to become out- 



standing. Glenn McWilliams is with 
Gaumont-British as chief cinematog- 
rapher and those on the other side doing 
well are Charles Van Enger, Phil Tan- 
nura, Lloyd Knechtel, Osmond Borro- 
daile and Harry Stradling. Charles 
Rosher and Charles Stumar both made 
a number of pictures for Ufa in Ger- 
many a few years ago. When Stumar 
returned from abroad he stated that 
cameramen over there were advertised 
on theatre marquees above the director 
of a picture. 



Watching Von Sternberg 

The cameramen out here are keenly 
watching the progress of Josef von 
Sternberg in acting as both director and 
head cameraman on Marlene Dietrich's 
"Caprice Espagnole" at Paramount. Von 
Sternberg has always been noted for his 
lighting and camera angles, and as- 
sumed charge of the camera crew on 
this picture when he was unsuccessful 
in moving up a favorite assistant too 
fast. When the cameramen's organiza- 
tion refused to allow the man to handle 
a first job without more experience, the 
director decided to take over the respon- 
sibility. The outcome holds the cam- 
eramen in that on all previous pictures 
on the Paramount lot Von Sternberg 
has had an ace photographer assigned 
to work with him. 

The accompanying lists of best cam- 
eramen is "Variety's" selection based 
on '34 performances and executive stu- 
dio opinions. 



Lang s Photography Has Vitality Says Criti< 

< (Continued from Page 51 ) 



clearness, to the dank blackness of the 
pit. He also tells us that he studies his 
subject deeply, until he obtains the feel 
of it. He is then able to deal with the 
subject, not as if he were merely taking 
a picture, but as if he were writing a 
poem with lights and shadows. He never 
allows anything to melt. He uses con- 
trasts to catch the true meaning of the 
story. 

An example of this, is, that when 
photographing a mystery picture, he 
looks to the auroral perspective. He tries 
to leave the background dark at all 
times, to create the illusion that some- 
thing or someone is lurking unseen in 
the shadows. On the other hand, when 
taking action shots, for which he is best 
noted, he reverses the process, lighting 
the background brilliantly, so as to bring 
out the subject clear and precise. The 
romantic picture receives still another 
treatment. Here, by camera diffusion, 
he obtains a softness of line, but a bril- 
liance of subject. 

One could go on indefinitely discours- 
ing on the many methods that various 
cinematographers use in obtaining their 



best shots, and one could not give an 
absolute formula to follow in mastering 
the art of cinematography, in which ev- 
erything is tangible and anything is pos- 
sible. 

American Cinematographers 
Influence World 

(Continued from Page 53) 

England of course is progressing rap- 
idly in American technique and when 
one visits the studios over there, in prac- 
tically every one of them, you will find 
cinematographers and technicians whom 
you have seen many times in the Ameri- 
can studios. 

England has taken to optical print- 
ing; it has background projection in- 
stalled and introduced by American 
technicians. England, however realizes 
that one big picture does not create a 
world market, it now knows that all of 
its production must be up to the Ameri- 
can average, so possibly we may see a 
greater exodus of American talent to- 
ward the British isles. 



February 1935 • American Cinemarographer 57 



In eight of 

1934's BEST TEN" 



OF the ten pictures chosen as 1934's 
best in the Film Daily s nationwide 
poll, eight were photographed on Eastman 
Super - Sensitive Panchromatic Negative. 
Again this Eastman film has made its con- 
tribution to the artistry and entertainment 
value of the productions adjudged the fin- 
est of the year. Eastman Kodak Company, 
Rochester, N.Y. (J. E. Brulatour, Inc., Dis- 
tributors, New York, Chicago, Hollywood.) 



EASTMAN Super-Sensitive 
Panchromatic Negative 



58 American Cinematographer • February 1935 



Cinematographer Plays Leading Part in Group 
of Creative Minds 



(Continued from Page 49) 



The paradox was, that potentially and 
cinematically, the speed of the talkie 
far outpaced that of the silent panto- 
mimic film; but that, within the se- 
quence, the physical movement and ac- 
tual time-elapsed speed of the talkie 
was slower. That is, the cinematic move- 
ment of the talkie, in the psychological 
sense of stimuli for mental and emo- 
tional progression within the percipient, 
contained intrinsically more elements of 
concurrent and inter-accelerating tempo 
than the silent picture of alternate ac- 
tion and title; while the silent picture 
employed all possible fast physical and 
pantomimic movement and rapid cutting 
to attain the utmost pace of cinematic 
movement in a relatively slow-tempo 
medium. 

Consequently, in the first years of 
sound pictures it was well-nigh impossi- 
ble to take full advantage of the talk- 
ies' potential tempo with what amount- 
ed to photographed stage plays; for, the 
lack of interpretive camera flow, in con- 
junction with a serious unbalance of dia- 
logue (or song) over action, precluded 
cinematic movement from attaining a 
possible one hundred percent, and slowed 
it to an average of less than fifty. There 
were, of course, notable exceptions to 
the prevalent snail's pace of the early 
talkies, "Interference" being one of 
these. 

Thus it was seen that a new manner 
of "pictorial-talking story" must come 
if the audible motion picture was to real- 
ize the power, worth and richness of its 
natural endowments — a happy combin- 
ation of action, gesture and facial ex- 
pression, interacting with word, sound or 
song to achieve the ultimate in dual- 
progression, fast-paced, fully effective 
cinematic movement. 

This question of tempo was but one 
of the more important creative problems 
facing the producer, author, director and 
cinematographer in the early years of 
sound pictures (and which remains to 
this day only partially solved, as at- 
tested for example, by the improving 
use of montage and time-lapse se- 
quences), whose eventual solution re- 
quired the closer integration of these 



key men if the screen were to progress. 

And so each new problem or develop- 
ment as it presents itself, brings the un- 
deniable need for a progressively closer 
cooperation amongst the creative minds 
of the motion picture. Just as sound for 
the last five years has caused a sure in- 
tegration of literary and dramatic con- 
tent through words, sound or song, with 
literary and dramatic content through 
pictures of action and things — the gen- 
eral use of natural color will in the fu- 
ture necessitate the further integration 
of the "outward appearance" of char- 
acters and things, with the cinematic 
(dramatic - psychologic) expression of 
these same characters and things. 

The motion picture will always remain 
a quasi -communal expression, due to its 
complex aesthetic and phyiscal nature. 
The tendencies, individual bias and in- 
terests, organic as they are, of its vari- 



ous creative workers must be intellec- 
tually harmonized to the communal 
purpose; that is, there must be a fuller 
understanding of each other's problems, 
and a larger concept by the individual 
of the collective aims, so that the form 
and material of the motion picture will 
more completely fuse with the subject 
matter in reaching its zenith of expres- 
siveness, and in becoming increasingly 
mature and incisively accurate in its 
comment on and interaction with life. 

When that maturity of concept and 
execution comes, it will be found that 
all four of the chief creative elements 
are on an integral par, welded together 
by a group understanding and sympathy 
almost beyond today's most sanguine 
hopes. 

Thus must the Director of Photog- 
raphy play a leading part in the group 
of key creative minds, for his contribu- 
tion in the making of a motion picture 
is so generically of its form and matter. 
Whether he wishes to or not, he is 
slowly but certainly being compelled to 
assume this, his own responsibility — 
and opportunity. 



Lets Stop Abusing Camera Movement 



(Continued from Page 47) 



makes the picture easy and pleasing to 
look at. 

"Thirdly, there is an appalling lack of 
understanding on the part of most direc- 
tors of what makes a really good mov- 
ing-camera scene. Nine out of ten di- 
rectors will shoot an involved travelling- 
shot — and then 'protect' themselves by 
re-shooting the action in individual 
close-ups and long-shots. Then he 
'shows off 'to the Front-Office in the 
projection-room where the dailies are 
run, pointing to his moving-camera 
technique as evidence of his ability as 
a director. But when the final cut of 
the picture is made, it is usually those 
conventional 'protection-shots' that are 
used — while the dolly-shots go into the 
ash-can! If studio officials would in- 
vestigate this, checking these wasted, 
unused dolly-shots against the time, ef- 
fort and money wasted in making them, 
there would be fewer so-called clever 
directors (or rather, they'd find out who 
were the really clever ones!) and pic- 
tures would be made better and more 
efficiently." 



J-[oll"VWood 

Motion PicTure/[ojjipmemT(9.[0>. 



6A 5 NORTH MARTEL AVE- 



CABLE ADDRESS ARTREEVES 



HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA, U SA 



Charles Lang, A.S.C., points out that 
"It is necessary to consider the style of 
the director before saying much about 
any individual moving-shot. Some di- 
rectors make an amazing number of 
difficult dolly-shots, yet they fit so per- 
fectly with the director's style that they 
can hardly be condemned. Other direc- 
tors use the moving camera haphaz- 
ardly, either covering up with protection- 
shots, or forcing the use of dolly-shots 
in the wrong place, both of which are 
bad. In general, if a director's inherent 
style is predicated upon the use of the 
moving camera, and he uses it intelli- 
gently, no Cinematographer will com- 
plain: but we should all strive to edu- 
cate the men who do not understand the 
proper use of perambulating, and show 
them how indiscriminate dollying wastes 
time, money and footage, and hurts, 
rather than helps, their pictures." 

The opinion of George J. Folsey, 
A.S.C., was equally constructive. He 
said that "Ruling out the out-and-out 
abuses of the moving-camera technique 
by inept directors, a properly employed 
moving-shot can be very good dramat- 
ically — though they are almost always 
difficult photographically. The key to 
the problem is cooperation: the Cine- 
matographer should school himself to a 
quicker perception of dramatic values, 
and the director should try to develop 
an appreciation of cinematographic 
problems. Both should make themselves 
absolutely sure that a perambulating 
shot is necessary from a dramatic view- 
point, and not undesirable from a pho- 



February 1935 • American Cinematographer 59 



Here are a few of the tools offers 

for BETTER PICTURES 

ARE YOU GETTING THE MOST FROM THEM? 




10,000- watt G-96. Used in 36" 5,000-watt G-64. Employs the New Bipost 2,000-watt G-48. Used 1,500 and 1,000-watt PS-52. 

sun spots and sky pans. Also rugged new bipost construction. in 18" sun spots and studio con- Used in rifle lamps, side lamps 

as a single powerful light source. Used in 24" sun spots and sky denser spot lamps. Also available and strip units. Also for 

About 1/14 size. pans. About 1/8 size. in 1,000-watt size. About 1/7 size. floodlighting. About 1/10 size. 




Movieflood. 2,000-watt P-S 52. 
Brings out blacks and blues. 
Primarily for color work. Used 
in regular 1,500-watt units. 
(15 hour life). About 1/10 size. 



1,000-watt T-20. Used in"Lupe" 
lamps, utility lamps and oc- 
casionally in practical lighting 
fixtures. About 1/10 size. 



500- watt T-20. Used in baby 
spots and in practical lighting 
fixtures. Also in amateur 
lighting units. About 1/6 size. 



No. 20 and No. 75 Photorlash 
lamps. For special newspaper 
effects. No. 75 gives more 
than 3 times the light of the 
older No. 20. About 1/8 size. 




Photoflood lamp No. 1. Has New Photoflood lamp No. 4. 

brilliance of ordinary 750-watt 1000-watt PS-35. Has about 4 

lamp. Used in amateur units times effectiveness of Photoflood 

and in practical lighting units. No. 1. Excellent for close-ups. 

(2 hour life). About 1/4 size. (10 hour life). About 1/7 size. 




200-watt T-10. Used in prac- Left: 9A. 9.5V. recorder lamp, 

tical lighting fixtures, such as About 1/6 size. Right 6A. 5V. 

table lamps and floor lamps. recorder lamp. About 1 /3 size. 

About 1/5 size. G-E also makes several other 

lamps for this work. 



THE marvelous, almost phenomenal effects which cinematogra- 
phers have achieved with lighting are well known. 

Working hand in hand with you to help make such re- 
sults possible, General Electric has made available a great 
variety of lamps. Are you getting the most use from these 
lichting tools? 



This chart suggests some of the ways in which outstanding 
cinematographers are putting a few of the many Mazda 
lamps to work for them. In the face of this proven flexibility, 
is it any wonder that studios from coast to coast use ($pt 
Mazda lamps for all lighting needs? Incandescent Lamp 
Dept., General Electric Co., Nela Park, Cleveland, Ohio. 



GENERAL @ ELECTRIC 



60 American Cinematographer • February 1935 



tographic viewpoint, before allowing it 
to be filmed." 

Frank B. Good, A.S.C., speaks, as 
usual, in a very practical way about the 
problem: "The only excuse for a mov- 



ing-camera shot is a story situation that 
can't be conveyed in any other way. The 
director and the Cinematographer should 
study a script carefully before starting 
production, checking and re-checking 



to make absolutely sure that no moving- 
shot is used unless it is positively vital. 
Then they should prepare the mechanics 
of the shot perfectly. The situation 
should be such that once filmed, the 
moving-shot is dramatically and techni- 
cally perfect, with no need for protec- 
tion-shots of any kind. If you really 
need the protection-shots, you don't 
really need the moving-shots; and if the 
moving-shot is really essential, you 
haven't any need for protection-shots." 

Sooner or later, the problem of the 
abuse of moving-camera technique must 
be faced. At present, we are unques- 
tionably wasting time, money and ef- 
fort on an excess of these shots which 
do not help their productions at all, and 
which harm photography and waste val- 
uable footage. When will directors and 
Cinematographers really join hands and 
make a united effort to curb this ex- 
travagant abuse of a valuable technical 
and dramatic technique? 

Struss Photography "Luxurious" 

(Continued from Page 52) 

It is perhaps due to the fact that 
Struss has allowed his mind to dwell and 
dream upon these theories, that subcon- 
sciously, he has been able to grasp the 
true esthetic arrangements of the sub- 
ject before him. He does, in no instance, 
allow the cruder environment to show 
through, but tries to clothe it with a 
luxurious aspect that is comparable to 
the visions of Plotinus, or the mytholo- 
gies of Hinduism. 

Struss came to Hollywood more than 
fourteen years ago, and has photo- 
graphed almost every noted star. When 
he was a portrait photographer in New 
York, he obtained the idea, from early 
motion pictures, that the cinematog- 
raphers of that day really knew but 
very little of artistic photography. He 
came west with the determination to 
make a life study of the art of cinema- 
tography. Shortly after his arrival, he 
obtained a position with Cecil B. De 
Mille as a still man. Not long after, he 
was given his first opportunity to prove 
his ability with the motion picture cam- 
era. His progress from that day has 
been pronounced, until he has become 
one of the industry's outstanding fig- 
ures. 

Expressing Tempo in Lighting 

(Continued from Page 54) 

or sequence may strike a dramatic pace 
more or less independent of the physical 
pace of its component movements. It 
is possible to conceive of a scene in 
which very little physical action occurs, 
yet which advances the story at break- 
neck speed — or of one in which a max- 
imum of physical movement produces 
the minimum of dramatic advancement. 
In such cases, it is often well to attune 



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February 1935 • American Cinematographer 61 



the photography and lighting more to 
the dramatic tempo than to the phys- 
ical. 

This borders very closely upon the 
subject of mood, though it is by no 
means an exact parallel. As a general 
rule, the more sombre dramatic moods 
connote action which is slow in tempo, 
while the lighter moods evidence a 
brisker temoo. In much the same way, 
action which is slow in its dramatic 
tempo is often best treated with sombre, 
low-key lightings, while a more swift 
narrative tempo is better served by 
brighter, more highly keyed lighting. 
Melodrama ond broad comedy, both of 
which are dramatically exaggerated, 
and maintain an exaggerated dramatic 
as well as physical tempo, require more 
or less exaggeration in lighting. Screen 
melodrama, for example, almost always 
calls for more or less unnatural light- 
effects, usually with a definite suppres- 
sion of the middle range of tonal gra- 
dations. Broad comedy frequently im- 
pels a reversal of this: exaggeratedly 
natural lightings (if it can be so de- 
scribed), with a minimum of extreme 
contrasts and a fairly wide range of in- 
termediate tones. 

In general, then, it may be concluded 
that purely physical tempo in lighting is 
most frequently expressed through al- 
teration of the visual key of lighting, 
and by manipulation of the brilliance of 



the lighting, while the more delicate 
dramatic tempo is, like mood, revealed 
more generally through manipulation of 
the gradational scale, tending to lower 
tones, with repressed highlights for the 
slower tempos, and to wider scales for 
the lighter tempos. 

Neither mood nor tempo in lighting 
should be achieved at the expense of 
the visual coherence of the production 
as a whole. From the dramatic view- 
point, no individual scene can be con- 
sidered as independent of the produc- 
tion; no more should any scene be con- 
sidered as being unrelated to the photo- 
graphic coherence of the complete pro- 
duction. Therefore, in normal practice 
we must sometimes sacrifice effects in 
lighting and composition which would, 
individually, be effective contributions to 



visual mood or tempo, but which, viewed 
in their relation to the greater unity of 
the production, may prove undesirable. 

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62 American Cinematographer • February 1935 




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In the same way, it is often necessary to 
forego effects which would be visually or 
dramatically' potent, in order to main- 
tain some special type of lighting or 
other treatment needed for the most 
favorable presentation of some star. In 
general, however, lighting may not only 
be closely attuned to the physical and 



The latest in soundproofed cameras 
weighs less than 90 lbs., loaded and 
ready for work, and can be carried by 
one man. It retains the four-lens turret, 
and all operating controls of the Mitch- 
ell camera, but due to a patented focus- 
ing system which eliminates the "throw- 
over," the entire unit is scarcely larger 
than an unblimped camera. As the tur- 
ret is completely removed from all me- 
tallic contact with the camera-move- 
ment, no glass window is necessary, so 
that the bugaboo of "shooting through 
glass" is eliminated. 

The new device is the first "Recon- 
struction-Silenced" Mitchell camera, just 
put into use at the Columbia Studio. The 
"Reconstructicn-Silencing" method, de- 
veloped by Armin Fried, was discussed 
in its earlier application to Bell and 
Howell cameras in the September, 1933 
issue of this magazine; the present de- 
sign, however, has been considerably 
modified in adapting it to the Mitchell 
camera, and also incorporates a number 
of practical improvements suggested by 
Emil Oster, head of the Columbia Cam- 
era Department. 

A standard Mitchell camera-box and 
movement is used, the base-plate and 
front of the original head being removed. 
Th is is placea in a small, lightweight 
soundproofing case, approximately three 
inches larger overall than the inner cam- 
era-box. All operating controls — shutter 
adjustment, fade-in and fade-out but- 
tons, etc. — are extended to the outside 
of this case, and operate in the usual 
manner. 

The regular Mitchell turret is retained, 
and is placed on a special lens-board at 
the front of the outer case. This lens- 
board mov2s in and out along the optical 
axis of the lens, thereby eliminating any 
need to revolve the lenses in focusing. 
This action ii controlled by a knob at 



dramatic tempo of a film, but serve as 
a powerful aid to direction and acting 
in creating and maintaining tempo. Ad- 
mittedly, this phase of lighting is not so 
well comprehended as are lighting for 
mood and character; but it is one which 
offers mucn interest to the analytically 
minded artist. 



the back of the outer case, and by a 
supplementary knob, also outside the 
case, just belcw the finder. On the shaft 
of this latter control are five drums, 
along the edges of which are calibrations 
for focusing the various lenses; these are 
enclosed and indirectly illuminated, 
while sliding shield-sectors block out all 
scales exceDt the one in use. A disc and 
pointer of the conventional type, located 
by this knob-control, provide for emer- 
gency calibrations. To focus, a lever at 
the rear of the case, similar to the regu- 
lar Mitchell "throw-over" lever, is 
turned: this slides the front-board for- 
ward approximately Va", and inserts a 
reflecting prism, which diverts the image 
through a focusing system similar to the 
regular Mitchell one, but mounted on 
the inside of the "blimp" door. Since 
the "throw-over" movement is elimi- 
nated, the soundproofing case can be 
made much smaller and lighter than 
would otherwise be possible. 

Any type of camera-motor may be 
used, as the cover of the right-hand side 
of the housing is removable. Normally, 
a standard ERPI motor is used, covered 
by a plate conforming to its shape. By 
removing four bolts, this plate may be 
removed, and any other motor substi- 
tuted and, if necessary, soundproofed by 
the use of another cover-plate. 

In this design, the movement and its 
original casing are entirely separate 
from all other units of the "blimp." The 
lower part of the "blimp," which con- 
tains the focus-operating mechanism, 
is also acoustically insulated from both 
movement and "blimp," while the maga- 
zines are attached directly to the top of 
the "blimp" itself arid, if necessary, cov- 
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February, 1935 



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Miniature Sets for Home Movies 
Filming An 8mm?Prixe Winner 
Music for Your Movies 
Synchronizing Sound Cartoons 

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PROFESSIONAL Criticism of the Amateur 
picture is a part of the service offered by the 
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the American Society of Cinematographers for 
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February 1935 • American Cinematographer 67 



AMATEUR 
MOVIE 

SECTION 



Contents . . . 

MINIATURE Shots for Your Home Movie 



by Ray Fernstrom, A.S.C C8 

FILMING an 8mm Prize-Winner 

by Randolph B. Clardy - 69 

LET'S Talk About Lenses 

by Wm. J. Grace 70 

THE Leica Comes of Age 

by C. W. D. Slifer, A.S.C 72 

MUSIC for Your Movies 

by William Stull, A.S.C 74 

CONTINUITY for Reversed Action 

by J. Dickinson Reed 75 

SYNCHRONIZING Sound Cartoons 

by Walter Lantz - 76 

WHEELS of Industry 77 



Next Month . . . 

• Wm. J. Grace will start a new series of art- 
icles discussing the practical side of amateur 
picture-making. 

• There will be several other articles from 
professionals, and some from amateurs who 
have observed as they shoot. They will tell you 
of their experiments ond experiences. 



58 American Cinematographer • February 1935 



Miniature 
Shots 
for Your 
Home Movie 

by 

Ray Fernstrom, A.S.C. 

A FEW years ago, while making some travel-films in 
Sweden, I took my camera into the Railroad Mu- 
seum of the Swedish State Railways and made 
some shots of a wonderful miniature electric railroad which 
is exhibited there. The train — a perfect model of the reg- 
ular Swedish expresses — was just about half the size of 
the little "0" gauge toy trains your little boy got for 
Christmas; but on the screen it was hard to tell whether 
I had photographed a miniature or a real train. I was 
using a professional 35mm camera — but the result would 
have been the same with 16mm or 8mm film in amateur 
equipment. And doesn't it start you off on an idea you 
could apply to your home-movie making? 

Of course, most of us can't command the elaborate 
scenery and accessories that helped to make this shot so 
effective — but even without them, surprisingly good 
miniature-shots can be made with ordinary home-movie 
equipment, and the sort of "miniatures" that are to be 
had anywhere. Of course, if you have a friend who rides 
the hobby of making model trains, boats or airplanes, you 
are well ahead of the game. (Did you know that some 
of our most distinguished, white-whiskered bankers and 
business-men make train models and play with toy trains 
as enthusiastically as any boy?) But even without these, 
you can do a lot with the ordinary, commercial toys. 

Many of the better grade, electric toy trains — especially 
the smaller "0" gauge — will do excellently for miniature- 
shots. Some of the toy reproductions of the new stream- 
line trains are marvellously suited to movies. Since most 
electric trains use a three-rail track, you will get the best 
results if you use a low camera-angle, which will conceal 
the third rail. Similarly, your best bet is to make either 
straight side shots, or to shoot from a % angle, with the 
train coming diagonally across the picture, toward the 
camera. If you must have a shot of a train coming straight 
into the camera, make it at a curve, with the train com- 
ing lensward down a straight stretch, and curving off just 
as it fills the screen. This, /ou see, will allow you to use 
a lower camera position than otherwise, again concealing 
that bothersome third rail. For the same reason, you'll 
find it most convenient to put your train on a bench or 
table, well off the floor; this, too, will help out in getting 
your camera low enough. 




The train in this photo is only a little taller than 
a Swedish match box stood on end. 



Don't try to use the cheap, clockwork trains, or the 
cheapest electric varieties, for they aren't, as a rule, made 
with sufficient attention to scale and detail to be realistic. 
Another thing, too, many of the better electric trains have 
a remote-control arrangement, sc that you can have them 
stop, start, or reverse in your shot as you may desire. 
Also, if possible, get trains that carry little lights inside, 
and make your shots night-effect scenes. This will help 
conceal the shortcomings as to backgrounds, etc., and 
prove much more effective. In making night-effects on 
reversal film, you'll have to underexpose a good deal, and 
it will help you if you tell the laboratory people that you 
are shooting for night effects, end ask them please to re- 
frain from boosting the print up for a day effect. 

Keep these shots as simple as possible, using just as 
few accessories as you can: many of the signals, stations, 
and the like are not made exactly to scale, and would 
show up badly on the screen. 

Most professional miniatu'e shots are made in slow- 
motion, often with the camera exposing more than 128 
frames per second, for slow-motion smooths out the 
movement of the miniature, and lends an effect of size 
to the picture. No amateur cameras will go this fast — 
and even if they did, there would be a considerable prob- 
lem in lighting the shots with amateur lighting equipment. 
So the next-best thing is to run the train a bit slowly (as 
slow as it will go smoothly), and, if possible, shoot at 24- 
frame speed — faster, if you can manage the lighting. In 
some instances you might make these shots outdoors, get- 
ting the night effect with a red filter and underexposure. 

When it comes to boats and airplanes, the problem is 
a little bit more complicated. The ordinary toy craft won't 
do at all, for they aren't nearly so close to scale, and they'll 
naturally look "toyish" on the screen. But there are lots 

(Continued on Page 84) 



February 1935 • American Cinematographer 69 





Enlargements made from Mr. Clardy's 8mm prize- 
winning picture for 1934. 

Filming 
an 8mm 
Prize Winner 

by 

Randolph B. Clardy 

Editor's Note: Randolph B. Clardy won the Crand Prize in the 
American Cinematographer Amateur Movie Contest for 1934. He 
also won the Scenario prize. In 1933 he won the scenario prize 
and the prize for photography. On both occasions he used an 8mm 
camera. For this reason we believe Mr. Clardy's story will be inter- 
esting to thousands of readers. 

FOUR scenarios were written completely before the 
final story was prepared. As a hint to the wise — the 
first three were more complex as to situations and 
characters, while "New Horizon" was as simple as it could 
be made with only three characters — and it was a handful 
at that for a lone cameraman directing his own. 

"New Horizon" is the story of an American farm girl 
in love with the son of a neighboring farmer. Her father, 
crippled and unable to help with the work of the farm, 
bitterly objects to the girl's marriage. His dominating 
personality keeps her tied to the farm doing heavy work 
that should be a man's job. The scenes follow the girl 



through her early morning outdoor chores and after break- 
fast she stops to rest on the porch where she tells her 
father again of her wish to marry. The father in a violent 
rage declares she shall never marry the boy. Physically and 
mentally weighted down, the girl, while working in the 
hayfield, meets the boy only to part once more with the 
situation seemingly hopeless. That afternoon when the 
girl arrives at the house she sees her father struck down 
by a horse which he is brutally tormenting, and realizing 
he is dead, the girl, with tears streaming down her face, 
runs across the fields and over the hill separating the two 
farms, to the boy she loves — disappearing into the "New 
Horizon" of her life. The reel starts with a man taking a 
book from a shelf at the fireside, in which appear the 
titles and cast, lap-dissolving from the first page of the 
story into the opening scene of the farm. At the close of 
the picture, the final scene of the girl on the hill dissolves 
back into the book with a fade-out as the man replaces the 
book on the mantel. 

Here's what may considered an important suggestion to 
those writing original scenarios for production: Converse 
with someone (if they can take it) and tell them your 
thoughts. Your own ideas will be stimulated as well as 
those of the person you are conversing with. In "New 
Horizon" I started with the girl and her father (having 
these characters available) and was stumped for an idea 
for the boy. Here during a discussion, my wife suggested 
that he be a neighboring boy in love with the girl — and so 
he was. That suggestion completed the skeleton of the 
story and the details were then filled in. 

Inasmuch as "New Horizon" was based on the life of 
an American farm girl, it is an interesting paradox that 
Miss Leslie Clarke, who played the part, was a very typical 
Canadian girl visiting in California from Toronto, Canada 
— and with the Editor's consent I should like to give credit 
here to Miss Clarke for her exceptional cooperation and 
able interpretation of the leading character in the story. 

Due to the dramatic theme of the story, practically all 
of the scenes were kept in a low key. A "G" filter was 
used on the exterior scenes and tests were made to get the 
correct low exposure. Three lap-dissolves were used and 
obtained by fading out, timing the shots and running 
through the camera twice to double expose the laps. A 
Harrison sun-shade and their graduated neutral density 
fading glass made the fades possible. Their regular pro- 
fessional diffusion disks were used on all scenes; a number 
three for distance and a number four for close-ups. The 
"G" filter helped restore the contrast usually lacking with 
diffusion. The characters used a heavy shade of studio 
make-up to offset the effect of the "G" filter. My Model 
60 f:1.9 Cine 8 Camera was used almost entirely on a 
homemade platform placed on the ground, as Miss Clarke 
was small and low camera angles made her appear taller. 
This also gave an opportunity for unusual angles and, where 
an undesirable background was in evidence, the plain blue 
sky was used instead. A number of silver covered reflectors 
were used, supported by uprights, so that the light source 
would be from a higher and more pleasing angle. These 
made it possible to use back lighting and to light up the 
background details where needed. 

All rehearsing was done on location before the camera, 
and a second shot was made if necessary. I tried to forget 
film footage and shot with more freedom. Only four speak- 
ing titles were used. 

I could have hoped for no greater honor than to have 
won for a second time the A.S.C. International Contest, 
as I feel this is the highest compliment an amateur can 
receive — to say nothing of the cash award. 



70 American Cinematographer • February 1935 



*4 


OBJECT PLANES 


\ \ | 
\ \ " 


L 




\ 




V\ LENS 




FOCAL PLANE 











Fig. 10. Depth of focus or depth of field — it all 
means "how much is in sharp focus." 



SHOULD you read or hear somewhere that "There is 
no such thing as 'distortion' in this day of perfected 
lenses," you might catalog the author of that state- 
ment either as one who isn't thoroughly versed in his sub- 
ject or that he makes an unfortunate choice of phraseology. 
Either he doesn't know what he is talking about, or he 
hasn't convincingly qualified his statement. 

"Distortion," so the dictionary tells us, is derived from 
two Latin words, "dis" (away) and "tortus" (to twist), 
and means "to twist or turn or pervert from the natural 
form or shape." Its use in cine work is by no means re- 
stricted to faults of lenses as they are designed or made — 
it may just as well be applied to the manner of using the 
lenses. After all, an image can just as easily be distorted 
by improper application of the lens as by a poor lens itself. 
If the image isn't exactly similar to the original scene, 
then it is distorted. 

It is difficult, in a medium of words and two-dimen- 
sional illustrations, to drive home in a simple and con- 
vincing manner the truths underlying many things, and 
optical facts are no exception. However, suppose we make 
at least a try at drawing aside one or two of the many 
veils of misunderstanding which are draped about optical 
phenomena as regards "distortion." 

More as a reminder than as a statement which we 
agree to be true, let's recall the fact that "it is impossible 
to reproduce a three-dimensional object on a two-dimen- 
sional surface in such a way as to entirely satisfy the bi- 
nocular vision of the normal human being." This assumes, 
of course, a camera of the single lens type, not a stereo 
camera. 

If all observers had but one eye, more nearly perfect 
reproduction would be possible, for the feeling of perspec- 
tive or spatial relationship of each object plane could be 
attained by using a lens stop giving approximately the 
same depth of focus as the eye would have under the same 
conditions. In other words, when we look at an object with 
one eye, other objects before and behind the principal ob- 
ject are out of focus in proportion to their distances from 
the plane of the principal objfct, and if the lens stop which 
will produce this same blurring of objects other than the 



Let's Talk 



principal object is used, very nearly perfect reproduction 
for a one-eyed observer can be approached. 

If you remember, it was this very thought of using a 
lens fairly wide open to secure shallow depth of focus for 
pseudo-depth effect which I mentioned in the August 
CINETRICKS. Even tho most of our audiences are in pos- 
session of sight in both eyes, the illusion of depth thus 
gained simulates perspective quality. 

Perhaps you've become just a bit weary of hearing the 
term "depth of focus" so many times, in almost every cine 
article your eye scans, but just to close the incident for 
the time being, let's glance at figure 10. Depth of focus 
is that axial distance in which objects are imaged suffi- 
ciently sharp in focus. Depth of field is the axial distance 
(out in front) between which all objects appear sufficiently 
sharp. The two terms are confusing — there should be but 
one in use, possibly "depth of focus." Altho depth of focus 
refers to the axial "sharp enough" distance at the film and 
depth of field the axial "sharp enough" distance out in the 
object space, it all amounts to the same thing — how much 
of the object space will be in "sharp enough" focus on 
the film. 

In figure 10 the object 3 is sharply focused on the 
film. If 2 and 4 are sufficiently sharp, then you'd say the 
depth of field is between planes 2 and 4. The term "suffi- 
ciently sharp" cannot be quantitatively defined; it will de- 
pend entirely on your own ideas of sharpness. 

Now for an aspect of cine work (or still work, for that 
matter) which is seldom discussed — perspective. I say 
"seldom," for I of course haven't read everything, but per- 
sonally I have never seen it discussed. Perhaps you have, 
and if you've seen the matter discussed in articles you're 
one up on me. It's something I've felt rather than known 
ever since I made my first 3" telephoto shot, and I've 
finally run across an explanation of the effect so simple 
that it's astounding. 

Put your finger on the beginning of this paragraph and 
let your eyes wander to figure i 1 . Study the illustration 
a bit, then read on. Suppose that instead of placing the 
lens where it is shown, we place an eye at the location. 
Also suppose that we replace for a moment the film or 
photo with a plate of clear glass. Keeping our eye steady 
in position we will sketch on the glass an "image" of the 
object. 

Now suppose we put things back as they were, the lens 
and photo as shown (only the photo would of course be 
placed on the other side of the lens) and snap a picture. 
The image recorded on the photo would be identical with 
the image we sketched on the glass plate. 

If, however, we had sketched the image with our eye 
placed as in figure 1 1 and hod taken a photo of the same 
object with the lens as it is shown placed in the figure 1 1 
illustration, the two images would no longer be identical. 
The photographed image would show the object as in "im- 
age by lens" and that sketched would appear as in "image 
as seen by eye." Obviously, distortion has crept in, for the 
two images aren't identical. 

If we had viewed the photograph with our eye at the 
same distance from the photo as the lens was when it took 



February 1935 • American Cinematographer 71 



About Lenses 

Projection and 
Apparent Perspective 
Distortion 



by 

Wm. J. Grace 

Not to be reproduced in any other publication 
without the permission of the author. 



the picture, there would have been no distortion, would 
there? Or, if the picture had been made with the lens at 
he distance from the film that the eye would view the 
print, there would still be no distortion — right? 

It appears, then, that the only way a picture may be 
viewed to secure the same perspective is to place the eye 
at a distance such that the picture subtends the same 
angle at the eye as the negative film did at the lens. It 
isn't necessary that the eye be placed at the same position 
as the lens was when the picture was made if the same 
angle is subtended. For instance, if we take a still picture 
B'/V' wide with a 5" focal length lens, true perspective is 
apparent only when we view the print at 5 inches or en- 
large the picture to 6V2" wide and view it at the normal 
reading distance of 10". 

The same thing is true in viewing motion pictures. 
You've noticed, if you are observant, that in 16mm work 
the 1" lens is regarded as the "normal" lens for the cam- 



era, but that projectors almost invariably use a 2" lens. 
Do you know why this is done? Because in home projection 
(as well as in the theatre) the center of the audience is 
about halfway between projector and screen, and by using 
a 2" projection lens the screen at the eye of the audience 
subtends approximately the same angle as the 1" lens did 
when it took the picture. 

Granting, then, that we should sit halfway between 
projector and screen and use a 2" lens on the projector for 
true perspective viewing of shots made with the 1" camera 
lens, what's going to happen to the perspective when a 
telephoto shot or a wide-angle shot appears on the screen? 
The perspective is going to be distorted. Haven't you not- 
iced scenes in which some person or object coming toward 
the camera appeared to merely go thru the motions of 
approaching without getting much bigger in size? Those 
were telephoto shots, of course, and because you weren't 
viewing them at the right distance, the scene was unnat- 
ural. The opposite effect is noticeable with wide-angle 
shots — two or three steps of an approaching person bring 
him toward you unbelievably quickly. 

Why put up with such distortion in your work? Well, 
for one thing, it's often impossible to approach an object 
close enough to get a large enough picture, so a telephoto 
lens is slipped on the camera. Conversely, when operating 
in cramped quarters we can't back off enough to include 
enough area, so the wide angle lens goes into action. If 
somehow a camera angle can be so selected that moving 
objects do not approach or withdraw from the camera, the 
distortion of perspective isn't so noticeable. 

Then there are times and places where the clever cine- 
photographer deliberately employs the distortion of per- 
spective for reasons of composition or even for comedy. 
With a telephoto of proper focal length, a background 
suitable for the subject but too distant for good composi- 
tion can literally be brought up to the subject. The size 
of the subject, of course, is kept to the desired proportions 
by his position distance from the camera. For example, 
a mountain background might appear too small with the 
normal lens, but if the subject is backed up to a distance 
in proportion to the lens focal length, the background may 
be enlarged and yet the subject size remain the same. In 

(Continued on Page 85) 



Fig. 11. Viewing a picture at a different in- 
cluded angle than the taking angle introduces 
distortion of perspective. 



PHOTO 
AS SEEN 
BY EYE 



IMAGE 
BY LENS 



ike 



PHOTO 




72 Amer.can Cinematographer e February 1935 





At top — Leica photo made by Oskar Barnack, the 
inventor ot that camera, in 1914. Below is a re- 
prodction ot the tirst two cameras made by Mr. 
Barnack. The above photo was made with one 

of ^hese cameras. 



THIS year marks the twenty-first birthday of the 
brain-child of Oskar Barnack. Today, after its per- 
iods of growing pains, education, and sowing of a 
few wild exposures, it is a fully grown camera, ready to 
shoulder its share of the serious problems, encountered in 
the world of photography. 

Like a proud father, Oskar Barnack has been content 
to remain unobtrusively in the background, while the world 
has acclaimed his prodigy. From this reticence, he has 
emerged only to add some improvement or accessory that 
will further increase the many-fold accomplishments of his 
camera. 

Although Oskar Barnack is comparatively unknown, 
the influence that he has had upon the trend of modern 
photography has been phenomenal. Since the inception of 
photography, only two other individuals have so influenced 
the general trend of this art, and they have been L. J. M. 
Daguerre and George Eastman. 

Daguerre, with the Daguerreotype, gave the world its 
first popular form of photography and Eastman, with the 
Kodak and "You press the button — we do the rest," made 
potential cameramen of everyone. Now with the great 
concentration that is being made upon miniature photog- 
raphy, it is time that we should know more of this man, 
who with his little Leica made the snap-"shot that was 
heard around the world." 

The life of Oskar Barnack has been very interesting. 
Like so many other biographies of famous men, this one 
should really start off by saying that Herr Barnack was 
born amid humble circumstances. However, I do not find 
this fact in any of the information that I have received 
from Germany. This information does, however, emphasize 
a typical German trait for when young Barnack expressed 
the desire to become a landscape painter, his father said 
to him, "You had better learn a decent handicraft." So 
little Barnack went to Berlin and became an apprentice 
in the mechanical workshop of Julius Lampe. This was 
but a small workshop with but only one journeyman and 
one apprentice; Barnack now became the second one. 

Herr Lampe specialized in the manufacture of little 
astronomical devices which were driven by clockworks and 
which displayed in a clever manner the sun, the moon, the 
stars, and the planets which rotated, ascended or descended 



TheL 



eica 



on an artificial sky. Numerous tables and figures accom- 
panied these instruments, recording all of the details just 
as they were happening in reality, in the course of cosmic 
events. 

So impressed was he by all of this, little Barnack lost 
all desire to become a landscape painter. His goal now was 
that of an astronomer. He applied himself so dilligently, 
in performing his tasks, that Herr Lampe finally reduced 
his apprenticeship by six months, maintaining that he had 
finished learning and advising him to go out and see the 
world and to make good use of his knowledge. 

During his wanderings, the journeyman Barnack found 
a new occupation in a little town in Saxony. His new em- 
ployer manufactured calculating and adding machines. 
Never before in his life had Barnack seen such a calculat- 
ing machine, for even at that time, it was able to do addi- 
tion, subtraction, multiplication, and division. One of his 
early tasks was to take one of these machines apart in 
order to give it a thorough overhauling and cleaning. His 
new boss proposed to give him a helping hand when it 
came to reassembling it, for there was such a maze of 
wheels, gears and screws which had to be put together. 
However, by the time that his boss returned, the machine 
stood there completely reassembled. Not only was it com- 
plete in its outer appearance, but it rattled down divisions, 
additions, etc., as reliably as before. Barnack's new em- 
ployer was certainly taken by surprise and the young man 
was rewarded accordingly. This knack of being able to 
solve intricate mechanical problems was to come in very 
handy for him, during the many hard years that followed, 
in the mechanical-optical industry. 

About this time, Barnack as a passionate nature- lover 
roamed about the beautiful Thuringian country, in search 
of picturesque spots to photograph. Everyone knows what 
it is, to carry around a heavy 13x18cm camera, with a 
tripod and six double plate-holders. Surely, thought Bar- 
nack, there must be a lighter and more convenient way for 
making pictures. Accordingly, he got busy and devised a 
contraption that would enable him to make a dozen or 
more pictures on one plate. However, in his attempt to 
enlarge these, he met many obstacles as the grain was 
flourishing lavishly. His experiments gradually became a 
thing of the past, yet they were the first spark which in 
after years started to glow, anew. 

It was in 1911 when Oskar Barnack came to the Leitz 
Works, in Wetzlar, Germany. He was assigned to the 
microscope department of the organization and he fully 
succeeded in solving the most intricate construction work 
that was given to him. About this time, cinematography, 
which was then very young, attracted Barnack's fancy. So 
as a side line Barnack tried to build motion picture cam- 
eras. As there were already a number of foreign patents 
in existence, he constructed his first experimental model of 
aluminum instead of wood, as were those that were already 
on the market. He took his first movie film, which after- 



February 193 5 



• American Cinematographer 73 



Comes 
of Age— 

An 

Autobiography 



by 

C. W. D. Slifer, A.S.C. 



wards became well known as "Leitz-Film." His desire to 
become an astronomer, had long since been forgotten. His 
new ambition was to become a cinematographer. 

Of course, everything was new to him; even the correct 
exposure to give his motion picture films. He had to pay 
for his experiments and very highly at that, for it is a very- 
expensive matter to shoot 200 feet of negative and then 
later discover, that it had been partly "over" or "under" 
exposed. Consequently, nothing was more important to 
him than to create a reliable exposure-meter. He foresaw 
the value of being able to take and to develop a number of 
small pictures, made at different lens stops. From this 
strip he could ascertain the correct exposure for his motion 
picture camera. Accordingly he set about building a cam- 
era with a fixed shutter speed of l/40th second, this being 
in accordance with the then standard exposure for motion 
picture cameras. It had the coupling of shutter and film 
transport, preventing double exposures, as well as the col- 
lapsible feature of the lenses. It was a roll-film camera 
which held approximately six feet of film and with a de- 
cisive step towards the double movie frame size picture. 
THUS THE FIRST LEICA CAMERA WAS BORN. As re- 
lated by Oskar Barnack, this all sounds very simple; ac- 
tually it wasn't. 

(Oddly enough, some years later and after the Leica 
had achieved considerable fame as a still camera, its value 
as a test camera for motion picture purposes was again 
rediscovered in Hollywood.) 

Two cameras of the original type existed, one in the 
hands of Oskar Barnack and the other was taken by the 
Senior Head of the Leitz Works as a companion on his 
trip to the United States. Shortly before the War, Dr. 
Leitz returned to Germany and judging from the results 
that he obtained with the camera, he was convinced that 
this little instrument represented something that "had to 
be kept in mind." 

This was in 1914 and among the many pictures taken 
by Barnack, there is one of special interest and of all time 
significance, "the second mobilization day." A picture of 
the type that we now designate as candid and one which 
so vividly depicts the seriousness of those days that it is 
to be considered as a document of a never-to-be-forgotten 
event of twenty-one years ago. 




Above — Picture of Oskar Barnack, designer of the 
Leica Camera, taken in 1913 showing him work- 
ing on a lathe. Below is an early Leica photo 
taken in 1914 by Barnack of his daughter. 



Naturally during the War the further development of 
the camera came to a stand-still, for there were more 

(Continued on Page 83 > 



74 American Cinematographer • February 1935 



Music for 

Your 

Movies 



by 

William Stull, A.S.C. 



REMEMBER how your interest in a picture used to drag 
when, back in the old silent-picture days, you drop- 
ped into a theatre during the "supper show," when 
both orchestra and organist were off duty — and how much 
better the film seemed as soon as the music started? Home- 
movie audiences react the same way. Even an unusually 
good picture, if presented only in the clattery silence of 
ordinary projection, won't seem half as interesting as it 
would if supported by a pleasing musical accompaniment; 
and the average home-movie — the sort that you and I and 
the man next door make — will find audiences a whole lot 
friendlier and more appreciative if served with music. 

Now that we're beginning to talk about music with 
movies, don't turn the page and wish you could afford a 
talkie outfit! This isn't that kind of an idea at all: it 
doesn't require a nickel's worth of special talkie equipment, 
or anything that can't be found in the average home. In 
spite of the radio, most homes still include a phonograph; 
and that phonograph can easily be used to accompany 
home movies. All you need is a record that will fit your 
picture. Probably, you've got it already; at any rate, plenty 
of them are available at any music store. A standard 12- 
inch record will "sound" about 200 feet of 16mm film, 
while a 1 0-inch disc will take care of slightly over 1 00 feet. 

The possibilities of film-and-gramophone home soundies 
are unlimited. First of all, of course, you can do a great 
deal by fitting sound to the films you have already made. 
Just to suggest a few of the possible record-picture com- 
binations, I'll begin with mentioning Ketelbey's "By Blue 
Hawaiian Waters" (British Columbia record No. 9864). 
This seems ready-made to accompany the reel you made in 
Honolulu. It begins with a dreamy, Hawaiianesque theme, 
which perfectly suits those shots you made of the scenery 
and the native life of the islands; then it changes to an 
excited, bustling theme — none the less retaining something 
of the hula — which perfectly suits the shots of modern, 
Americanized Honolulu. The same composer's "In A Mon- 
astery Garden" (available in a variety of arrangements, 
one of the best of which is Brunswick No. 20067) is ideal 
for a reel dealing with the California Missions. If you have 
a reel of seaside studies, especially shots of stormy surf 
breaking over rocks, try "The Storm" (Columbia No. 
50252-D), an excellent organ record which makes you feel 
as well as hear the roar of the storm-driven surf. 

What's that? A winter-sports reel? Try Victor No. 




35798 — the old standby, "The Skaters Waltz." This rec- 
ord has an unusually vivid atmosphere, and lends itself to 
most all sports, including skating, sleighing, skiing, ski- 
jumping, and so on. 

Did you bring back a reel from your trip to Mexico? 
Parlophon record B-48231, "Blue Pavilion," seems well 
suited to a short Mexican subject, even including an intro- 
duction long enough to fit the explanatory opening titles 
we see on such films. 

In general, the range of music available for home- 
movie scoring is almost endless: it is bounded only by your 
own musical taste, and the range of your film-subjects. 
You can have any type of music you care for; I would sug- 
gest, however, that dance-music is usually a bit too repe- 
titious, and often too quick-tempoed, to be of use with 
most films. Also, it is advisable to use records that have 
a reasonably high volume, as the music must compete with 
the clatter of the projector. Selections with definitely- 
marked rhythms and diversified instrumentation will us- 
ually synchronize better than less positive pieces: and 
whenever it is possible, use records which have here and 
there points which you can accurately synchronize with 
your film; this makes projection easier and more interest- 
ing. 

Inevitably, the next step beyond this is to try making 
a film definitely to fit some record. It isn't half as hard 
as it sounds, either. Masaji Imaizumi, of Tokio, Japan, 
entered two such films in the recent American Cinematog- 
rapher Contest. One of them, "Super Express," is an ex- 
ample of what an amateur can do in making his own 
sound pictures. It opens with two shots — a long-shot and 
a closeup — of a railway guard blowing his whistle and sig- 
nalling the train to start. The record opens with the same 
two whistle-blasts, followed by a rhythmic puffing as the 
engine heaves slowly forward, blending into a musical in- 
terpretation of the staccato rush and rattle of the train's 
headlong flight, pleasingly varied as the scenes on the 
screen show the train pulling out of town and rushing on 
its journey, over hills, through tunnels, across bridges, and 
so on, interspersed with more intimate shots showing the 

(Continued on Page 85) 



February 193 5 • American Cinematographer 75 




Continuity 
for 

Reversed Motion 

by 

J. Dickinson Reed 

ONE of the first and simplest tricks learned by 
cinefilmers is producing reversed motion by turn- 
ing the camera upside-down. It certainly gives 
amusing results, but after the first few shots made this 
way, most of us abandon it, because, after all, there aren't 
many ways we can legitimately use the trick in our filming. 
Professional cinematographers, on the other hand, fre- 
quently use this same trick as a means of filming action 
which would normally be impossible. And the idea can be 
applied just as well to amateur films; so here's a "backyard 
movie" story written around the reversed-motion idea! 

MAIN TITLE: 

JUMPING JACK 
Cast 

Jack A small boy. 

Bill, Dick, Joe His pals. 

Jack's Father 

Butch, the neighborhood "tough guy;" Jack's friends, 
neighbor boys, etc. 

Scene 1 . Long-shot, exterior of Jack's home. Jack 
and his father come out of the front door, and walk toward 
the family car in the driveway. Jack is obviously excited. 

Scene 2. Medium-shot. Jack and his father climb 
into the car, and drive off. 



Scene 3. Long-shot in the street, as the car comes 
out of the drive and swings down the street. FADE OUT. 

Scene 4. FADE IN. Long-shot at a stadium entrance; 
Jack and his father enter, and go through the gate. 

Scene 5. Medium-shot. Jack and his father settle 
themselves in their seats inside the stadium. Jack is watch- 
ing something on the field with great interest. 

Scenes 6-15. Stock-shots of any track-meet, espe- 
cially the high-jumps. Intercut ad lib with close-ups of 
Jack, showing excitement. 

Scene 16. Medium-shot ot Jack and his father, pre- 
paring to leave the stadium. FADE OUT. 

Scene 17. FADE IN. Long-shot. Jack and his pals 
are busy in the back yard, setting up hurdles, bars, etc., for 
their own track meet. 

Scene 1 8. Medium-shot. Jack, putting the finishing 
touches on a jumping bar, stops to pantomime how the 
athletes high-jumped. 

Scene 19. Close-up of Butch, looking over the fence, 
and talking. 

Scene 20. Close-up of Jack. He stops in the middle 
of a gesture, and looks toward Butch. 

Scene 21. Close-up of Butch; same as Scene 19. 

Scene 22. Medium-shot of Jack and his pals; clearly, 
they don't like Butch, but are rather afraid of the bigger 
boy. 

Scene 23. Long-shot. Butch vaults over the fence, 
and swaggers up to the boys. 

Scene 24. Medium-shot of Butch. He looks con- 
temptuously at the apparatus the boys have made, and 
speaks. 

Title: "I'M show youse how to jump!" 

Scene 25. Long-shot. The bar is in place, much 
higher than any of the smaller boys could jump; Butch 
clears it with ease. Jack and his friends are huddled on 
the ground, looking very dejected. 

Scene 26. Medium-shot. Butch readjusts the bar on 
the very highest peg. 

Scene 27. Long-shot. Butch tries to clear the bar at 
its new height, but cannot; his legs catch it, and as he 
falls, it breaks. He gets up, picks up the broken bar, looks 
at it, then throws it down and walks away. 

Scene 28. Close medium-shot of Jack; he holds the 
broken bar in his hand, looks at it, then looks up and 
shakes his fist after Butch. He speaks. 
Title: "Someday I'll show him — !" 

Scene 29. Close-up of Jack, as he finishes speaking. 
FADE OUT. 

Scene 30. FADE IN. Long-shot, on a street corner. 
Jack and his pals are talking. They see Butch and some 
of his cronies coming down the street. Jack motions his 
friends to hide around the corner. 

Scene 31. Butch and his friends have reached Jack, 
who stops them. While Jack and Butch talk, Bill slips out 
and drops on his hands and knees behind Butch. Jack gives 
Butch a quick push, and he topples over. Jack waves de- 
risively at Butch, and starts to run. Butch scrambles up 
and follows, while the rest of *he boys join the chase. 

Scene 32. Long-shot. Jack comes streaking down the 
street. Shoot this at 8 frames per second. 

Scene 33. Same as Scene 32; Butch and the rest run 
across the picture, following Jack. Shoot this at 32 or 48 
frames per second, so that they appear to move slowly. 
(NOTE: If you wish, you can repeat these scenes several 
times on different locations.) 

(Continued on Page 80) 



76 American Cinematographer • February 1935 



CAKIOON No. 683. 



TITLE THE MX g MO 



5 asmo aa 3. 



Synchronizing 

Sound 

Cartoons 



by 

Walter Lantz 

Head of Cartoon Dept., Universal Studios. 



ANIMATED cartoons require much more exact syn- 
chronization than do normal talking pictures. Syn- 
chronizing errors which would pass unnoticed in an 
ordinary talking picture become glaringly obvious in a 
sound cartoon. This is primarily due to the fact that mod- 
ern sound cartoons are of a definitely rhythmic structure: 
the music and sound-effects set a positive rhythm, and the 
pictured action moves in precise accord. In the ordinary 
talkie, picture and sound can often be several frames out 
of step without appearing noticeably "out of synk"; but if 
an animated cartoon is more than three frames "out of 
synk," it becomes unpleasantly evident even to the general 
public. In actual practice we regard an error of one frame 
between picture and sound-track as the maximum per- 
missible. 

For this reason, we plan our cartoons with great atten- 
tion to following out a definitely rhythmic scheme in action 
and music, and during the actual production of the car- 
toon we maintain an ever-increasing chain of safeguards 
to ensure that drawing and music keep in step from start 
to finish. 

The first step is the story-idea. This almost invariably 
concerns the action, rather than the music. Story-confer- 
eneces, not too unlike those held over a dramatic picture, 
elaborate this idea, and give the Musical Director his start 
on the problem of "sounding" the cartoon. Once the story 
has begun to jell, we go into heavy conferences with the 
Musical Director, and begin ;o plot out the musical side 
of the picture. All of our music, incidentally, is composed 
specifically for our pictures; we have found it unwise to 
buy popular songs or descriptive compositions from outside 
composers, for in addition to the fact that a separate roy- 
alty can be charged for each additional "cut" scored with 
the piece, there is also the question of "dramatizing" the 
composition — a legal technicality which leaves a loophole 
for further attacks on undernourished cartoon budgets. 

At this point, we begin to depart from conventional 
standards of picture-making. We have found it practical 
to take as our basic unit, not a matter of frames or film- 
footage, but the bar of music. Originally, we wrote and 
recorded all our music so that c new bar was begun every 
second, giving us (at the standard sound-speed of 24 
frames per second) 24 frames of cartooned action to each 
bar of music. 

This, however, did not prove quite flexible enough: at 




Oswald In doorway after woman/ 
leaves scene. Ha looks out tow- 
ards camera. .then to right, than 
lef t. . .registers surprise with 
a double take aa he aeee baaket at 
hie feet. He plcke up baaket 
takea It Inside.. loor closes. 



shot---Huseura figures in Pg. and Bg. 

Oswald looking at baaket, 
he acratohes his head, basket 
animates as If alive .. .Oswald 
registers aurprlae mingled with 
slight fright, resohee for 
covering of the basket. 



Cover ^oaa back on basket re- 
vealing sleeping child, baby Is* 
discovered with toe In his mouth 
Oswalds hand comes Into scene takes 
note -that Is pinned to the chllds 
bib. 



Above a sample p-jge of a script prepared for an 
Animated Cartoon. Note that bars of music are 
indicated for each scene. 



times, we might want a faster tempo, or a slower one. 
Therefore, we now use three standard tempos: 20 frames 
to the bar, 24 frames to the bar, and 32 frames to the 
bar. As a rule, we begin our cartoons at the 32-frame 
tempo, increase midway to the 24-frame tempo, and fin- 
ish briskly at the 20-frame tempo. 

These standards make the matter of synchronizing the 
drawings and the music relatively easy. Naturally, if we 
allowed one frame of film to each drawing, we would have, 
for example, 24 drawings to each bar of music, and we 
would know that at every 25th drawing, the sound-track 
would be starting a new bar of music. In actual practice, 
however, the number of frames allowed each drawing var- 
ies greatly; sometimes, for quick action, we will use one 
frame per drawing, while at other times, when a character 
is to hold an expression, for instance, the same drawing 
may run for seven or eight frames: the average, however, 
is two frames per drawing. Therefore, we can pretty def- 
initely say that the 20-tempo means 10 drawings to the 
bar; the 24-tempo, 12 to tha bar; and the 32-tempo, 16 
to the bar. 

Next, we prepare the scenario, which is the first def- 
inite step in interlocking our drawings and music. At one 
side of the page, I make a little sketch that gives a rough 
idea of the scene. Beside it, on the right-hand side of the 
sheet, is a written description of both action and sound, 
including dialog and sound-effects (if any). In between 
is a column of figures, showing just what bars are allotted 
to the scene. Thus if, for example, a scene covers bars 
No. 1 to 10, the animator knows that at the 20-tempo 

(Continued on Page 82) 



February 1935 • American Cinematographer 77 




WHEELS 



Maurcr Joins Berndt 

• Eric Berndt, long an important factor 
in the 16mm field, will widen the scope 
of his activities with the addition of 
John M. Maurer to his company. This 
new association changes the corporate 
name of the company to The Berndt- 
Maurer Corp. 

Mr. Maurer is well known in the en- 
gineering field of sound recording and 
reproduction. He is said to be one of 
the outstanding authorities on the sub- 
ject of Optics as it affects sound picture 
recording, and Chemistry applied to film 
manufacture and processing. Maurer 
has done a great deal of research on the 
subjects mentioned, especially optics. 
Under his association with Berndt it is 
his plan to manufacture new devices 
that he has invented for both the 16mm 
and 35mm field. 

New Harrison Filter 

• According to an announcement from 
Harrison & Harrison, manufacturer of 
light and effect filters, that company 
has just completed for the market a 3- 
in-1 multi filter. This is composed of 
an Aero 3, G and 23A Filter contained 
in a single oblong filter. It comes in two 
sizes 1 Vz" wide and 1 'A" wide. 

New Bell & Howell Projector 

• An innovation in 1 6mm movie projec- 
tors is Filmo Model 129, just announced 
by Bell & Howell. 

This model is different in appearance 
from any other movie projector. It has 
a low center of gravity, achieved by a 
low "streamlined" base, and a new 
"fore anad aft" placing of the reels — ■ 
a desirable feature, especially in view of 
the fact that the projector accommo- 
dates 1600-foot reels which permit a 
one-hour program without a stop for 
rethreading. 

A 750-watt lamp, with the high effi- 
ciency optical system of this projector, 
provides ample illumination for all occa- 
sions except where the maximum possi- 
ble screen size and brilliance are re- 
quired, in which case the new 1 6mm 
1000-watt Filmo Auditorium projector 
is recommended. For use in the home, 
school, church, and club, and in halls 



OF INDUSTRY 



and auditoriums of moderate size, Model 
129 is ideal. It is claimed brilliant pic- 
tures up to 12 feet wide, or even larger, 
can readily be projected. 

This projector comes in two types — 
one being a no-resistance type, using a 
Cooke 2-inch lens and a 750-watt lamp 
operating directly from the line current; 
the other having a variable resistance 
unit and voltmeter used in connection 
with a 100-volt 750-watt lamp. This 
type employs the extremely fast 2-inch 
f : 1 .65 lens, increasing still further its 
effective illumination. 




It is stated efficient lamp economy is 
achieved by suiting the illumination to 
the need. In the no-resistance type, the 
750-watt lamp may be replaced, when 
less illumination is desired, by a 300-, 
400-, or 500-watt line voltage lamp. 
In the variable resistance type illumina- 
tion may be reduced and lamp life pro- 
longed by setting the resistance lever to 
give the lamp less than the normal 100- 
volt load. Or a 400- or 500-watt lamp 
may be used. 

Lens interchangeability is possible 
with the 129. The lens which is stand- 
ard equipment with this model may be 
replaced with any one of a full range of 
extra lenses to meet special require- 
ments — from the wide-angle 0.64-inch 
for close quarters to the 4-inch for long 
throws. 

Among other features of the Filmo 
129 are a two-way gear-operated tilt, 
manual framer, fast power rewind, con- 
venient pilot lamp, adequate cooling 
system, provision for still projection, re- 
verse switch, and take-up snubber to 
prevent film breakage. 



Rapid Winder for Leica 

• The Leica camera has always been 
noted for its speed in making successive 
exposures. E. Leitz, Inc., announces a 
device which permits even greater speed 
when making a series of photgoraphs in 
rapid succession. The new device is 
known as the Rapid Winder, and consists 
of a polished metal cap which fits over 
the winding knob of the Leica. 

By means of a thin, flexible steel 
cable which terminates at a metal ring 
which fits slipped over the finger, the 
shutter and film are adjusted for the 
next exposure by pulling on the ring. 
This action rotates the winding knob of 
the camera. When completely wound, 
the steel cable is permitted to slide back 
into the cap where, by a spring action, 
it coils, ready for the next exposure. In 
short, exposures can be made with the 
Leica and this new Rapid Winder as 
quickly as the finger can pull the ring — 
one straight movement, outward, and 
the camera is ready for the next picture. 
Only a fraction of a second is needed 
with this device to set the camera. 

News, sport, candid, and aerial pho- 
tographers will be especially benefited 
by it. As it is attached and detached 
to the Leica camera with ease, it can be 
left on the camera, or, if the owner de- 
sires, can be attached and used only on 
certain occasions where it is particularly 
indicated by the work at hand. 

New Agfa Leader 

• The Afga Ansco Film Co. has inaugu- 
rated a new leader on their 16mm film. 
Previously film being returned from their 
processing plant had the green leader 
with the name Agfa in the center. An 
addition has been made to this. The 
year has been added. This permits you 
to identify immediately the year in 
which you made your picture. 

Photo Spot-Flood 

• The Photolite Company, who recently 
announced their Photo Spot light, now 
announce an addition to this accessory 
in the way of a parabolic reflector which 
is substituted for the front condensor on 
this light. The lights can be secured 
with both pieces of equipment. 



78 American Cinematographer • February 1935 
Time, January 7, 1935 



55 



CINEMA 



^Clardy, a Los Angeles commercial artist, 
1 went $250 for his 200-ft. film, New Hori- 
zon. A 20-year-old Japanese, Tatuschi 
Okamoto, who won the photography award 



The New Pictures 

Forsaking All Others (Metro-Gold- 
wyn-Mayer). Dill Todd (Robert Mont- 
gomery) leaves his fiancee, Mary Clay 
(Joan Crawford), waiting at the church 
while he elopes with his old mistress. The 
best man, Jeff Williams (Clark Gable), 
then spanks Mary with a hairbrush. These_ 
antics are intended to suggest^ 
three characters are urj 
filled with ( lut^^^^^5<<#Mn <- >wT*TTM^ 
Lest llij_jja>^nJi*'|rT^ilniiTT^JiBy Tuil 
5oJeiA> wfflmsey. \Yhen_ 
liekisses her and say! 
iMiimMJ 1 hi nil i Till ou^J^^LHow in- 
TeT" Marv|^i^JJ^^W^^^^^ means 
^tlal Mary^^^Tg^^ Dill, 
\When sir 'res Ii^Bpain. Mary finds 
her mistake. Mi^^fcd liill .ire soon 
\to 1 heir old I rii k^HtuIt 
tors of roadside re^^»ants, wrecking 
i ^^fe 1 

tfriends. When t^^Hpi.-nd a night 
fctV-'r, Dill further e-B^khr- his char- 
ts a sophisticate l^^^^hinu' cold, 
burned and slq^P^^alon 
ptlirs sofa. His bride divorife 
|s on the point of settling jecKvn 
ry after all, when she discovers 
shAfcVlpng again. Jeff Williams is 
maftBiY loves. They go off 
getH^\^aY'ing Dillnyawtefrtj 

be 

Jy of man- 
STon Hollywood than 
Hon of the public which it 
will delight. Adapted from an unsuccess- 
ful play in which Tallulah Bankhead per- 
formed (Time, March 13, 1933), pro- 
duced with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's finest 




Crawford & Montgomery 
. . . up to their old tricks. 

trimmings, it contains a few bits of expert 
comedy by Charles Butterworth. Worst 
shot: Dill Todd giving Mary Clay a ride 
on the handlebars of a borrowed bicycle; 
landing in a pigpen. 

I've Been Around (Universal). Ro-^ 
chelle Hudson is the society girl to whon 
Chester Morris gets engaged before she] 
falls in love with G. P. Huntley, a nasal « 
newcomer whose sallow face and English, 
twang should make him successful as a: 





cad. When Miss Hudson makes the dis- 
covery that Huntley has been after her 
money she marries Morris on the rebound, 
but makes the mistake of explaining^ 
to him. He walks out. Whej 
back, after the usual 
Huntley has, 

'I iiii^^WTiiJiiiiiijji mil 'nijj.i Mm 1 again 
^ot^willrjus somethi ngj n 
hereupon she und^Kes 
'U}&0-n*Test collapse from poiso^Hlver 

photographed. 

he Little 

ality, usually de ! 
mirers of Sir J: 
rming in his 
oduce upon the 
Little Minis te\ 
of the novel 
d. It attempt' 
charms of it 

with which Ditec 
ndled tie storj^^fi^mrpe'cuiiar 
f KlLhlKde H*pcrurn in the role 
s created in 1 ji^ffflT" 
tfWon is entirely sa 
The story (AJUu^^n 
cerns I In, SnifQi yflgS ^fJBn rflTT and 
sits devout resi 
earn that Mr. Dishar 
al), the rector at Auld Licht, has 
n in love with a gypsy. The panic i 
the parish is only exceeded by that of Mr, 
Dishart himself who, when he becomes 
aware of the state of his feelings, decides 
that the gypsy is a wanton. Actually, as 
the audience knows, Babbie is not a prowl 
ing vagrant at all, but the ward of Lord' 
Rintoul, who lives in a castle at the top 
of the hill. Her habit of skulking throug 
the woods in a dimity throw indicates not 
kleptomania but her desire to help the 
Thrums weavers in their dealings with th 
soldiers whom Lord Rintoul has importei 
to put a stop to difficulties at the mill. 

If the adaptors of The Little Minister 
had modernized The Little Minister, tht\ 
could have been accused of dodging all 
the honest implications of their theme in 
order to effect a sentimental happy ending. 
As a period piece, its unlikely personnel, 
its carefully sustained atmosphere and; 
even its climax, reached when the hero's 
mother shows the village elders a lock of 
his baby hair, are in order. Lacking the 
tidal-wave sentimentality which made 
Little Women such an astounding hit 
year ago (Time, Nov. 27, 1933), Thl 
Little Minister should nonetheless seer 
pleasant to the public, admirable to th 
Legion of Decency and a masterpiece to, 
Katharine Hepburn's devotees. Good shot : 
Wearyworld (Andy Clyde), the lonel 
village constable, trying to find someon 
to talk to as he makes his rounds. 

unateur Awar&s 

In Hollywood last week, the American J 
Society of Cinematographers awarded to 
two amateur cameramen the prizes which, 
for owners of miniature movie outfits, 
correspond to the awards which the Acad- 
emy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences] 
give to cinema professionals. To R. B.j 



epbvrn 
t". puts a parish in a panic. 

two years ago, last week took $100 second 
? prize with a picture called Tender Friend- 
ship. 

Organized 17 years ago to provide a 
medium for distributing and testing new 
technical ideas, the A. S. C. has become 
the Xo. 1 technical club of Hollywood's 
cameramen. Its 400 members, including 
almost every important cameraman in 
the industry, rarely meet but contribute 
enthusiastically to the society's annual 
contests. The contests are governed by 
only two rules: 1) contestants must not 
have professional assistance; 2) they must 
not use 33 millimetre film and reduce it 
to the 8 or 16 millimetre sizes to which 
the contest is limited. Since it is impos- £ 
sible to detect reduced film, each entry, 
is accompanied by a sworn statement that 
no such process has been used. 

In New Horizon, Cinematographer 
Clardy presented the life of a farm girl 
at a moment of crisis. One reel, almost 
without titles, tells the story of her efforts 
to marry the man she loves in spite of her 
father's opposition which keeps her chained 
to the farm. Okamoto's heroine was a 
Japanese girl making a doll as a birthday 
present for a friend. Pictorial values, 
backgrounds of the Japanese countryside 
in spring, and the delicate grain which 
Cinematographer Okamoto had achieved 
gave his film distinction. Both winners 
last week used 8 mm. film. Clardy 's cam- 
era was an Eastman Xo. 60 with an f-1.9 
lens. Okamoto "used the cheapest Cine 
Kodak Eight made, model Xo. 20, whic 
_cost $34. 5c 

itics Best 



cuicu uy 4-4 



l ft) C DDIUT 

f/;r ojLove; Little H omen; The j 



lount of Monte Crista; Bcrkcl 



February 1935 • American Cinematographer 79 



Amateur Awards 

In Hollywood last week, the American 
Society of Cinematographers awarded to 
two amateur cameramen the prizes 
which, for owners of miniature movie 
outfits, correspond to the awards which 
the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and 
Sciences give to cinema professionals. To 
R. B. Clardy, a Los Angeles commercial 




artist, went $250 for his 200-ft. film, 
NEW HORIZON. A 20-year-old Japan- 
ese, Tatuschi Okamoto, who won the 
photography award two years ago, last 
week took $100 second prize with a pic- 
ture called TENDER FRIENDSHIP. 

Organized 17 years ago to provide a 
medium for distributing and testing new 
technical ideas, the A.S.C. has become 
the No. 1 technical club of Hollywood's 
cameramen. Its 400 members, including 
almost every important cameraman in 
the industry, rarely meet but contribute 
enthusiastically to the society's annual 
contests. The contests are governed by 
only two rules: ( 1 ) contestants must not 
have professional assistance; (2) they 
must not use 35 millimetre film and re- 
duce it to the 8 or 16 millimetre sizes 
to which the contest is limited. Since it 
is impossible to detect reduced film, each 
entry is accompanied by a sworn state- 
ment that no such process has been used. 

In NEW HORIZON, Cinematographer 
Clardy presented the life of a farm girl 
at a moment of crisis. One reel, almost 
without titles, tells the story of her ef- 
forts to marry the man she loves in spite 
of her father's oposition which keeps her 
chained to the farm. Okamoto's heroine 
was a Japanese girl making a doll as a 
birthday present for a friend. Pictorial 
values, backgrounds of the Japanese 
countryside in spring, and the delicate 
grain which Cinematographer Okamoto 
had achieved gave his film distinction. 
Both winners last week used 8mm film. 
Clardy's camera was an Eastman No. 60 
with an f:1.9 lens. Okamoto used the 
cheapest Cine Kodak Eight made, model 
No. 20, which cost $34.50. 



Devotes almost a full column to the AMERI- 
CAN CINEMATOGRAPHER Amateur 
Movie Contest. 

TIME handles only big news in its columns. 

TIME with its half million circulation defin- 
itely recognizes the Amateur Movie Contest as 
something that interests hundreds of thousands. 

This Amateur Contest has always been big 
news, but TIME definitely stamps it as such. 

The readers of TIME are the type who own 
or can own Home Movie outfits. TIME knows 
this, so TIME gives them the biggest piece of 
Amateur news to develop during the year, THE 
AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER con- 
test. 

TIME points the way. Keep in step with the 
MARCH OF TIME . . . with the MARCH 
OF CINEMATOGRAPHIC events through 
the columns of the AMERICAN CINEMA- 
TOGRAPHER. 



80 American Cinematographer • February 1935 



CONTINUITY FOR REVERSED MOTION 




"I am thelimous 

-Ampro 

Model "A" „ 

16 mm. Projector 



Like all thorobreds, I have the goods. 
Precisely made . . . aluminum die cast 
body . . . phosphor bronze bearings 
. . . silent gears . . . automatic high 
speed rewind . . . forward and reverse 
. . . still pictures . . . and light — 
plenty of it — my economical long life 
400 watt Biplane Mazda is equal to 500 
watt results. 

Buy me on trial and judge for yourself. 
A thorobred projector at a price you can 
afford to pay. 

Your $99.50 cheerfully refunded if not 
satisfactory after ten full days trial in 
your own home. Complete with case. 
Order now. 

Full details and Bass Bargaingram is 
yours on request. 

WANTED: More Live Dealers. 



BASS 

CAMERA COMPANY 

179 W.Madison St.,Chicago 



Camera Headquarters for Tourists 



Scene 34. Long-shot, a yard with 
a fence or wall four or five feet high. 
Jack runs into the picture, and bounds 
easily to the top of the wall, and down 
the other side. Butch and the boys come 
in, try to climb over the wall, but can- 
not. They continue on around, crowding 
through a narrow gate. 

Scene 35. Long-shot of a barnyard; 
in the background is a barn, with a loft- 
door about five feet from the ground, 
also doors at ground level. Jack runs in 
from the right, makes a running jump 
up to the lofl, and sits down to wait. 
Soon the others appear; they see Jack, 
and rush into the barn. As the last one 
disappears, Jack jumps down, and runs 
out at the left, just as Butch appears in 
the loft-door. 

Scene 36. Long - shot. A countrv 
road with a bridge in the foreground. 
Jack, with his pursuers close behind him, 
runs down the road toward the lens. 

Scene 37. Long-shot of the bridge, 
from the side. Jack runs into the picture 
from the right, and jumps from the 
bridge into the water. The others stop, 
and scramble down the bank. When they 
are all down on the riverbank, Jack 
jumps straight up from the water to the 
bridge, and runs off to the left. 

Scene 38. Long-shot of an airplane 
in the air. 

Scene 39. Long - shot of a field, 
Jack, followed by Butch & Co., runs in 
from the right, stops, and looks up. 

Scene 40. Same as Scene 38; a 
short flash. 

Scene 41. Same as Scene 39; Jack 
sprints forward, as though chasing the 
airplane. 

Scene 42. Closer shot; Jack enters, 
and jumps right out of the top of the 
picture. 

Scene 43. Close medium - shot, in 
the airplane. Jack shoots up from the 
bottom of the picture, and lands in the 
cockpit. 

Scene 44. Butch and the others 
stop, looking up, and shaking their fists 
at Jack. 

Scene 45. Close-up of Jack, in the 
airplane. He waves derisively at Butch, 
and speaks. 

Title: "Now who's the best jumper?" 

Scene 46. Close-up of Jack, as he 
finishes speaking. FADE OUT QUICKLY. 

Scene 47. FADE IN QUICKLY. (Or 
a lap-dissolve, if possible) . Close-shot of 
Jack — asleep in a chair. Clutched in 
his hand is c booklet, "HIGH JUMP- 
ING." FADE OUT. 



• Continued from Page 75) 

these incredible 



Before you 
how your camera 



THE END 

say, "Impossible! 



can make 



see 
Jack do 



umps ! I t i s e a s y 
enough for anyone to jump down from 
the fence, the loft, or the bridge; and 
if you film Jack jumping down, with 
your camera wrong side up, and reverse 
the scene when you edit the film, he will 
apparently be jumping up. Simple, isn't 
it? In Scene 34, for instance, you begin 
by putting Jack on top of the wall, 
marking his position with a piece of 
chalk. Then — with the camera upside- 
down — have him jump backward and 
down from the wall, then run off — still 
moving backwards. If you have a tripod, 
an angle-iron clamp will enable you to 
use the camera from the same general 
position whether it is upside-down or 
right side up; so all you will need to do 
to show Jack jumping down on the oth- 
er side of the wall will be to turn the 
camera over, and have him jump from 
the position you have already marked. 
Otherwise you can divide the shot into 
two separate scenes. The same general 
method, of course, will give you Jack's 
leap up to the barn-loft. In the same 
way, the upside-down camera will en- 
able you to show Jack jumping from the 
water up to the bridge. His jump into 
the water, of course is filmed normally; 
then, with the camera reversed, have 
him walk in backward from the left side, 
and jump backward into the water: the 
reversed film will show him at first in 
the water, then suddenly shooting up to 
the bridge, and walking off. 

The airplane-jump is a bit harder. For 
the best effect, make this shot (Scene 
42) under a horizontal bar, such as you 
can find in many playgrounds. Have 
this as high as Jack can jump, and, of 
course, out of the picture at the top. 
Jack enters and jumps, catches the bar, 
and pulls himself quickly out of the pic- 
ture. A simpler method would be to use 
a low camera set-up, and have Jack run 
straight into the picture and jump over 
the camera. (A wide-angle lens will 
help this.) For Scene 43, all you need 
is an open-cockpit airplane on the 
ground. If the camera is in a fairly low 
position, shooting upward, you can have 
only sky for a background; and by tilt- 
ing the camera sideways, you can give 
the impression that the plane is in level 
flying position. Of course, the camera is 
upside-down: begin your scene with Jack 
sitting in the cockpit, then have him 
stand, turn around, and jump straight 
down (backward, of course) from the 
cockpit. By quick cutting, you will be 
able to get a surprisingly effective jump; 
it will help, too, if the plane you choose 
is a fairly hiah one, like a "Fledgeling" 
or an old DeHavilland, so that Jack's 
backward jump will carry him pretty 
well out of the picture at the bottom. 

Naturally, the higher these jumps are, 
the more astonished your audiences will 



CINE- KODAK EIGHT 

Wins highest awards in the 1934 Amateur Movie Con- 
test of The American Society of Cinematographers 




365 




8mm Pieces 
Take Honors 

in 1934 
CompetWon 

A* 



Hon* "' uV 4 ,00.00 • • 

^ B,ook ' 

Sydney. * u * . 

,6mm. » 00 . . • 



Hill. r " — , 

the P> oud " S EOUCATIOW*J^ J* 

.MM the to«W in the Contest- ° The S ,onr * M. 

GA Q nd * « 5 ^IpHER Amoteur ^nners; ** ^offlfW. $50.0° Y , fa, »*•«•"- 



AlsesgSsrss* 

- ° "':»* - «, - *• **• 

Ag am, p™ and og o.n so pot 
vvos «P re ^t t0 Canada- s5 ,ble classes ^ 

abroad and nto ing up * P Th ,s -as ^ 

in the ^na> s^ ^ d ^ tho^ 

fepre5en eosons'. either io that class ° d tog rapher 

° f '* nUtv of the e " r the American C.nem 
or the ar^* given by the fished 
the honor a P"* tho d ot u » lt was est fee 

-P-- n, r b e -rnbered tha as' Q V ^ ^ ^ 

W * Itare most average a> ^ ^ rot ,ng ., ons 
* ot 5 C"« W ' n ? er ,h pr «s ^r e'^V^e ciassifico- 
CO " 5i t 9 UP b '° U9h ' e°tor photograP^V- ^^^entarv. 

a^r ss*— 

io ns ' e P re5 | duc ;,ionoi, Scerfi^ Qround p ,ctu ^ 
• * * ^ madet 20 H*J% *4 wh i«e 

ve- Cl0 Q ; d his scenario. °^ d t shots. ^ uC , io n 
this year " * d se veral •noo hQndled s v Thgre 

ou,d0 ° d r Us tbe *°* * factorial ston*?" t ^ 
^ ° d T" e m compassion end * wMh the 9* , olW 
b° ,h 1 T Tree peoP^ .n ^'t,c values, ana ^ 
«e<e onW ZT H'S ° oter tempo brought o Wgh 
, ne maior ro e. (he prope' pVlo togropbV <° h0 . 

his fme feeUng '° H,s ^ very hne P 

togrophV or rs a gc ■« , mrne r. 3m ..Tender 

Okamoto two V "Early ium ic ture '".„ a , 

W ith°his ^-, P h f U 8 mm comer. H. P so.no> 

has turned to fee , of »m sheer pea 

of the outsr" 



~~~~~ " , the Pbo'oo' 01 ^ 

by otU^ 9 Pic-- ^contest are 
voted the :t*^ the »udg" - an , m a«»0«P^ 1 ore 
iudges- ^ e ' S ^er,can SooetJ o of h^ ^ 

me "' ° V ;by a ^e amoteur^^ 

t bo.h «^r2r 

T his does^« 
work and 



photogra 
drew I - 
shov^ 
ciaj 



The grand prize for the best all 
'round picture was won by Mr. R. B. 
Clardy with a Cine-Kodak Eight 
Model 60. 



moael 60. 

The first prize for finest photog- 
raphy was won by Mr. Tatuschi 
Okamoto with a Cine-Kodak Eight 
Model 20. 



po< 



Model 

. . . and, according to a wire from the 
American Cinematographer, every 
one of the prize winners used Cine- 
Kodak Film. 

EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY 

ROCHESTER, N. V. 



82 American Cinematographer • February 1935 



iKIN-O-REEL: 



16mm 400-ft., 1200-ft. and 1600-ft. solid 
aluminum reels. 



KIN-O-DOR: 



The ideal humidifying can for your 
films. Prices to Dealers on Application. 

KIN-O-LUX lnc v ^ Y 4 ^ 



Eric M. Berndt 
announces . . . 

the formation of a new com- 
pany including Mr. John A. 
Mourcr, widely known as an 
authority in electronics and 
sound recording and repro- 
duction. This organization 
will specialize in the type of 
precision work in the 16 and 
35mm fields in which Mr. 
Berndt has pioneered and 
will shortly announce inter- 
esting developments in high 
quality 16mm recording. 
Eric M. Berndt takes pleas- 
ure in introducing 

The 

Berndt -Maurer Corp. 

1 12 E. 73rd St. New York 



ONLY A FEW LEFT!! 

R. C. A. 16mm 
. . SOUND PROJECTOR . . 




AT THE COST OF A GOOD 
SILENT PROJECTOR 

• Sound-on-Film Model P.C. 38 

• 7 Tubes — Loud Speaker 

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be, so don't feel yourself bound by the 
heights specified in the scenario. If the 
boy who play*; Jack in your production 
can't safely make the four or five-foot 
backward jump down, make them small- 
er; but if your young actor is larger, and 
can make higher jump-downs, by all 
means have them as high as he can 
safely manage. Also, if your particular 
neighborhood offers other interesting 



opportunities for this trick, make use of 
them, and add them to the story, film- 
ing them the same way. The best use 
of these "backyard movies" is always 
made by adapting them to your own, in- 
dividual requirements: you can always 
add characters, or eliminate them, and 
add such scenes as you feel would make 
the picture more interesting with your 
family "stock company." 



SYNCHRONIZING SOUND CARTOONS 



• Continued from Page 76) 



he has 200 frcmes, or 100 drawings, for 
that scene, while the Musical Director 
knows that he must allow ten bars for 
the scene. 

If a definite musical effect — say a 
whistle or a bugle-call — comes in the 
scene, its exact place is indicated by the 
statement that it starts in such-and- 
such a bar. Let's say that "Oswald" is 
to blow a bugle-call in the middle of the 
scene: it must start in bar No. 5 of the 
music, and in frame No. 101 of the 
film, and in drawing No. 51. In the 
same way, it is noted at what bar that 
particular sound ceases, so the animator 
knows exactly when to make the draw- 
ings of "Oswald" taking the bugle from 
his lips begin 

In a dance, or a strongly rhythmic 
walk or run, we have to be sure that 
the feet of the characters are on the 
floor at the start of each bar. This 
keeps them definitely in step with the 
rhythm of the music. And it is easy for 
the animator: he knows that new bars 
will start at drawings l , ll, 21 , and so 
on, so he spGces his intermediate draw- 
ings to ensure that the feet will be in 
the right positions at these key draw- 
ings. 

When the scenario is completed, \hs 
Musical Director writes his final scorp, 
making sure that each bar (they are 
all numbered, by the way), fits into its 
proper place in the scenario. 

At the same time, the animators gst 
busy turning cut their drawings, making 
sure that the key drawings contain ex- 
actly the action needed to synchronize 
with their accompanying music. 

Now, the music is recorded. As a rule, 
our cartoons consist of three definite 
musical movements: the slow, 32- 
Tempo start, the faster 24-Tempo mid- 
dle, and the brisk 20-Tempo finish. 
These three parts are usually recorded 
separately; sometimes, the sections 
themselves are even broken down into 
shorter units, which are recorded piece- 
meal. Naturally, they must be recorded 
with the greatest attention to accurate 
rhythm and tempo: so we have worked 
out a special system for giving the right 
beat to the orchestra. We have ani- 
mated seveial strips of film, showing a 
baton moving very accurately to each of 



the three principal tempos we use, and 
in varying rhythms — march, waltz, etc. 
When the orchestra is ready to record, 
the proper cue-film is put in the pro- 
jector in the scoring-stage: usually, we 
use a simple loop of film, rather than 
a reel. This is projected on a screen, 
and gives the conductor his beat. He, 
in turn, follows it with his baton, and 
gives it to the musicians, who follow 
him, rather than the screen. In this 
manner, we are assured that the tempo 
of our music will be unvaryingly accu- 
rate. 

Since the music is usually recorded 
in three or more sections, the arrangers 
provide at the end of each section an 
appropriate musical transition from one 
rhythm to the other, often changing key 
in the process, and providing a music- 
track that is easily cut when the sec- 
tions are all recorded and ready to be 
joined. 

As a rule, the music track is com- 
pleted considerably before the picture is 
photographed. Sometimes the music has 
been completely recorded even before 
the drawings were made! 

Sound-effects are recorded on a sep- 
arate track from the music, as is dialog. 
These — especially the latter — are al- 
ways recorded before the drawings are 
made. Then, the sound-track footage 
is carefully translated into terms of 
drawings, so that the animator can draw 
the proper lip-movements and so on in 
exactly the right manner. Speech is 
broken down into its component vowels: 
for example, suppose someone was to 
say the word "Vacation." This contains 
three definite vowels, of different 
lengths: "Va-ca-tion," and would re- 
quire three definite lip-movements. I 
would record this, and then find out at 
exactly what point each of the vowel- 
sounds started. This will show the ani- 
mator at what frame each vowel-motion 
must come, end, in turn, at what draw- 
ing he should provide the necessary lip- 
movements. 

When the drawings are completed, 
they are photographed in their proper 
order, allo-ving each its requisite num- 
ber of frames. The man at the camera 
has a copy of the scenario, and with it 
a special instruction-sheet giving him 



February 1935 • American Cinematographer 83 



special information if any is necessary. 
It is his duty to check up on the draw- 
ings, and make sure that they are in 
exact accord with the bar, drawing and 
frame specifications in the scenario. 

Now, we have four sets of film which 
must be assembled into one to form our 
completed ccrtoon. On one strip is the 
action — photographs of the drawings. 
On the next, the music, with all of the 
sub-sections joined into one continuous 
track. Thirdly, we have short sections 
of sound-track carrying the dialog, and 
lastly, similar short lengths carrying the 
sound-effects. The last three, of course, 
are on 17.5mm film, as we use the 
split-film recording methods. On the 
blank part of the music-track, we have 
already marked the main synchronizing 
frame or drawing numbers. 

Synchronizing the music-track and 
the picture is simple. If both have been 
made right, they should be "in synk" 
immediately. If a test on a Moviola, or 
in a twin-film projector shows any error, 
it is generally simple to correct it by 
trimming a frame or two out of picture 
or music, as may be preferable. Gen- 
erally, it is easier to trim the picture, 
for there are plenty of chances to nip 
out a frame or two — the error seldom 
exceeds this — when one drawing is held 
for several frames. In the main, though, 
this phase of the cutting has been done 
already, in the earlier stages of making 
drawings and writing the score. 

Synchronizing the sound-effects or 
dialog is a little harder. However, we 
know — to the frame — just where they 
are to go: so we simply put the picture 
on a multiple rewind, with the sound- 
effects track beside it. The short bits 
of effects-track are cut in at their prop- 
er points, and joined together with 
blank film. 

After that, it is simply a matter of 
routine "dubbing." The dialog-and- 
effects track are re- recorded with the 
music-track to form a single, complete 
sound-track. If this proves O.K. on pro- 
jection, we are ready to make our com- 
posite Masrer Print; and from then on, 
turning out perfectly-synchronizing re- 
lease-prints is ordinary laboratory rou- 
tine. 

So, by treating sound and drawings 
together from the start — planning on 
accurate synchronization in the scenario 
itself, and cross-checking for synchron- 
ism through every stage of production, 
we can be certain that once sound and 
picture are actually on film, they will 
fall together like perfect pieces of 
machinery. Looking after the details 
of synchronizing before there is any- 
thing to actually synchronize, we find 
that synchronizing presents no problem 
in the cutting-room. 



The Leica Comes of Age 

(Continued from Page 73) 

important things at stake. However, af- 
ter the War, Barnack again devoted 
much time to his hobby. From the con- 
tinued use of his original Leica, he per- 
ceived that his camera possessed great 
photographic and commercial possibili- 
ties and that it really represented a dis- 
tinct advancement in camera design. 
However, he realized that the camera 
that he held in his hand was far from 
perfect, so he set about building a new 
camera; adding improvements that had 
been forming in his mind for some time. 
Such things as film magazines and a 
new shutter of the focal-plane type, that 
had variable-width openings and one 
that also obviated the necessity of cov- 
ering the lens when winding the shutter. 
Along with these improvements, the 
first high-quality anastigmat lenses de- 
signed by Dr. Berek of the Leitz Works, 
made their appearance and soon things 
were progressing rapidly. 

In 1924, the first battery of six Leica 
cameras left the factory. However, the 
year of 1925 was the first real Leica 
year, for at that time the Leica was in- 
troduced to the various dealer's associa- 
tions thruout Germany. These dealers 
readily saw the possibilities of this new 
camera, which was destined to revolu- 
tionize photographic conceptions, and 
consequently in firm belief of success, 
placed their sales vigor behind the Leica. 
Thus, these dealers played a very im- 
portant part in the introduction of the 
Leica and thereby increased the de- 
mands for this camera. Of the original 
Model "A" Leica, 53,000 were sold. 
Model "B," which was similar to Model 
"A" with the exception that it had a 
Compur shutter, had 2,000 sales. 

While the world was accepting Oskar 



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84 American Cinematographer o February 1935 



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Barnack's camera in a most unprece- 
dented manner, Barnack was still hard 
at work devising and perfecting new ac- 
cessories for the camera. One of the 
most important was the Filoy enlarging 
apparatus, which was introduced in 
1926. 

It is worthwhile here to notice, that 
in all of the later model Leicas that were 
to come, they were all to be basically 
the same as the original model. Thus 
the earliest Model "A" is readily con- 
vertible into the latest Model "F." In 
1931 the Model "C," with interchange- 
able lenses, was placed upon the market. 
Of this model and the somewhat similar 
Model '"E" that replaced it, 24,000 
cameras have been sold. The Models 
"D" and "F" with built-in range-finders 
made their appearances in 1932 and 
1 933, respectively. To date, 71,000 of 
these cameras have been manufactured. 
Thus the over 1 50,000 Leica cameras 
that are now in use represent the tri- 
umph of an idea in a span of time of 
barely ten years of soles. 



While the Leitz Works hesitate to 
disclose all of the outstanding and im- 
portant innovations that will most likely 
be offered during 1935, Ihese following 
items may be expected in the near fu- 
ture: An f:4.5 Tele-lens of 200mm fo- 
cus; a soft portrait lens; an f:2.2 lens 
of 90mm focus; and an optical near dis- 
tance focusing device which permits the 
Leica to be used at close range without 
the interposition of front lenses and 
which can be utilized for adjustment at 
such distances, by means of a distance 
meter. 

In the offices of The American Societv 
of Cinematographers, beside the pictures 
of Thomas Edison and George East- 
man, there hangs an autographed self- 
portrait of Oskar Barnack, that was 
made with one of his cameras. The 
technical excellence of this portrait is so 
strikingly noticeable, that one cannot 
help but feel, as he gazes at this por- 
trait of this sincere and intelligent man, 
that Oskar Barnack's Leica has come 
of age! 



Miniature Shots for Your Home M ovies 



(Continued from Page 681 



of excellent kits available for building 
real scale-model boats and planes; and 
if you aren't enough of a model-crafts- 
man to tackle the job of making them 
(though they are simple enough to as- 
semble), you will probably find a neigh- 
bor or a neighbor's son who already fol- 
lows the hobby. Very few of the scale- 
model boats are self-propelling, so the 
best thing to do is to tow them with 
wires placed below the water-line. 

The model planes are divided into 
two main classes: the scale-models, 
which are often marvellously accurate 
reproductions of real planes; and flying- 
models, which, while not so accurately 
proportioned, fly under their own power 
— which the others do not. If you can 
work out-of-doors, where you have lots 
of light, and can shoot slow-motion, 
the flying models will often do quite 
well. But for the best results, the scole- 
models are the thing. In making your 
scenes, you can follow the professional 
practice of suspending them on fine, in- 
visible wires, inclined, if you are trying 
to film landings or take-offs. If you 
are using lights, keep a close watch on 
these wires, lest they glisten and show 
up in the picture: when you catch a 
gleam, rub it out with a bit of puttv. 

The proDellers of model planes can 
often be troublesome: those of the fly- 
ing models have to be much larger than 
natural, while those of the non-flying, 
scale models don't usually move. Pro- 
fessionals ofren remove the "props" en- 
tirely, and substitute discs of transpar- 
ent celluloid which give an excellent 
suggestion of the blur of a rapidly 
whirling m-?tal propeller. Try it! The 



disc must, of course, be cut to the right 
size, and mounted behind the regular 
"spinner," or streamlined hub-cap. 

In general, whether you are shooting 
miniature trains, boats, or airplanes, 
you'll get the most convincing results 
if you use models that are accurate as 
to scale and design, rather than just 
any toys you may have handy. You'll 
find that th-3 smoothest, most natural- 
looking shots are those made at slow- 
motion speeds — 32 at least, and prefer- 
ably 48 or 64. If you can use a very 
slight degree of diffusion — about a 
1/32 or 1/64 diffusion filter — it will 
help, too, as the faint diffusion will 
smooth off the sharp edges, and make 
the miniature seem more natural. Gen- 
erally speaking, too, a 1-inch lens, wide 
open, will prove better than a wide-angle 
objective, as the rather lessened depth 
of focus adds naturalness in closer shots, 
giving a better perspective. If you can, 
it is well to follow the example of the 
professional miniature-experts, lighting 
the background (if any!) quite flat, 
and the miniature itself with a good 
deal of contrast. 

Above all, don't jump to the conclu- 
sion that you'll need a lot of detailed 
scenery and the like for such minia- 
tures. Some professional miniatures are, 
of course, marvels of painstaking detail; 
but many of the best of them are so 
simple that unless you looked through 
the camera, you wouldn't believe that 
the shot could be at all effective on the 
screen. Shooting primarily for night- 
effects, you can concentrate largely on 
the foreground, letting the "distance" 



February 1935 • American Cinematographer 85 



go dark. A neutral-tinted, unpatterned 
rug will often double excellently for 
grass, twigs for trees, flour, rock-salt, 
and even cotton- wool, for snow: and if 
you compose and light your picture 
properly, you can concentrate attention 



upon the moving miniature, with the 
result that little else will be noticed. 

And — when miniature shots in them- 
selves pall — try some double-exposure 
work, matting living people into the 
miniatures, h can be done! 



MUSIC FOR XOUR MOVIES 



(Continued from Page 74) 



passengers, the engineer at his throttle, 
the fireman feeding coal into the en- 
gine's glowing maw, and finally both 
picture and accompaniment decelerate 
as the train glides into the terminal at 
the end of the run. 

I am sure that Imaizumi began with 
simply an idea that he could make an 
interesting picture about a train. Then 
he found the record. (It is "Galop de 
Chemin de Fer," a Polydor record, if you 
are interested.) It began with the 
guard's two whistle-blasts: obviously, 
that gave a cue for the opening scenes 
of his picture. Next came the logical 
sounds suggesting the train starting. The 
body of the piece was well adapted to 
rhythmic cutting, for changes in tempo, 
key and instrumentation naturally sug- 
gested corresponding changes in the pic- 
tured scene. Phrases played at a lower, 
but increasing volume naturally sug- 
gested shots showing the train emerging 
from a tunnel; phrases played more 
staccato, and recorded at a higher vol- 
ume-level similarly suggested the shots 
made in the engine; and the end of the 
record, coming to a swiftly decelerating 
climax, just as inevitably suggested the 
treatment for the end of the film. 

Anyone with an appreciation of musi- 
cal and filmic rhythms will find it not 
only easy, but extremely interesting to 
fashion his films to fit recorded music 
in this manner. The subject-matter is 
almost unlimited in scope, ranging from 
the simplest scenics to the most preten- 
tious productions. One last word of cau- 
tion, however: while the simplest method 
of projection is the projector-and-phono- 
graph method I've described, I have no 
doubt that some of you are already won- 
dering why it wouldn't be simpler still 
to use one of the synchronous disc-type 
talkie outfits commercially available, 
like the Filmophone and the Animato- 
phone. Aside from the matter of cost, 
which bothers most of us, such machines 
would be preferable except for one de- 
tail — most commercial gramophone rec- 
ords are made to play at 78 r.p.m., 
while the majority of disc talkie mach- 
ines will only play the professional-type 
discs, which run at 33 r.p.m. This will 
automatically limit you to the "long- 
slaying" records, which offer only a lim- 



ited selection as yet. So, if you try this 
idea out, and like it enough to want a 
synchronous projector, make sure before 
you buy that the machine will accom- 
modate standard 78 r.p.m. records. 

Let s Talk About Lenses 

(Continued from Page 71 ) 

the same way, a shallow room may be 
made to appear deeper by using a wide- 
angle lens. 

It appears, then, that we must at all 
times bear in mind distortion in perspec- 
tive, and either frankly admit its faults 
in those shots not possible otherwise, or 
deliberately take advantage of the ef- 
fect. You must admit, however, that 
there can be and often is distortion, no 
matter how perfectly corrected your lens. 
Don't let it prove a bugaboo — just bridle 
it and make it work to your advantage. 

And now, in closing this series on the 
lens, may I humbly hope that our dis- 
cussions have proven worthwhile in 
bringing a little closer to our cine work 
knowledge bearing directly on the possi- 
bilities of improvement. Admittedly, I 
am no authority on the lens, my only 
excuse for having bored you for five 
months being to try to digest a lot of 
deeply technical information and reword 
it in laymen's lexicon. The written word 
must be accepted with a bit of reflec- 
tion, for it must necessarily be some- 
what brief and because it has not the 
amplification of conversational intona- 
tion. Therefore, when you read some- 
thing not quite jibing with your own 
thoughts, try to reword it or translate it 
into your own manner of thinking. 

Correction 

On page 366 of the December 1934 
issue we stated the Goertz Dagor was 
faster than the Zeiss Protar. The f 
value of the Zeiss Protar, composed of 
two similar components, is f:6.3; that 
of the Dagor is f:6.8, which from the 
standpoint of f value makes the Protar 
the faster lens. The loss by reflection is 
the same in both lenses because each 
has four air-glass surfaces. Loss at the 
interfaces between different kinds of 
glass is insignificant. The loss due to 
absorption depends on the thickness of 
the glass and not on how many pieces 
of glass there are. 



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86 American Cinematographer • February 1935 



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8MM CLUB ORGANIZED 

The first meeting of the Los Angeles 
8mm club brought out 20 members. 
This club will hold its meetings once a 
month alternating between the Eastman 
and Bell & Howell projection rooms. 

It is the purpose of this club to pre- 
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be no effort made to create synchron- 
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is thematic will be selected. 



CLARDY WINS AGAIN 

Randolph Clardy, who was awarded 
the Grand Prize in the American Cine- 
matographer Contest for 1934, was also 
given the first prize in the Los Angeles 
Cine Club Contest. Clardy's picture was 
his 8mm subject "New Horizon." 



LIKE NEW — Artreeves portable double sound 
recording outfit with Bell & Howell Silenced 
camera, complete in every detail. A real 
bargain, price $3500. Price without camera, 
$2500. Hollywood Camera Exchange, 1600 
N. Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. Cable 
address: HOCAMEX. 



EASTMAN and Dupont short end negative, 
spliced, tested and guaranteed or money re- 
funded, 2%c per foot, Eyemo rolls on spools, 
$2.75. Inquiries invited. CONTINENTAL 
FILMCRAFT, 1611 Cosmo St., Hollywood. 
Calif. 



HUGHES Multicolor printer for color, lavender, 
process, optical and reduction. We also 
build to order any kind of optical reduction 
or steps printer. Inquiries invited. CON- 
TINENTAL FILMCRAFT, Inc., 1611 Cosmo 
St., Hollywood, Calif. 



WANTED 



WILL pay cash for professional or 16mm cam- 
era, projectors, lenses, motors, enlargers Ev- 
erything in the photographic line. Hollywood 
Camera Exchange, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd., 
Hollywood, Calif. Hollywood 3651. 



MOTION Picture — Still Picture — Laboratory 
and Cutting Room Equipment — Lenses — 
Finders — Tripods. Highest prices paid. CON- 
TINENTAL FILMCRAFT, 1611 Cosmo St., 
Hollywood, Calif. 



WANTED — Number 1 Eastman Stereopticon 
camera. Harry Perry, OXford 1908. 



WANTED — Daylight Developing tank for 3%- 
x4 1 ,4 cut film. Box 246, American Cinema- 
tographer, 6331 Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood, 
Calif. 



WILL PAY CASH FOR: Bell & Howell, Mitch- 
ell, Akeley or De Brie Cameras, lenses, mo- 
tors, parts and accessories. Motion Picture 
Camera Supply, Inc., 723 7th Ave., New 
York. New York. T 



MISCELLANEOUS 



WE BUY, sell or rent everything necessary for 
the making, taking, or showing of motion 
pictures. Sound or Silent — 35mm and 16- 
mm. We specialize in equipping expeditions. 
Ruby Camera Exchange, 729 7th Ave., New 
York City. T 



EASTMAN AWARDS CLARDY 

Because Randolph Clardy won the 
first prize in the American Cinematog- 
rapher contest in 1933 and 1934 with 
8mm film, the Eastman Kodak Stores 
awarded him one of their latest 8mm, 
300-watt projectors. 

PRACTICAL AMATEUR 
PHOTOGRAPHY 

Little, Brown & Company have just 
published a book entitled "Practical 
Amateur Photography," authored by 
William S. Davis. The book contains 
264 pages and sells for $2.25. 

The greater part of this book is given 
to still photography. One chapter is de- 
voted to Amateur Cinematography. The 
book is basic in its contents and is aimed 
entirely at the beginner. It deals to a 
great extent in equipment and materials 
available and their characteristics. 



MEMBERS" 



Directors of 
Photography 

Abel, David 
Andersen, Milford A 
Andriot, Lucien 
Arnold, John 
Ash, Jerome H. 
August, Joseph 
Barlatier, Andre 
Barnes George S. 
tBell, Chas. E. 
tBenoit, Georges 
Boyle, Chas. P. 
Boyle, John W 
Brodine, Norbert F. 
Brown, Jas. S., Jr. 
Chancellor, Philip 
Clark, Dan 
Clarke, Charles G. 
Cline Robert E. 
Corby, Francis 
Cronjager, Edward 
Crosby, Floyd D. 
Daniels, William H 
tDavis, Charles J. 
Depew, Ernest S. 
DeVmna, Clyde 
Dietz, Wm. H. 
tDored, John 
Draper, Lauron A. 
*Dubray, Joseph A. 
tDuPar, E. B. 
Dyer, Edwin L. 
Dyer, Elmer G. 
Eagler, Paul 
taeson, Arthur 
Fernstrom, Ray 
Fischbeck, Harry 
Folsey, George J., Jr. 
Freulich, Henry 
:: 'Freund, Karl 
Fryer, Richard 
Gauaio, Gaeiano 
Gerstad, Merritt B. 
Gilks, Alfred 
Glennon, Bert 
Good, Frank B. 
Haller, Ernest 
Halperin, Sol 
tHarten, Charles 
fHerbert, Charles W. 
Hickox, Sid 
Hickson, )ohn T. 
.-.owe, James Vvong 
Hunt, Roy 
Jackson, Harry 
tJansen, William H 
Jennings, J . D. 
June, Rav 
Kershner, Glenn 
Kline, Ben 
tKnechtel, Lloyd 
Kohler, Henry N. 
Krasner, Milton 
Kull, Adolph E. 
Lancaster, George J. 
Landers, Sam 
Lang, Charles B., Jr. 

LtoyU, Mr r 

Lundin, Walter 
Lyons, Chet 
McCord, Ted 
McGill, Barney 
Mackenzie, lack 
tMacWilliams, Glenn 
Marley, ). Peverell 
Marsh, Oliver 
Marshall, Chas. A. 
Marshall, William C. 
Martinelli, Arthur 
Marzorati, Harold J. 
Mate, Rudolph 
Meehan, Geo. B., Jr. 
Mellor, William C. 
Miller, Arthur 
Miller, Ernest W. 
Miller, Virgil E. 
Milner, Victor 
Morgan, Ira H. 
Musuraca, Nick 
Neuman, Harry C. 
Nobles, William 
O'Connell, L. William 
Overbaugh, Roy F. 
Palmer, Ernest 
tPaul, Dr. Edward F. 
Peach, Kenneth 
Perry, Harry 
Perry. Paul P 
Planck, Robert H. 
Polito, Sol 
Rees, William A. 
Reynolds, Ben F. 
Robinson, George 
Rose, Jackson J. 
Rosher, Charles 

Mrmhorship by Invitation 



Rosson, Harold 
tRuttenberg, Joseph 
Schneidermjn, George 
bchoenbaum, Charles 
Seitz, John F. 
Shamroy, Leon 
Sharp, Henry 
•^Shearer, Douglas 
Siegler, Allen 
iSilver, John 
tSintzenich, Harold 
tSmith, Jack 
Smith, Leonard 
Snyder, Edward J . 
Sparkuhl, Theodor 
fSteiner, William, Jr. 
btengler, Mack 
Stout, Archie J. 
Strenge, Walter 
Struss, Karl 
Stumar, Charles 
Stumar, John 
Tetzlaff, Ted 
Thompson, William C. 
Todd, Arthur 
Toland, Gregg 
Tover, Leo 
1 owers, Richard 
Tutwiler, Tom 
Valentine, Joseph A. 
;: Van Buren, Ned 
Van Enger, Willard 
Van Trees, James 
tVarges, Ariel 
von Sternberg, Josef 
Wagner, Sidney C. 
Walker, Joseph 
Warren, Dwight 
Warrenton, Gilbert 
Wenstrom, Harold 
Wetzel, Al. 
White, Lester 
Wvckof f, Alvin 
tZucker, Frank C. 

Operative 

First Cameramen 

Tobey, Robert 

Special Process 

binger, kay 
Culiy, Russell A. 
tdouart, Farciot 
Fabian, Maximilian 
Finger, John 
nuaKin, uyi on 
JacKman, Fred 
Jackman, Fred, )r. 
Kelley, W. Wallace 
NuciieK.anip, ii. r. 
Lipstein, Harold 
Pollock, Goraon 
Ries, Irving C. 
Smith, Arthur 
Walker, vei nan L. 
Williams, William N. 
Wrigley, Dewey 
Wimpy, Rex 
Zech, Harry 

Operative 
Cinema tographers 

Anderson, Don 
Anderson, Wesley 
Arling, Arthur E. 
Badaracco, Jacob 
bader, Walter 
Ballard, Lucien 
Bell, Jack C. 
Bennett, Guy M. 
Bennett, Monroe 
Bentley, Fred 
Biroc, Joe 
Blackstone, Cliff 
Bradley, Wilbur H. 
Browne, Fayte M. 
Burks, Robert 
Campbell, Arthur 
Chewning, Wallace 
Clark, Roy 
Clemens, Geo. T. 
Cline, Wilfrid E. 
Cohen, Edward J. 
Collings, Russell D. 
Cooper, Harry H. 
Cortez, Stanley 
Davis, Harry 
Davis, Leland E, 
Dean, Faxon 
DeGrasse, Robert 
Diamond, Jas. R. 
Dunn, Linwood G. 
Eslick, LeRoy 
Fapp, Daniel L. 
Felndel, Jockey 
Fetters, C. Curtis 
Fitzgerald, Edward 
only. : -Directors of 



Galezio, Len 
Galligan, Thomas 
Garnett, Paul 
Gertsman, Maury 
Gibbons, Jeff T. 
Glassberg, Irving 
Gordon, James 
Gray, King D. 
Green, Kenneth 
Greene, Al M. 
Griggs, Loyal 
Guffey, Burnett 
Guthrie, Carl 
Hallenberger, Harry 
Harper, James B. 
Henderson, Edward 
Hoag, Robert 
Huggins, L. Owens 
Jennings, Lewis E. 
tKelly, Wm. J. 
Knott, James 
Kornman, Anthony 
Lane, Al L. 
Lanning, Reggie 
LaShelle, Joseph 
Laszlo, Ernest 
Lawton, Charles C 
Lerpae, Paul K. 
Lindon, Lionel A. 
Lynch, Warren 
Lyons, Edgar H. 
Mayer, Fred 
Meade, Kyme 
Merland, Harry 
Metty, R. L. 
Mols, Pierre M. 
Newhard, Guy J. 
Newhard, Robert S. 
Nogle, Geo. G. 
Novak, Joe 
Palmer, Robert 
Pierce, Otto 
Pittack, Robert 
Pyle, Edward 
Ragin, David 
Ramsey, Ray L. 
Rand, William 
Redman, Frank 
Reed, Arthur 
Ries, Ray 

Roberts, Albert G. 
Roberts, Irmin 
Roberts, Josiah 
Robinson, Walter C. 
baierno, Charles, jr. 
Scheurich, Victor 
Schmitz, John J. 
Schurr, William F. 
Schoedsack, G. F. 
Smith, William Cooper 
Shipham, Bert 
Snyder, Wm. 
Stafford, Earl 
Stine, Clifford R. 
Tappenbeck, Hatto 
Thompson, Stuart 
Titus, Frank 
Travis, N. C. 
Ulm, William R. 
Unholz, George 
Vaughan, Roy V. 
Vogel, Paul Charles 
Vogel, Willard I. 
Wester, Carl 
White, Ben 
Wild, Harrv 
Wilky, Guy L. 
Williams, Al E. 
Williamson, James 

Assistant 
Cinema tographers 

Abbott, L. B. 
Abramson, Melvin 
Adams, Eddie 
Ahem, Lloyd 
Anderson, Eddie 
Babbitt, Royal F. 
Baldwin, Herold 
Barth, Willard 
Beckner, Neal 
Bergholz, Emmett 
Bessette, Raoul 
Boggs, Haskell 
Bohny, Chas. R. 
Bourne, George 
Bradford, William 
Brandenburg, Gentry 
Bridcnbecker, Milton 
Brigham, Donald H. 
Bronner, Robert 
Burgess, Frank 
Burke, Charles 
Caldwell, John C. 
Carter, Ellis W. 
Clothier, William H 
Cohan, Ben 
Photography in Executive Positions. 



Cohen, Sam 
Collins, Edward C. 
Crawford, Lee 
Crockett, Ernest J. 
Cronjagtr, neury, jr. 
Crouse, John 
Curtiss, Judd 
Daly, James 
Dalzell, Arch R. 
Davenport, Jean L. 
Davis, Mark 
Davis, Robt. D., Jr. 
Davol, Richard S. 
Dawe, Harry 
Dawson, Fred 
DeAngelis, Louis 
rae Cazstellame, Paul 
Deverman, Dale 
Diskant, George 
Dodds, Wm. 
Dorris, Joe 
Dowling, Thomas L. 
Dugas, Frank 
Eagan, J. P. 
Eckert, John 
tEtra, Jack 
Evans, Frank D. 
raney, Jwotph _. 
Fischer, Herbert J. 
Flinsky, Ray 
Foxall, William 
Fredricks, Ellsworth 
Garvin, Edward 
Gaudio, Frank, Jr. 
Geissler, Charles R. 
Gerstle, Arthur 
Gough, Robert J. 
Grand, Marcel 
Greer, John 
Haas, Waller 
Hackett, James C. 
Haddow, Ledger 
Harlan, Russell 
Hayes, Towne D. 
Higgins, James Colman 
Higgs, Stuart P. 
Hill, Paul 
Hoffman, Roswell 
tHolcombe, WaJter B. 
Horsley, Davis S 
Hunter, Kenneth 
Ivey, Jesse F. 
Kauffman, R. King, Jr. 
Kearns, Edward 
Keller, Alfred S. 
Kelley, George F. 
Klein, Irving 
Kiuznik, MaTt 
Lackey, Walter K. 
Lane. Art 
Laraby, Nelson 
Leahy, Chas. P. 
Lerpee, Carl 
Lewis, C. L. 
Lockwood, Paul 
Love, Cecil 
Lykins, Vollie Joe 
McDonald, Frank 
McEdward, Nelson C 
MacDonneil, Stanley 
Maclntyre, Andy 
Martin, John 
Marble, Harry 
Martinelli, Enzo 
Mautino, Bud 
Meade, Kenneth 
Mehl, John 
Molina, Luis 
Moreno, Robert C. 
Morris, Thomas C. 
Noble, Roy 
Norton, Kay 
Orsatti, Alfred 
Parkins, Harry 
Ramsey, H. Clark 
Rankin, Walter 
Reinhold, Wm. G. 
Rhea, Robert 
Riley, William 
Roe, Guv 

Russell, John L., Jr. 
Sanford, S. A. 
Sargent, Don 
Scheving, Albert 
Schuch, William 
Shirpser, C. 
Shorr, Lester 
Slifer, Clarence 
Sloane, James 
Smith, H. C. 
Soderberg, Edward F. 
Southcott, Fleet 
Straumer, E. Charles 
Strong, Glenn 
Strong, William M. 
Terzo, Fred 
Tolmie, Rod 

t Non-Resident Members. 



Tripp, Roy 
Ulm, William R. 
Van Trees, James, Jr. 
Van Warmer, John Pierce 
Walsh. Mike 
Ward, Lioya 
Weiler. John 
Weissman, Leonard 
Wellman, Harold 
Wendall, Jack E. 
Whitley, William 
Worth, Lothrop 

Still Photographers 

Allan, Ted 
Alsop, George 
Anderson, Bert 
Bachrach, Ernie 
Bjerring, Frank 
Blanc, Harry 
Breau, Joseph F. 
Bredell, Elwood 
Brown, Milton 
Coburn, Robert 
Cooper, John 
Cronenweth, W. E. 
Crosby, Warner N. 
Ellis, John 
Estep, Junius D. 
Evansmith, Henry 
Farrell, David H. 
Fraker, W. A. 
Freulich, Roman 
Fryer, Elmer 
Grimes. William H. 
Head, Gordon G. 
Hendrickson, Fred S. 
Hommel, Geo. P. 
Hopcraft, N. John 
Johnson, Roy L. 
Julian, Mac 
Kahle, Alexander 
Kling, Clifton 
Kornman, Gene 
Lippman. Irving 
Lobben, C. Kenneth 
Longet, Gaston 
Longworth, Bert 
Lynch, Bert 
Manatt, S. C. 
Marigold, Mickey 
Martin, Shirley A 
McAlpin, Hal A. 
Miehle, John J. 
Osborne, Harry 
Richardson, G. E. 
Richee, Eugene R. 
Robbins, Leroy S. 
Rowley, Les 
Sibbald, Merritt J. 
Six, Bert 
Tanner, Frank 
Van Pelt, Homer 
Walling, Will, J. 
Welbourne, Chas. Scott 
Wyckoff, Harold M. 

Portrait 
Photographers 

MacDonald, Melvin A, 

Honorary Members 

Mr. E. O. Blackburn, 

Los Angeles, Calif. 
IMr. George Eastman, 
Rochester, N. Y. 
Mr Thomas A. Edison 
Orange, N J. 
Mr. Albert S. Howell, 
Chicago, III. 

Associate Members 

Mr. Louis A. Bonn 
Mr. George Cave 
Dr. L. M. Dieterich 
Mr. Fred Gage 
Mr. Emery Huse 
Dr. Lloyd A. Jones 
Dr. C. E. K. Mees 
Dr. Herbert Meyer 
Mr. Hollis Moyse 
Dr. W. B. Rayton 
Dr. V. B. Sease 
Dr. J. S. Watson, Jr. 

Inactive Members 

Cowling, Herford T. 
Dunning, Dodge 
DuPont, Max B. 
Fildew, William 
Glouner, Martin G. 
Graham, Stanley 
Home, Pliny 
Jackman, Dr. Floyd 
Lockwood, J. R. 
Roos, Len H. 
Stull, William 

J Deceased. 



The Mitchell Camera Corporation Takes 
Pleasure in Announcing the Establishment 
of Agencies in the Following Countries 



Claud C. Ca rter .... Sydney, AUSTRALIA 

John H. Taylor London, ENGLA ND 

Bombay Radio Co., Ltd. .... Bombay, INDIA 
D. Nagase & Co., Ltd Osaka, JAPAN 



Mitchell Camera Corporation 

665 N. ROBERTSON BOULEVARD 
WEST HOLLYWOOD, CALIF. 

Cable Address "MITCAMCO" Phone OXford 105 1 




AMttlCAN 





The Motion Picture CAMERA Magazine 



Price 25c 



MARCH, 1935 




PROPOSED A.S.C. BUILDING 





"to. U.S. PAT. Off 



Du Pont Film Manufacturing Corporation 



35 WEST 45 th STREET 
NEW YORK CITY 

PLANT • • • PARLIN, N. J. 



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THE <$2IP> TRADE MARK HAS NEVER BEEN PLACED ON AN INFERIOR PRODUCT 



AMERICAN 
CINEMATOGRAPHER 



A Technical and Educational publication 
of motion picture photography. 

Published monthly by the 
AMERICAN SOCIETY 
OF CINEMATOGRAPHERS, INC. 
6331 Hollywood Boulevard 
Hollywood, California 

Telephone GRanite 21 35 

JOHN ARNOLD, President, A.S.C. 

GEORGE SCHNEIDERMAN, Treasurer, A.S.C. 



Volume 16 MARCH 1935 Number 3 

What to Read 

HIGH Intensity Vapor Lamp 

by R. E. Farnham 93 

ARTISTIC Honesty in Cinematography 

by George J. Folsey, A.S.C 94 

THE Camera's Omniscient Eye 

by A. Lindsley Lane, A.S.C 95 

HALLER Places Stress on Detail 

by James L. Fritz 96 

PHOTOGRAPHY Should Interpret 
Personality 

by Gaetano Gaudio, A.S.C 97 

SHOOTING the Glaciers in Alaska 

by Nicholas Cavaliere 98 

WILL Color Help or Hinder? 

by William Stull, A.S.C 100 

PHOTOGRAPHY of the Month 101 



Next Month 

• Something about makeup, especially as it 
relates to the cinematographer and the rela- 
tion between the cinematographer and the 
makeup man, how they can cooperate to se- 
cure better results. 

• James L. Fritz will interview one or two 
more of our famous ace cinematographers. He 
will give you the critic's slant of the man be- 
hind the camera. 

• We are promised an article telling us how 
the pictures of the Hauptmann trial were se- 
cured without the trooper who stood alongside 
of the camera knowing it was running. It 
sounds interesting. 



ESTABLISHED 1918. Advertising Rates on application. 
Subscription: U.S. $2.50 a year; Canada $3.50 a year; 
Foreign $3.50 a year. Single copies 25c. Foreign 
single copies 35c. COPYRIGHT 1935 by American 
Society of Cinematographers, Inc. 




The Staff 

EDITOR 

Charles J. VerHalen 

TECHNICAL EDITOR 

Emery Huse, A. S. C. 

ASSOCIATES 

Walter Blanchard 
Karl HaJe 
CIRCULATION MANAGER 

M. Miller 

ADVISORY 
EDITORIAL BOARD 

Victor Milner, A. S. C. 
Chas. G. Clark, A. S C. 
Hatto Toppenbeck, A. S C. 
Jackson J. Rose, A. S C. 
Fred Gage, A. S. C. 
Dr. J. S. Watson, Jr., A. S. C. 
Dr. L. M. Dieterich, A. S. C 
Dr. L. A. Jones, A. S. C. 
Dr. C. E. K. Mees, A. S. C. 
Dr. W. B. Rayton, A. S. C. 
Dr. Herbert Meyer, A. S. C. 
Dr. V. B. Sease, A. S. C. 



FOREIGN REPRESENTATIVES 

Georges Benoit, 1 00, Allee Franklin, 
Pavillions-sous-Bois. France. Seine. Tele- 
phone LeRaincy 13-19. H. T. Cowling, 4700 
Connecticut Ave., Washington, D. C. 

NEW YORK REPRESENTATIVE 

S. R. Cowan, 19 East 47th St., New York 
City. Phone Plaza 3-0483. 

Neither rhe American Cinematographer nor 
the American Society of Cinematographers 
is responsible for statements made by au- 
thors. This magazine will not be responsible 
for unsolicited manuscripts. 



92 American Cinematographer o March 1935 



THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CINEMA- 
TOGRAPHERS was founded in 1918 for 
the purpose of bringing into closer con- 
federation and cooperation all those leaders in 
the cinematographic art and science whose 
aim is and ever will be to strive for pre-emi- 
nence in artistic perfection and technical mas- 
tery of this art and science. Its purpose is to 
further the artistic and scientific advancement 
of the cinema and its allied crafts through un- 
ceasing research and experimentation as well 
as through bringing the artists and the scien- 
tists of cinematography into more intimate 
fellowship. To this end its membership is com- 
posed of the outstanding cinematographers of 
the world with Associate and Honorary mem- 
berships bestowed upon those who, though not 
active cinematographers, are engaged none 
the less in kindred pursuits, and who have, by 
their achievements, contributed outstandingly 
to the progress of cinematography as an Art 
or as a Science. To further these lofty aims 
and to fittingly chronicle the progress of cine- 
matography, the Society's publication, The 
American Cinematographer, is dedicated. 



AMERICAN 
SOCIETY OF 
CINEMATOGRAPHERS 



OFFICERS 

JOHN ARNOLD 
VICTOR MILNER 
JOHN W. BOYLE 
ELMER G. DYER 
GEORGE SCHNEIDERMAN 
FRANK B. GOOD 



President 
First Vice-President 
Second Vice-President 
Third Vice-President 
Treasurer 
Secretary 



BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

John Arnold 
John W. Boyle 
Dan Clark 
Elmer Dyer 
Arthur Edeson 
George Folsey 
Alfred Gilks 



Frank Good 
Fred Jackman 
Ray June 
Charles B. Lang, Jr. 
Victor Milner 
George Schneiderman 
James Van Trees 
Vernon L. Walker 



Frederick L. Kley, Executive Business Manager 



PAST PRESIDENTS 

Philip E. Rosen 
Gaetano Gaudio 
James Van Trees 
John W. Boyle 



Fred W. Jackman 



Hal Mohr 
Homer Scott 
John F. Seitz 
Daniel B. Clark 



HONORARY MEMBERS 

Mr. Albert S. Howell 
Mr. Edward 0. Blackburn 



PUBLIC RELATIONS COMMITTEE 



John Arnold 
Frank Zucker 
Charles Bell 
Charles J. Davis 
Paul H. Allen 
George Benoit 
Glenn MacWilliams 
Ariel Varges 

Max B. DuPont 



Herford T. Cowling 
Edwin L. Dyer 
Charles W. Herbert 
Mack Stengler 
Ross Fisher 
John Dored 
Philip M. Chancellor 
W. H. Jansen 



PRODUCTION COMMITTEE 

Daniel B. Clark 
John W. Boyle 



Elmer G. Dyer 
Ned Van Buren 



MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE 

Charles G. Clarke 

George Folsey 



Alfred Gilks 



RESEARCH COMMITTEE 

Victor Milner, Arthur Miller, Dr. Herbert 
Meyer, John Arnold, ]ohn F. Seitz, 
Emery Huse, Dr. L. M. Dietrich 



ENTERTAINMENT COMMITTEE 

John W. Boyle 
Charles B. Lang, Jr. 

Alvin Wyckoff 

WELFARE COMMITTEE 

Ray June 



Frank B. Good 
Vernon Walker 



James Van Trees 



Fred W. Jackman 



March 1935 • American Cinematographer 93 



High Intensity 
Mercury Vapor Lamp 
for Photographic 
Applications 



by 

R. E. Farnham 

With General Electric Co. 



THE announcement of the new high intensity mercury 
vapor lamp was soon followed by a considerable num- 
ber of inquiries as to its merit for the various phases 
of photographic work. These are based on the more or less 
general knowledge that practically all photo-sensitive ma- 
terials function more readily in the blue-violet part of the 
spectrum and that therefore an illuminant having a large 
part of its energy output in this region may have many im- 
portant applications. It is, of course, obvious that there is 
no point in applying the mercury vapor lamp for the various 
photographic applications unless it can show some definite 
advantage. This can be a reduction in the wattage neces- 
sary to do a particular job, or, what is more important, 
shorter exposures with the same wattage which means 
greater economy or greater production. Accordingly, the 
Nela Park Engineering Department has made a preliminary 
investigation of the new source with the various require- 
ments of the photographic field in mind. 

The high intensity mercury vapor lamp is available at 
the present time in the 400-watt ( 1 4000-lumens) size 
only. (Actually, with its regulator, each unit draws 420 
to 475 watts.) Its three competitors are (1) the white 
flame and solid carbon arcs, (2) the older type mercury 
vapor tube, and (3) the MAZDA lamp, particularly the 
photoflood type. 

The arcs consume from 1200 to 4500 watts (line) 
which means that from three to ten mercury lamps com- 
plete with control equipments would be necessary to re- 
place a single arc lamp on a comparable wattage basis. 
Similarly, the No. 4 Photoflood (1000-watts, 33000- 
lumens) and the Movieflood (2000-watts, 66000-lumens ) 
woud require the employment of 2 to 3 and 5 mercury 
outfits respectively to replace a single MAZDA lamp, with 
the result that the mercury vapor lamp starts with some- 
what of a handicap, being in such relatively small wattage 



Color Wave Length (Angstroms) Per cent* 



Ultra-violet 


3654 


2.7 






8 1 
O. 1 


Violet 


j 4358 


20.3 


Blue 


4950 


.9 


Green 


5461 


29.7 


Yellow 


5780 


20.0 


Orange 


6234 


1.4 


Red 


l 6716 


2.1 


\ 7130 


2.6 


Infra Red 


7660 


3.2 



> 32.0 



; 'Data by Dr. Barnes — Lamp Dev. Lab. 



units. The introduction of the mercury vapor lamp to many 
of the photographic applications would be greatly facili- 
tated were the lamp available in larger units. 

The spectrum of the high intensity mercury lamp is of 
the discontinuous type; that is, the light is given off only 
at certain wave lengths and is totally missing at others. 
This is quite different from that of the MAZDA lamp which 
is continuous through all visible wave lengths. The spectral 
energy distribution of the high intensity mercury lamp as 
it is now being supplied is shown by the above table. 

It is the energy in the near-ultra-violet, violet and blue 
regions of the spectrum, amounting to about 32% of the 
total radiation in the visible or near-visible spectrum that 
is of greatest interest in connection with the use of this 
lamp with photo-sensitive materials. In this same range, 
namely, 3654 to 5000 Angstroms the Photoflood Lamps 
emit approximately 22% of their energy. Thus, from the 
light quality standpoint the mercury vapor lamp should be 
considerably over 50% more effective than the Photofloods 
for the same wattage, especially with those materials which 
show rapidly increasing sensitivity towards the extreme 
violet. 

There are three characteristics of this lamp, different 
from other sources which must be considered in its practical 
application in photographic work. ( 1 ) Limited burning 
position; i.e., the lamp must be operated vertically, base 
up. (2) The lamp requires approximately 15 minutes 
"warming up" before reaching full brilliancy and if it is 
turned off even for an instant it will not relight until it has 
cooled to practically room temperature. (3' Its operation 
is limited to alternating current circuits. 

The following paragraphs briefly discuss the application 
of the high intensity mercury vapor source to still photog- 
raphy. 

Commercial Photography 

Under this subhead comes the photography of a larger 
variety of objects, and in many instances, the ability to 
differentiate colors is most important. Panchromatic film 
is universally employed. The mercury lamp would hardly 
be applicable both from its deficiency of some colors and 
its slow starting. Photographers usually like to get set up, 
make their picture, and develop the negative in as short a 
time as possible, then sometimes go back and make an- 
other negative if the first is not satisfactory. The slow 
start as well as the inability to relight the lamp imme- 
diately, might prove a handicap for many photographers 
without compensating advantages. 

(Continued on Page 106> 



94 American Cinematographer • March 1935 




Ceorge Folsey at extreme left directing photog- 
raphy in the M.C.M. production "Reckless" star- 
ring Jean Harlow. 



Artistic Honesty in Cinematography 



by 

George J. Folsey, A.S.C. 



BEFORE a person can express a thing convincingly, he 
must be convinced of it himself. He must under- 
stand it: he must have had in his own past ex- 
perience something in some measure comparable to that 
which he wishes to express. In all lines of artistic endeavor, 
this fact is recognized. Even in our own industry, writers, 
directors and actors agree that the most convincing effects 
are those based to some extent upon the personal experi- 
ence of the individual artist. 

To my mind, this is the keynote of truly successful 
Cinematography. It may be argued, of course, that the 
Cinematographer's task is more mechanical than artistic: 
a merely photographic reproduction of what others place 
before his lens. To a certain extent, of course, this is 
true; but in actual practice there is far too much variation 
in the manner in which different Cinematographers would 
present the same scene to permit us to ignore the fact that 
despite all commercial considerations and the collectivized 
nature of film-production, individual expression plays a 
vital part in camerawork. 



Therefore, even though others as well, or even better 
qualified to speak, may hold contrary opinions, I am cer- 
tain that our work can be entirely convincing only when 
we base it upon personal experience — memories of things 
comparable with the scenes we are seeking to put upon 
the screen. To illustrate this more clearly: in a picture 
I once photographed there was a sequence laid in a the- 
atre-manager's office, back-stage in a great playhouse. 
At the rear of the set was a large window through which 
could be seen the stage, upon which was taking place a 
rehearsal for a revue. The effect should have been strik- 
ingly unusual — but it wasn't. I have been in many a 
theatre-manager's office, but nowhere in my past experi- 
ence could I call upon anything even approximating this 
particular setting. As a result, I was unable to convince 
myself of the reality of that scene — and accordingly, it 
was not convincing on the screen, though we spent days 
making and re-making it. 

I know that I exerted all possible care in lighting and 
photographing that scene. I used the same methods that 
I would use for any other shot, and I am morally certain 
that the calculations and technique of the special-process 
experts who put in the backstage background were mathe- 
matically correct. None the less, the scene did not ring 
true on the screen. The only reason I can find to account 
for this failure is that the scene was not right to begin 

(Continued on Page 104) 



March 1935 • American Cinematographer 95 



The C amera s o mmscient Lye 



by 

A. Lindsley Lane, A.S.C. 



WHETHER a sequence, in its conception and execu- 
tion, is to be shot in scenes all from a normal 
stage-audience viewpoint; or, the majority of 
scenes shot objectively, with a few dynamic punches from 
subjective angles; or only a few orienting shots made nor- 
mally, and the greater part of the sequence made from 
interpretive set-ups; or in any other manner, is a question 
of specific technique the director and cinematographer 
together must decide, their method dependent on the rel- 
ative normality or extraordinary quality of the sequence 
in question. That is, the interrelated cinematic factors of: 
literary content, action, tempo, mood, characters and set- 
tings, and audience reaction, must all be considered to 
ascertain the optimum point for the camera lens (and 
also its focal-length) at any given moment. Furthermore, 
as a complementary phase of this creative work, there is 
always the omniscience of the camera eye to reckon with 
— that unique illusion of "all-seeingness" which places 
the motion picture apart from every other form of artistic 
expression. 

"All-seeingness" here means that the camera stimu- 
lates, through correct choice of subject-matter and set-up, 
the sense within the percipient of "being at the most vital 
part of the experience — at the most advantageous point of 
perception" throughout the picture. 

The omniscience of the camera eye is a function and 
an ideal which is felt subconsciously by the percipient, 
rather than understood by him; and picturegoers more or 
less resent abuse or loss of that function. From this may 
be inferred why many mystery pictures have been unsatis- 
factory; the observer sensing the camera might easily have 
discovered what is withheld too arbitrarily, feels an antag- 
onism toward the picture. At best, the impression carried 
away from the theatre by the audience is "much ado about 
little." It is this frustration of the camera's omniscience 
(instead of the use of that function to complicate) which 
brings the picturegoer to a semi-awareness of poor story- 
telling. 

The principle can be stated another way. The per- 
cipient of an excellently constructed photoplay automat- 
ically merges his identity or self with the picture stimuli. 
On the other hand, in a badly made picture, he fails to 
realize his identity with the picture and remains simply 
an unsympathetic, critical observer looking on from the 
outside. 

"Saying the one right thing at the one right time" 
(omniscient perception) would seem to be the basic law 
of the motion picture. And within this law persists the 
greatest reason for key-workers cooperating in extended 
planning and minute preparations before shooting. 



One of the finest examples to date of sustained and 
unitary camera omniscience is to be found in "Crime With- 
out Passion." In harmony with this achievement of the 
camera's fluent participating in dramatic intent, there is 
a tenacious rhythm of cumulative suspense and inevitable 
consummation. The observer of this picture truly becomes 
its percipient, because of an unusually close integration of 
creative artistry and technical skill molding into one the 
picture's material, form and subject-matter. And its per- 
cipients have conclusive proof of their "experience" in the 
echoes which roll back over them for days after seeing 
this picture. In fact, many will discover this particular 
picture-experience so "strongly new" as to tell others of 
the "distinctly different picture." And this, not because 
of, but in spite of the almost total lack of conventional 
"heart interest" in the story. Incidentally, it is interesting 
to note that Lee Garmes, -one of the industry's leading 
cinematographers was, in the making of "Crime Without 
Passion," not only Director of Photography, but also closely 
cooperating with the Author-Director-Producers as Asso- 
ciate Director. 

For the reason that genuine art conceals its own form- 
ulation, it may be said that a motion picture which in its 
showing gives self-evidence of its making is not a good 
picture artistically and holds the chemistry of dissolution 
within its own structure, drawing the audience's attention 
away from its story-experience purpose; is, in other words, 
destructive to intactness of the "illusion of occurrence," 
which illusion is the psychological key to a successful mo- 
tion picture-percipient experience. 

Omniscient perception actually achieved in the motion 
picture results in the percipient having no least feeling or 
consciousness of the camera's interpretive instrumentality. 
The cinematographer's work and the use of his tools are 
self-effaced from the final effect. 

Generally speaking, cinematographic effects have in the 
past been over-stressed rather than repressed. The con- 
fusing use of subjective or grotesque angles, stark lighting 
and over-correcting spectrum filters, the restless mobile 

(Continued on Page 102) 




96 American Cinematographer • March 1935 





Haller 

Places Stress 
on Detail 



by 

James L. Fritz 

Formerly dramatic editor of St. Louis Post Dispatch 
and New York Daily Mirror. 



AFTER seeing any one of Ernie Holler's cinemato- 
graphic products, one can readily realize why this 
young man is sometimes called the "King of "De- 
tail." 

Haller has regulated his life so that every hour of the 
day is spent in a detailed and beneficial manner. Natur- 
ally if his life is governed in this way you would expect 
the same quality in his pictures. This quality makes itself 
vitally manifest in his latest Warner Bros, production, 
"Wanderlust." When viewing this picture one even feels 
that perhaps some of the artistic quality of the production 
might have been sacrificed in the endeavor to bring out 
every underlying movement of the story. 

Haller will tell you that once a script is given to him, 
he will treat it as if it were a text book. It does not re- 
ceive a mere reading, but he gives it a thorough fine- 



combing and minute study. This is done so that when he 
begins the actual work on the picture, the story will be 
so vividly stamped into his mind that every situation and 
location will be as familiar to him as his own face. This 
rigid task which he sets for himself before every picture, 
enables him to visualize even further than his finished 
product. He obtains the imaginary reaction of the audience 
for his work. And he further insists that the product 
which is turned out of his camera be a thing of pleasure 
and entertainment even if his audience be made up of 
critical cinemotographers. 

In this treatment of the story, he first considers the 
characters in the story. If they are Aline MacMahon and 
Guy Kibbee, who portray the principal roles in his most 
recent effort, he immediately makes a study of their char- 
acters from every possible standpoint that his lens will be 
required to register. Mentally he sets his lights in the 
various sequences. If the scene is to be a press room of 
a country newspaper he recalls, if possible, a visit he made 
at one time or another to this kind of a print shop. He 
definitely places, for instance, Guy Kibbee at the key- 
board of a linotype machine or at the handle of an early- 
type flat-bed handpress. He sees him as he would look 
with his face covered with printer's ink. He knows long 
before his story commences, the amount of light that is 
going to be necessary to impress on his film the character 
that this actor is attempting to live. 

Haller entered the motion picture business from a 
draughtsman's board in an architect's office and it is this 
training which gives him an eye for perspective. But for 
a display of temper over a pecuniary matter he might 
still be putting on plans the ideas of architects. He had 
obtained some extra work for his employer and had been 
promised compensation for it. When it wasn't forthcoming 
he told his employer what he thought of him. 

With his hat still in his hand he entered the em- 
ployees' door of a motion picture laboratory and there 
began the training which has fitted him for the position 
he now holds among motion picture photographers. 

It was while thus employed that the demand for de- 
tail was definitely impregnated. He had observed the care- 
less manner that detail was being watched in the early 
days of cinematography and resolved that when his op- 
portunity came along this would be of utmost importance. 

The ace cinematographer has some very definite ideas 
about makeup. Unfortunately they do not contribute much 
praise to the manufacturers of cosmetics. He feels that 
makeup has a definite place in motion pictures but that 
too much stress is laid on its importance. There is not 
very much being done with grease paint that cannot be 
done with lights. 

This is not just a theory with him for he has proven 
it conclusively. He took a well known motion picture star 
after her makeup had been completed one morning and 
removed from one side of her face all of the paint, eye- 
shadow, etc. His experiment received the hearty approval 
of the star to such an extent that when he photographed 
her next picture he did so with just ordinary street makeup. 

When reading his script, Haller goes through exactly 
the same process that the assistant director does in break- 
ing down a script. His script is as full of notations as a 
script-clerk's. 

He consults the art director of his picture and learns 
exactly what he is going to be given in the way of sets. 
He finds out from the Property Head just what he is going 

(Continued on Page 102) 



Photography 
Should Interpret 
Personality 
and Character 

by 

Gaetano Gaudio, A. S. C. 

As told to James L. Fritz 

THE one outstanding quality of present day motion 
pictures, to my belief, is the ability on the part of 
the cinematographer to inject character and feeling 
into his art. This is the only quality that can be injected 
into a story through the art of the cinematographer. The 
other qualities, such as richness and beauty, cannot be in- 
jected into any motion picture, unless that quality is pos- 
sessed by the story or script, the subjects themselves, and 
the settings and backgrounds with which they are sur- 
rounded. 

It has always been my belief, that a cinematographer, 
if he wishes to become proficient in his art, must be a good 
actor, a good director, and have literary knowledge, so that 
he will be enabled to bring out the true characterization 
of the story which he is photographing. 

When I am called to begin work on a picture, I first 
take the script and study it diligently. It is here that I 
get the first interpretation of the author's thought. I then 
place myself in each of the roles or parts. I do this so as 
to obtain the feel of the story. After I have inwardly en- 
acted each part to myself, the characterization which will 
be portrayed by the subject becomes intimately familiar. 

We all know that the film itself, and the canvas upon 
which it is projected, are drab and lifeless things at best. 
Then how, knowing this, can we expect audiences to be 
entertained and amused, unless we, through lighting, shad- 
ing, and the use of diffusion, build character in the sub- 
ject? It has been pointed out at various times, that color 
treatment aids in bringing out character. Under the pres- 
ent color processes, this is not true, because the color treat- 
ments now used in motion pictures are mere optical illusions. 
Character can never be expressed through ony falsity on 
the part of the cinematographer. By this, we mean creat- 
ing an illusion of character, where such character originally 
does not exist. Therefore it is my belief that color for 
motion pictures shall never be a success until a process, 
similar to the Lumere plate, has been perfected. Such a 
process would mean that the true and natural colors of the 
subject would come out of the camera, the same as they 
were photographed, without distortion or change, instead 
of the black and white print of today, which must be col- 
ored later by a laboratory process. 



March 1935 • American Cinematographer 97 




Gaetano Caudio, A.S.C. 



True characterization is only obtained in one way. The 
cinematographer must obtain the full feelings of the sub- 
ject which he is photographing. By feeling, we do not 
mean the character that the subject is portraying, but he 
must also obtain the true character of the subject itself, 
so that he can capture on film, the natural personality and 
character of the subject. This adds another qualification 
to the cinematographer. It means that he must be an ex- 
cellent judge of personalities. 

In the last picture I filmed for Warner Brothers, "Go 
Into Your Dance," in which Al Jolson was the star, a diffi- 
cult problem arose with which every cinematographer has 
had to cope at one time or another. Various cinematog- 
raphers, on previous pictures, had been lighting Jolson's 
face in such a way as to erase the wrinkles and lines that 
are naturally his. The result, when this treatment is given 
to any subject, is that the face becomes a mask and it is 
difficult to obtain the emotion then being enacted by the 
subject. In this picure the process was reversed. The sub- 
ject was lighted in such a way that these wrinkles, without 
being allowed to become harsh and destructive to the sub- 
ject's appearance, were brought out enough to allow the 
subject to retain his true personality and character. 

This means of portraying character is being used on 
the latest Warner Brothers production, "Oil for the Lamps 
of China." The characterization of the subjects in this 
particular motion picture are definite and forceful. It is 
therefore necessary that the cinematographer, if the aud- 
ience is to gain the full benefit embodied in the story it- 
self, should, at all times, strive to bring out forcefully the 
character in the faces of the subjects which he is photo- 
graphing. 

I carry character study even further into the fields of 
cinematographic research than merely the first study of 
the script and subject. Every scene which is photographed 
by the motion picture camera, during the course of the 
day, I also photograph with a Leica camera, which I have 
with me at all times. These still pictures are then taken 
home and developed. This enables me to give more time 

(Continued on Pago 102' 



98 American Cinematographer • March 1935 




Reflectors made for an emergency from 1000-ft. 
film cans. At left Cavalicre; at right Beverly 
(ones, director. 



I N ADDITION to food, camp equipment and other neces- 
sary supplies for seven men and four dogs, we had the 

I added problem of a complete Bell and Howell studio 
outfit, an Akeley, and three Eyemos, not to mention a 
couple of hundred thousand feet of raw stock and numerous 
still cameras. 

On our first trek out from cur base camp at False Pass 
on Unimak Island in the Aleutians, our first serious film 
problem hit us. We needed 4GG-foot lengths of negative 
for the Bell and Howell, 200-foot lengths for the Akeley, 
and 100-foot lengths for the Eyemos. Our film had been 
put up in hermetically sealed containers holding five rolls 
and designed to withstand the beating they were bound to 
get in our pack sacks and the dog packs. At the start 
of our first trek, we found the big containers holding the 
400-foot Bell and Howell rolls to be too bulky and too 
large for the dog packs. This called for our first technical 
huddle. We finally decided we could use our 200-foot rolls 
in both the Bell and Howell and Akeley magazines; further- 
more they were convenient to carry as were the containers 
of the 100-foot rolls. Luckily we had sufficient negative 
stock in 200-foot rolls to last us for the season; had we 
ordered fifty percent of our negative stock to be made up 
into 400-foot lengths as we had planned previously, it 
would have caused us no end of trouble and would have 
been a serious handicap to the photographic success of the 
adventure. This transportation problem was one we, on the 
camera end, didn't give more than normal attention, yet 
on an expedition such as this cne, it is as vital as knowing 
what lenses are necessary to have with you for successful 
camera work. 

Not very long after our crrival at base camp in the 
Aleutians, we ran into another problem we had not anti- 
cipated. We needed some interior shots that were very 
necessary to the continuity of our adventure story. The 
building in which they were to be made had been altered, 
and the outside light cut down by the removal of several 
large windows that had been there in previous years and 
had allowed plenty of daylight to get into the building. 
We radioed at once to Seattle for Photoflood lamps and 
reflectors. In due course one of the party who had been 
held up in Seattle by the strike, arrived at False Pass with 
the Photofloods, but no reflectors. We needed concentrated 
light; after another huddle we emerged with the problem 
licked. We happened to have with us some prints of old 
features that had been given to Father Hubbard by various 
film companies to show to the Aleut Indians who had never 
seen a movie before. We confiscated a number of 1000- 
foot film cans from this lot und went to work. Ed Levin, 



Shooting 



field manager of the outfit, made eight stands consisting 
of a wooden base, an upright, and a top arm designed to 
hold one of the thousand-foot cans at each end. The top 
arm was movable and had holes drilled through it at one- 
inch intervals, as had the upright. This enabled us to 
raise, lower or tilt the lamps as we desired by merely loosen- 
ing the bolt that held the top arm to the upright and 
shifting the whole top arm to whatever combination of 
holes we needed. A couple of flips of the bolt with a 
wrench and the lamps would remain rigid at any height or 
angle. After the cans were attached to the top arm, the 
wiring and installation of lamp sockets in the center of 
the cans was a matter of a few hours. We took our juice 
from a standard A.C. plant by means of a lead cable to 
which we had spliced a couple of dozen standard female 
plugs at convenient intervals. Cne male plug took care of 
the two lamps on each of these improvised lights. The 
efficiency of these improvised "inkies" was remarkable; 
they proved to be very flexible and a review later of the 
shots made with them, showed them to be very satisfac- 
tory. In fact, I'd wager the average technician would 
think we had a battery of teal lights and a bunch of 
juicers to run them. 

Another unlooked for problem grew out of the con- 
tinual rains, landings in the surf, stream crossings, mud, 
quicksands and pumice dust in volcanic areas that we en- 
countered during our six months' trek in the most forbid- 
ding country you'd ever want to set foot in. After a couple 
of months of exposure to all these, we found our Eyemo 
tripods, of an approved standard make, to be wilting. They 
couldn't stand the gaff. Despite all precautions, rust got 
the better of the heads and they became loose and the 
sliding legs filled up with so much mud and pumice dust 
they finally wouldn't budge. On our return to base camp 
we attempted to repair them, but without necessary re- 
placement parts it was useless. Once more, another huddle. 
We always carried with us a sturdy alpenstock — better 
known as an ice-pick. Each member of the party had one. 
They range from three to three and one-half feet long, 
have a spike on the ground end, and a combination of a 
mattock blade and a pick blade on the other end. They 
are used for cutting steps in the ice, gaining a hold while 
climbing, and feeling your way foi crevasses and other hid- 
den ground dangers as you trek along. We drilled holes 
in the metal hub of the pick end of the alpenstocks and 
fitted them with a screw lug of proper diameter to fit the 
tripod hole of the Eyemos. To protect the threads of the 
lug, the hole in the hub of the ice pick was drilled deep 
enough to take its entire length when not in use. The lug 
had a screw head and could be raised above the level of 
the flat-headed pick with a screw driver or more fre- 
quently with the hunting knives we always carried. The 
ice pick tripod thus evolved was invaluable to us. For cam- 



March 1935 • American Cinematographer 



The 

Glaciers 
in Alaska 

by 

Nicholas Cavaliere* 

Chief Photographer, 

Father Bernard Hubbard, S.J., 

1934 Alaskan Expedition 

Cavaliere was also first cameraman with Frank Buck, having 
filmed "Wild Cargo" and "Bring 'Em Back Alive" for the noted 
wild animal hunter. 



era use, we would stick the spike end well into the ground, 
which would give us a "unipod" as efficient as a tripod. 
You could even get a steady pan shot by grasping the 
pick and mattock ends and turning the whole pick in the 
ground slowly and evenly. Hand-held Eyemos may be al- 
right, but I've yet to see a rock-steady picture taken in 
this manner. Our ice-pick tripods saved the day so far as 
the practical use of our Eyemos was concerned; in addition, 
there were no parts to lose or rust — simple, but effective. 

Sometimes it's the little things that give you more 
trouble and can cause more damages than the big ones. 
Our cameras were protected by all-metal carrying cases. 
The cases did their work well for three or four months; 
then their constant exposure to rain and dampness caused 
the rivets holding the hinges 1o rust off the covers, giving 
the cover a bad fit and allowing mud, wind-driven rain 
and pumice dust to get inside the cases. Only constant 
vigil and a cleaning of the comeras every morning and 
night as well as a good oiling, kept them from being 
damaged seriously by rust. On another venture such as 
this, I'd see to it all camera ccrrying cases were made of 
all metal, non-rustable, with equally non-rustable hinge 
fittings and locks. This would have saved a lot of anxiety 
concerning damage to cameras. 

More than once, some of the five-can negative film 
containers on which the seals had been broken would fill 
partially with water when we landed our small dories on 
beaches. Dories were the only practical means of landing 
from our expedition ship "Amelie" on uncharted shores 
where there was always danger of hidden rocks and reefs 
close in. This caused us considerable anxiety, especially 
for our exposed film. We finclly overcame this hazard 

An Eyemo mounted on an "ice-pick" trip 
had to be pressed into use when the i 
rust made our regular tripod 



by taking ordinary canvas dunnage bags and treating them 
with a waterproofing liquid we had on hand on the ship. 
We placed all our exposed material and open containers 
in these bags when making dory journeys to and from our 
expedition ship, and were successful in keeping salt water 
away from most of our film. On another venture such 
as this I'd be sure to take along a number of water- 
proofed bags of various sizes designed to hold the various 
containers of film you take along with you on each leg of 
the trek. Our pack dogs were our most important means of 
film transportation while on lend. Everytime we came to 
a stream, we had to remove the dog packs to keep the 
open containers from shipping water when the dogs forded 
the streams. Waterproof bags would have eliminated this 
troublesome procedure, which oftentimes caused us con- 
siderable delay in reaching our ob|ectives. Continual rain 
would even reach film stowed in the depths of our own 
pack sacks. Here too, waterproof bags would have re- 
lieved considerable anxiety. There are plenty of other 
things to worry about on an expedition into virgin country. 
It is impossible on an expedition of this nature to carry 
nothing but hermetically sealed containers from camp to 
camp since it is always necessary to open some of them 
to obtain film for shooting while en route. 

Needless to say, a changing bag is a very necessary re- 
quirement for reloading. We had all sorts of adverse 
weather to keep out of changing bags, and all sorts of 
places, most of them bad, where it was necessary to re- 
load. A waterproof changing bag would have been a gift 
from Heaven; for in a country where eleven days of 
straight rain was nothing unusual, it's more than hard 
to keep a changing bag dry. 

All in all we covered 8000 miles of water in six months 
and many on land which included Bogoslof, the famous 
"disappearing island" of the Bering Sea with its giant 
sea lions; the hitherto unexplored and unclimbed "Aghi- 
leen Pinnacles" on the Alaska Peninsula; the famous "Val- 
ley of 10,000 Smokes," with its spectacular steams; the 
Columbia, Malespina, Hubbard, Mendenhall and Taku gla- 
ciers, where giant icebergs are born. Lady Luck and pre- 
caution brought us home with nearly 100,000 feet of 
usable material and a great deal more camera-wise as to 
what we really needed in the line of equipment in addition 
to what we had thought we needed for expedition camera 
work, or for that matter, any trip into outdoor country 
where you're likely to run into similar conditions such as 
we did. 




100 American Cinematographer • March 1935 



Will Color 
Help or 
Hinder? 

by 

William Stull, A.S.C. 

THE INTRODUCTION of Technicolor's Three-Color 
process of natural-color Cinematography, together 
with the release of "La Cucaracha," has split the 
film world into two argumentative camps. On the one 
hand are those Cinematographers, Directors, Art-Directors 
and Executives who are confident that the new process 
heralds a revolution as sweeping as that brought about by 
sound. In the other camp are those who feel that, although 
color is interesting, it can play no really important part 
in the dramatic and artistic advancement of the cinema. 

Two things only are certain: first, that the new pro- 
cess eclipses anything heretofore possible in natural-color 
cinematography; and second, that it is historically obvious 
that no previous "color boom" (even the two-color Tech- 
nicolor boom of 1929-30, which saw 77,000,000 feet of 
major-studio releases Technicolored) has produced a last- 
ing impression upon our monochrome film world. More- 
over, the list of all-time box-office champions fails to 
show a single all-color picture, though several films are 
included which boasted color sequences. This, the colorites 
retort, proves nothing, for few, if any of the earlier color- 
films included the elements of outstanding success, but de- 
pended chiefly upon color — imperfect color, at that — for 
their popularity. Moreover, say the colorists, the new pro- 
cess is something artistically and esthetically different from 
its predecessors. 

If this is true (and there is much evidence to support 
it), any speculation, based upon previous conceptions of 
or experience with two-color processes, attempting to fore- 
cast the future and potentialities of the new, three-color 
process, would be ill-founded. Therefore, the only logical 
authorities on the subject are those who are currently 
using trichrome in actual production. Most important of 
these are, of course, the Producer, the Director, the Art- 
Director, and the Cinematographer. 

The Producer of "Becky Sharp," the initial trichrome 
feature, is John Hay (Jock) Whitney. His confidence in 
color is rather obvious from the fact that he is reputed to 
have invested $7,000,000 in the formation of Pioneer 
Pictures, wherewith to pioneer all-color production, as well 
as having invested heavily in Technicolor, itself. As he 
is not noted for backing unlikely argosies, it is evident 
that he believes in color. 




At top Technicolor camera and camera rew set 
Te At top hnicolor camera and camera crew set 
for a take in the all-color feature "Becky Sharp." 
Below Robert Edmond Jones, famous stage de- 
signer, who designed sets and costumes for "Becky 
Sharp." 

"Becky Sharp's" color designer is Robert Edmond Jones, 
unquestionably the foremost designer-director of the the- 
atre. The term "Art-Director" is actually only a pale de- 
scription of his activities, for he is in truth far more- — a 
sort of chromatic supervisor of every detail of the produc- 
tion. Not only did he design settings and costumes, and 
plan the coloring of every scene: he outlines the chromatic 
composition of every shot, and serves on the set almost 
as a co-director and co-cinematographer. 

Jones is enthusiastic over the possibilities of wisely 
created color-films. "With the new process," he says, 
"the possibilities are unlimited. Rather, they are limited 
only by the intelligent artistry with which the color is 
employed. And here I must stop to pay tribute to Tech- 
nicolor's new process: it is very nearly perfect; it has 
nothing in common with any previous process, so far as 
results are concerned, for it does not distort colors, or give 
the 'woolly' results we have had heretofore. If you give 
it a color to photograph, it will give you back that same 
color on the screen, unchanged. 

"Fully realizing my lack of qualification as a prophet, 
I am none the less confident that the introduction of this 
new process is going to bring about a change in screen 
methods comparable only to that brought about by sounds. 
Not as quick, certainly, nor as devastating: but once a few 
really good color films have been released, the Industry will 
have to become color-conscious. 

(Continued on Page 1 06 > 



March 1935 • American Cinematographer 10) 



PHOTOGRAPHY 



"MYSTERY OF EDWIN DROOD" (Universal) 
George Robinson, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Daily Variety (January 17, 1935': "Photography by 

George Robinson is excellent." 
Hollywood Reporter (January 17, 1935) : " — and the pic- 
ture has been exceptionally well photographed." 
Motion Picture Daily (January 19, 1935' : "The photog- 
raphy of George Robinson is excellent." 

"MURDER ON A HONEYMOON" (Radio) 

Nick Musuroco, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 

Daily Variety (January 21, 1935) : "Photography by Nick 

Musuraca and special effects by Vernon Walker are 

top notch." 

Motion Picture Daily (January 22, 1935': "Nick Musu- 
raca and Vernon Walker are well teamed on photog- 
raphy and effects." 

"RHUMBA" (Paramount) 

Teddy Tetzlaff, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (January 23, 1935) : "Photography by 
Teddy Tetzlaff was unusual." 

"WHEN A MAN'S A MAN" (Fox) 
Frank B. Good, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (January 25, 19351: "Photography 
fine." 

Daily Variety (January 25, 19351 : " — while exteriors by 
Frank Good provide some very beautiful camera setups." 

"VANESSA, HER LOVE STORY" (M-G-M) 
Ray June, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Daily Variety (January 25, 1935): "Photography of Ray 
June is excellent." 



of the MONTH 



"DEVIL DOGS OF THE AIR" (Warner Bros.) 

Arthur Edeson, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 

Hollywood Reporter (January 30, 1935): "Photography 
and mounting are first rate." 

Daily Variety (January 30, 1935) : "Arthur Edeson's pho- 
tography is exceptionally good throughout the entire 
picture." 

"AFTER OFFICE HOURS" (M-G-M) 
Charles Rosher, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Daily Variety (January 30, 1935): "Photography is av- 
erage — ." 

Hollywood Reporter (January 30, 1935): " — and that 
Charles Rosher is an ace cameraman — ." 

"THE GOOD FAIRY" (Universal) 
Norbert Brodine, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Daily Variety (January 31, 1935) : "Photography is excel- 
lent." 

Hollywood Reporter (January 31, 1935' : "Photography of 
Norbert Brodine is excellent." 

"ONE MORE SPRING" (Fox) 

John Seitz, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 

Hollywood Reporter (January 31, 1935) : "John Seitz pho- 
tographed beautifully." 

Daily Variety (January 31, 1935) : "Photography by John 
Seitz is okay — ." 

"LIFE BEGINS AT 40" (Fox) 

Harry Jackson, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Daily Variety (February 1, 1935) : "Photography and pro- 
duction are both good." 
Hollywood Reporter (February 1, 1935) : "Photography by 
Harry Jackson, top-notch." 



"THE NUT FARM" (Monogram) 
Harry Neumann, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Daily Variety (January 26, 1935): "Photography credit- 
able." 

Hollywood Reporter (January 26, 1935): "Photography 
A-l." 



"RUGGLES OF RED GAP" ( Paramount ) 
Alfred Gilks, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (February 2, 1935) : "Photography by 

Alfred Gilks very good." 
Daily Variety I February 2, 1935* : "Photography and pro- 
duction are both excellent." 



"$20 A WEEK" (Ajax) 

Arthur Martinelli, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Film Daily (January 22, 1935): Photography "Fair." 

"SHADOW OF DOUBT" (M-G-M) 
Charles Clarke, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (January 28, 1935) : " — and the pho- 
tography is first rate." 

"Charles Clarke's photography is ace high — ." 



"THE LITTLE COLONEL" (Fox) 

Arthur C. Miller, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (February 6, 1935': " — and Arthur 

Miller's photography is excellent — ." 
Daily Variety (February 6, 1935) : "Arthur Miller's pho- 
tography is good, especially when he focuses on Miss 
Temple." 

Motion Picture Daily (February 7, 1935' : "Arthur Miller'* 
photography is good." 



*02 American Cinematographer • March 1935 



THE CAMERA'S OMNISCIENT EYE 



• Continued from Page 93) 



camera, and acute - perspective lenses 
are some of the more glaring faults. All 
of these instrumentalities are of great 
intrinsic power when proportionately 
suited to becoming a part of a dramatic 
intensity sufficient to absorb their punch 
in a unitary balance of contributive 
stimuli. 

However, as the screen matures and 
the various dramatic and pictorial ele- 
ments are unified, dramatic cinematog- 
raphy will be more incisively rational- 
ized; and through this restraint and 
refinement the screen will gain a more 
consistent power of expression, since less 
of its substance and form will be wasted 
on content of insufficient intensity or 
disharmonious mood. 

There is another consideration while 
on the subject of the omniscient eye, 
that of "compression." While the cam- 
era sees and points out "the one right 
thing at the right time," it is implied 
that the one thing may be and usually 
is, the sum-effect of a number of con- 
tributive stimuli. It is this intrinsic 
wealth of stimuli, plus the cinema's ex- 
ceptional synthetic facilities, acting to- 
gether, that pack into so brief a space 
of time such a rich field of experience 
for the percipient. That is, through the 
concurrent interlocking and emphasizing 
of a number of pantomimic and literary 
symbols of specific human significations, 
with symbols of human, material, ani- 
mate or inanimate, abstract significa- 
tion, a great web of affective thought is 
generated in the percipient very rapidly 
within a few scenes. Whereas, for the 
sake of comparison, if it were possible 
for a like mass of stimuli to be absorbed 
exclusively from the written or spoken 
word, many pages and much time would 
be consumed in arriving at the same 
juncture of percipient experience. And, 
due to their relatively restricted type of 
stimuli, the written or spoken word alone 
cannot approach in intensity the vibrat- 
ing brilliance of the highly compressed 
cinematic experience. It is, again, this 
faculty of extreme compression which 
helps to give the motion picture such 
outstanding influence. 

Going one step further in our discus- 
sion; through the camera's omniscience 
there comes to the percipient not only 
the richness of things and thoughts 
derived through the senses, but of even 
more potent experiences derived almost 
entirely through imaginative construc- 
tion. For at certain times, omniscient 
perception requires the complete or 
nearly complete cessation of physical 
activity or other stimuli on the screen 
and the continuation of cinematic 
movement within the percipient's mind 
alone, with infinitely greater effective- 
ness than actual screen representation. 
Not only dramatically is the purely sub- 



jective most powerful, but ofttimes, with 
regards for human sensibilities, it is the 
one right way to interpret. 

In conclusion: for each instant of the 
picture's duration there is but one best 
point of perception for the camera lens. 
It is for the Director of Photography to 
understand the implications of the 
story's theme and philosophy, the psy- 
chology of the story's dramatic structure 
and of the story characters, during each 
of the synthesized moments of occur- 
rence relative to the whole picture-per- 
cipient experience. Thus, in the individ- 
ual shot, the indicative and relative 
dramatic-pictorial factors intersect at a 
focal point, and this photo-dramatic 



optimum is the one set-up (stat;c or 
mobilel for the particular subject-mat- 
ter ot the instant. And, as the course 
of the story is .raced through sequence 
after sequence, the cinematographic eye 
moves where it will in its omniscient 
seeing. 

So it may be said generally: Always 
use that unique facility of participation 
inherent in the motion picture to the 
limit of its effectiveness, in order that 
the percipient realize the most pertinent 
and interesting ideas and facts in the 
story's evolution and substance (regard- 
less of where the camera may be put to 
so record and interpret), provided there 
is a sustained "picture-audience unity 
of experience." Nor does it matter how 
varied the camera angles or how heavily 
they are punched if a consistently un- 
self-conscious and rising cumulation of 
"illusion of occurrence" prevails. 



Photography Should Interpret 

Personality and Character 



(Continued from Page 97) 
to the study of proper lighting and back- 
grounds for the further developments of 
the subject's characterization. It is due 
to this extensive and untiring effort on 
the part of the successful cinematog- 
rapher that he is able to stay in the 
front ranks of the art of cinematog- 
raphy, in this field of ever-changing 
methods, new inventions, and radical 
and revolutionary introductions. 

It has often been claimed that cine- 
matographers are born and not made. 
This is partially true and partially false. 
The cinematographer must be born with 
the ability to understand the psychologi- 
cal, dramatic and true characterization 
of the subject he is photographing. On 
the other hand, he must learn, through 
study and research, the possibilities and 
the rational assimilation of the machine 
with which he is working. Good cinema- 
tography is one of the best educations 
toward a rounded sense of reality. Re- 
storing to the eye, otherwise so preoc- 
cupied with the abstractions of print, 
the stimulus of things roundly seen as 
things, shapes, colors, and textures. 
When this has been learned, the cine- 
matographer will then be able to give 
shape and significance to the story's 
most remote symbols. 

The facts pointed to in the beginning 
of this article have been proven by my 
own career. I was not born a DaVinci, 
or a Michael Angelo. Although I, too, 
came from Italy, it was my lot to arrive 
in the United States an immigrant, with- 
out knowledge of the English language, 
and far less knowledge of photography 
in any of its phases. Yet, through con- 
stant study and research of the then in- 
fant field of cinematography, managed 
to lay a foundation upon which my pres- 



ent career and theories are based. It 
is, therefore, my belief, that any cine- 
matographer to fully understand the 
true perspective of his art, must reach 
this understanding through past mis- 
takes, made by both himself and others 
who delved deeply into the scientific 
field of cinematography. 

The cinematographer must have for 
the basis of this cultivation, a direct and 
immediate experience of living itself. 
We must directly see, feel, touch, man- 
ipulate, sing, dance, communicate, be- 
fore we can extract from the subject 
any further sustenance for character. If 
we are empty to begin with, the subject 
will be empty, and if we are passive, 
powerless and have not the feelings of 
the subject, how can we expect to in- 
ject into the film the one outstanding 
quality of motion pictures, human char- 
acterization? 



Halter Places Stress on Detail 

(Continued from Page 96) 

to have on his sets in the way of set 
dressings, the color, textures and period 
the furniture and the other myriad of 
details that might be considered by many 
to be of no importance whatsoever. 

There is no production too big for 
Holier to tackle. There is no such thing 
as too difficult, as far as he is con- 
cerned. With his training and methods 
of living, obstacles, which might be con- 
sidered insurmountable, can be over- 
come with detailed thought. 

Foreign directors, Haller believes, are 
the most difficult to please. Primarily 
because they think differently than the 



March 1935 • American Cinematographer 103 

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American ones, due to the fact that 
their early environment has been, by 
necessity, so widely contrasted to the 
life in the United States. 

Again, this misunderstanding can be 
overcome by a detailed study of the per- 
son with whom you have to work. This 
has been given careful thought by Holler 
because during his years of experience, 
he has worked with many of the leading 
foreign directors. 

He points out that if detail is wholly 



with; so essentially unreal in its concep- 
tion that no effort could make it real 
in completion. I could not, from the 
start, believe in the actuality of what 
I was photographing; it touched no re- 
sponsive chord in my experience-mem- 
ories, and accordingly I could bring to 
its realization only technique — not sin- 
cerity. 

It is entirely possible that in some 
other Cinematographer the same scene 
might have found the note lacking in 
my individual experience, in which case, 
regardless of whether he treated it with 
greater or less technical skill than I 
used, I am sure the scene would have 
been more convincing on the screen. 

Of course, it is utterly impossible that 
any Cinematographer could have ex- 
perienced situations and emotions abso- 
lutely identical with those of every scene 
he is called on to film: but his experi- 
ence should be such that the majority 
of scenes will find some common factor 
in his memory. Some factor, that is, 
which will suggest how such a scene 
should naturally look — which will en- 
able him to visualize the scene in pho- 
tographic terms. You would not, for 
example, be able to correctly visualize 
the arrangement and lighting of a room 
in a modern home if all your life had 
been spent in an Eskimo igloo; you 
would be like a blind man trying to de- 
scribe the color red! To draw perhaps 
a better comparison, how close could a 
man whose only experience of homes 
had been in the squalor of the slums 
come to portraying convincingly a scene 
laid in the home of a cultured million- 
aire? 

This, I believe, is a factor too gen- 
erally overlooked in all phases of pro- 
duction. Our aim in making moving 
pictures is to present stories and scenes 
which give at least an illusion of actu- 
ality. This illusion can only be attained 
when every phase of production — writ- 
ing, acting, direction, settings and cine- 
matography — strikes a keynote of sin- 
cerity based on experience. In other 
words, when all of the artists concerned 
are artistically honest — with themselves 
and with their work. 



and absolutely observed in every in- 
stance, the other qualifications which go 
to making a motion picture a thing of 
beauty and entertainment, such as vi- 
tality, richness of settings, and true 
characterization of the subject will be 
brought out in more pronounced sharp- 
ness. Because when the cinematographer 
strives toward detail he catches the one 
important movement which crystallizes 
itself out of the many unimportant ges- 
tures used in the course of the day. 



A vitally important — and neglected 
— factor in bringing this condition about 
is more closely coordinated preparation. 

Times without number I (and ev- 
ery other Cinematographer) have fin- 
inshed a production one evening, only 
to start another one the following 
morning. On at least one of my re- 
cent films, I actually had no idea of 
the story until late the night before 
I started shooting! Under such condi- 
tions, no Cinematographer can possibly 
make his fullest contribution to the suc- 
cess of a production. It would be im- 
measurably better all around if Cine- 
matogrophers were allowed more thor- 
ough preparation for each picture — a 
chance to study the script, and to work 
closely with Director, Art-Director and 
Costumers in planning and coordinating 
the details of production, so that the 
whole might emerge a better and more 
unified piece of work. This would prob- 
ably result in fewer pictures per year 
for each Cinematographer — but they 
would be better and more successful 
ones. Incidentally, such a practice would 
go far toward spreading employment in 
our craft. 

My own preparation for a picture, 
hampered as it usually is by insufficient 
time for tests, conferences and study, 
is necessarily brief. I try always to be 
familiar with the story, with the players 
I am to photograph, and with the set- 
tings and locations I am to use. When 
I om working with a star I have not 
previously photographed, I naturally try 
to make at least a few photographic 
tests before starting production. Before 
filming "Chained," for example, I had 
never photographed Joan Crawford; 
therefore my first step was to study with 
Miss Crawford some of her favorite por- 
traits, in order that I might get an idea 
of how she wished to look on the screen. 
Once I understood this, it was easy 
enough to determine the angles, style 
of lighting, and so on, required to pre- 
sent her in that fashion. Once more a 
case of first visualizing clearly how a 
thing should look, in order to be able 
to photograph it convincingly. 

In actual production, I make it a 



ARTISTIC HONESTY IN CINEMATOGRAPHY 

I Continued from Page 94) 



March 1935 • American i_inemarograpner 105 



point to pay os much attention to the 
treatment of the set itself as to the 
players. Essentially, of course, the set 
is simply a background against which 
the players enact the story: but it should 
be a convincing background. Therefore 
it should be treated with equal care. 
Actually a set serves two purposes. Not 
only must it be a convincing, believable 
background for the action, but it forms 
a vital part of the composition. Thus it 
should be lit not only with an eye to 
enhancing the effect of actuality, but 
to enhance the pictorial value. Careful 
attention to painting pictorial designs 
with light and shade upon set walls, for 
example, does much to heighten the 
pictorial effect, and if carefully done, 
does not in the least destroy the natural 
effect. 

It is perhaps needless to say that the 
extent to which a Cinematographer can 
carry out his ideas depends greatly upon 
the Director with whom he works. Some 
Directors — like Richard Boleslawski, for 
instance — cooperate generously with the 
Cinematographer. Such a Director thinks 
in terms of pictures as well as action or 
dialog; accordingly, he sees to it that 
the Cinematographer understands the 
story and its aims quite as thoroughly 
as he does — and that there is ample 
time and cooperation for the production 
of every photographic effect that will 
make the film more perfect pictorially. 



Other Directors may concentrate their 
attention on action or dialog, and more 
or less accept the Cinematographer as 
a matter of course. Others still, while 
not directly interested in the purely pic- 
torial phases of the production, none 
the less realize that the camerawork is 
important, and cooperate largely for the 
mechanical perfection such cooperation 
makes possible. Each, in his own way, 
helping the Cinematographer to turn 
out a smooth, consistent, and uniformly 
well-photographed production. 

The most difficult to work successfully 
with are the few who do not, apparently, 
visualize cleariy themselves: it is like 
sorting out a jig-saw puzzle, for some- 
where in a confused discourse upon the 
shortcomings of the casting-office, the 
merits of Saturday's football game, the 
blonde he dined with last night, and 
fragmentary comments upon scene and 



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script, is an idea of what he expects in 
the scene. It is interesting mental exer- 
cise, trying to find that idea — and form- 
ing a clear mental image of what is 
wanted! 

Under ordinary conditions, success in 
Cinematography must naturally depend 
upon a number of circumstances: upon 
getting stories which allow some degree 
of artistic expression, upon adequate 
preparation, and upon a thoroughly co- 
operative Director. But most of all, 
success depends upon the individual 
Cinematographer's reservoir of experi- 
ence, which should illumine his treat- 
ment of every scene, and upon absolute 
artistic honesty with himself and with 
his work. 

High Intensity Mercury Vapor 
Lamp for Photographic 
Applications 

(Continued from Page 93) 

Portrait Work 

The value of the new lamp in this 
field is problematical. To be sure, the 
older mercury vapor tube was one of 
the standard illuminants for portrait 
photography, and on the same basis the 
new lamp should prove equally effective. 
However, many photographers who are 
now employing portrait panchromatic 
films prefer an illuminant having all col- 
ors as it greatly reduces the amount of 



re-touching necessary. The slow start 
probably would not be objectionable ow- 
ing to the time the subject requires to 
get ready. 
Color Photography 

Owing to the practical absence of 
some colors, the mercury vapor lamp is 
quite unsuited for color photography if 
used alone. 

It is entirely possible that the high 
intensity mercury vapor lamp could be 
used in those applications such as por- 
trait and commercial photography, as 
well as color work, if some other source 
such as MAZDA lamps were incorporated 
in the equipment to fill in those parts of 
the spectrum where the mercury source 
is deficient. It would be necessary to 
enclose both illuminants in the same dif- 
fusing globe to prevent color shadows. 

There are at present no reflectors 
available for the high intensity mercury 
lamp designed especially for photo- 
graphic applications. Undoubtedly pho- 
tographic manufacturers such as John- 
son Ventlite Company, Halldorson Com- 
pany, or Burke & James, all of Chicago, 
will place equipments on the market as 
the demand arises. The mercury lamp 
can, however, be used quite successfully 
in either the R.L.M. or the deep bowl 
aluminum reflectors designed for the 
1000-watt PS-52 bulb lamp, with only 
a slight broadening of the light distribu- 
tion. Of course these reflectors are best 
adapted to a downward direction of the 
light on account of the burning position 
of the lamp. For the copy board light- 
ing, some form of trough reflector would 
be best suited. 

On account of the weight of the con- 
trol equipment the high intensity mer- 
cury lamp is limited to fixed installa- 
tions in the studios. 

Will Color Help or H inder 

(Continued from Page lOOt 

"Up to now, of course, the Industry 
has been anything but color-conscious. 
It has operated upon a black-and-white 
basis, and accordingly its people have 
trained themselves to think in mono- 
chrome. Now that we have color — and 
very good color — to work with, we must 
learn to think in terms of color. But 
color does not mean an abundance of 
color: this cannot be too strongly em- 
phasized. 

"In other words, Cinematogrophers, 
Art-Directors and Directors must learn 
to compose their pictures in color, as 
well as in line, mass and chiaroscuro. 
In this, I find that most people have 
quite a wrong idea of what constitutes 
a colored picture. Suppose we have an 
ordinary shot of a man in a room: to 
cite an extreme instance, some people 
would consider it enough to give the 
man a red necktie, and perhaps to put 
a bright carpet on the floor, or brilliant 
paintings on the walls. In the true sense, 
this is NOT a true color picture, even 




March 1935 O American Cinematographer 107 



though the camera would reproduce the 
scene perfectly. In a true color picture, 
there must be a definite chromatic har- 
mony between every bit of color in the 
frame — between the tie, the walls, the 
carpeting, the drapes, the furniture, and 
so on. Moreover, these factors must be 
arranged to give a good composition, not 
only in line and mass, but in color. 

Cinematographers are accustomed to 
making their black - and - white com- 
positions with feeling — composing with 
line, light and form to develop and en- 
hance the complex combinations of feel- 
ings summed up as 'mood.' The same 
thing can and must be done in color- 
composition. 

"Cur language includes innumerab'e 
phrases linking color with the emotions 
— 'crimson with passion' — 'green with 
envy' — 'white with fear' — 'blue and de- 
lected' — and so on. The very lack of 
color suggests a dull, drab emotional 
state. All of this must be taken into 
consideration in planning and filming 
color pictures. Color must be used, not 
only as color, but as a dramatic, emo- 
tional tool, to build and maintain mood: 
and this, in conjunction with painstaking 
composition in color. 

"All of this indicates that creative 
film-workers — especially the Cinema- 
tographers and Art-Directors — must de- 
velop a positive color-sense, or step aside 
for those who have such a sense. Since 
established film workers have had to 
train themselves to think in black-and- 
white, rather than in color, they are 
starting out under a fearful handicap, 
for they must utterly revise their mental 
processes if they are to keep step with 
the progress of the Art. I am not the 
only person in the theatre who has a 
reputation for thinking in color (though 
it is my good fortune to have been se- 
lected as the first color-consultant I ; 
and I am sure that if this picture suc- 
ceeds as we believe it will, there will hp 
a tremendous influx of stage colorists. 

The only living Director who has 
worked with trichrome on a full dramat- 
ic feature is Rouben Mamoulian, who 
succeeded the late Lowell Sherman as 
Director of "Becky Sharp." To him, 
color is an adventure — and a promise. 
"I enjoy this assignment tremendously," 
he told me. "Probably a great part of it 
is the thrill of consciously pioneering in 
a new field; but on the stage, before I 
entered pictures, I always tried to make 
the dramatic and emotional use of color 
play a vital part of my work — and I 
have missed its aid in making pictures. 

"Color is at present in about the 
same stage of development as was sound 
when the first talkies were made: it is 
mechanically well developed, but no one 
has used it enough to be fully convers- 
ant with the artistic technique of ap- 
plying it constructively to production. 
That is why we are going slowly and 
carefully on this picture, which is really 



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108 American Cinematographer o 



March 1935 




in the nature of a large-scale experi- 
ment. 

"Do you remember when the first 
talkies came out, how carefully we re- 
corded every slightest noise that might 
be 'natural' — every footstep, every 
rustle, every door-slam, even to eggs 
sizzling in a frying-pan? Well, up to 
now, color has been in exactly the same 
stage of development: we have had the 
means of bringing color to the screen, 




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The Hoefner four- 
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and we have taken pains to see that it 
gave us plenty of color. From now on, 
we must be selective, using color intel- 
ligently, for its dramatic, emotional val- 
ue as well as for pictorial purposes. 

"I do not find that color — rightly 
used — conflicts wi'h the dramatic ele- 
ments of the story. It doesn't on the 
stage; no more should it in films, unless 
we make it do so by using it unwisely. 
Sooner or later, the majority of import- 
ant pictures will undoubtedly be made 
in color. Up to now, the moving picture 
industry has been like an artist who 
was allowed only to use pencil or char- 
coal; now Technicolor has given us 
paints. In Art, there is a place for the 
monochrome line-drawing, even though 
color, in the form of oil paintings and 
aquarelles, is predominant. It is the 
same in pictures: color will undoubtedly 
become the dominant medium, but there 
will none the less be a place for the 
black-and-white film for some subjects, 
even as there is a recognized place for 
etchings. There will always be some 
stories which will be more fittingly told 
in monochrome, just as some stories 
'like 'The Last Laugh') even today 
would gain nothing from the addition of 
sound. 

"The main thing today is not to get 
excited over color to the point where 
enthusiasm for color overbalances what 
we have already learned about film 
craftsmanship. In this initial period, it 
is only logical that we should use color 
on films whose subject and background 
offer, as in 'La Cucaracha' and 'Becky 
Sharp,' the greatest oportunities for ef- 
fective coloration: but eventually we will 
surely find that the use of color — in 
costuming, in settings and in lighting — 
will be a definite aid to putting over 
dramatic and emotional effects in any 
picture, just as are lighting, composi- 
tion, and tempo already." 

Cinematographer Ray Rennahan, al- 
most the only trichrome Cinematog- 
rapher, definitely approves of color. "I 
like color cinematography," he said, 
"especially in this new process. It gives 
you a chance to develop effects of mood 
and actuality that can't be approached 
in black-and-white. Of course, we are 
largely back to arc lighting — but we 
used arcs before, and a lot of us com- 
plained when Incandescents drove them 
out. 




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Both of these factors mean much 
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Take advantage of them for your 
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tlie startlingly brilliant, clear, steady pictures shown by 
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Bell & Howell's latest achievement, the Filmo Audi- 
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Its name — Filmo Auditorium Projector — is indicative 
of its capability, as are its many other new features, 
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March, 1935 



A 



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his issue 



Tips on Home Projection 

Dabbling in Makeup 

Common Sense and Sound-on- 
Film 

Tricks and Gadgets 
. . . and other features 



Price 25^ 



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PROFESSIONAL Criticism of the Amateur 
picture is a part of the service offered by the 
AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER. Many are 
not aware of this. Hundreds of pictures have 
been reviewed this past year by members of 
the American Society of Cinematographers for 
the Amateur. 



March 1935 • American Cinematographer 113 



AMATEUR 
MOVIE 

SECTION 



Contents . . . 

METHODS of Producing 16mm Sound Films 



by M. Margossian 114 

TIPS On Home Projection 

by Ormal J. Sprungman 1 17 

DUFAY Color Film for Miniature Cameras 

by C. W. D. Slifer, A.S.C 1 18 

DABBLING In Makeup 

by Wm. J. Grace..... 120 

FROM Soup to Nuts 

by E. J. Ludes 122 

COMMON Sense and Sound Film 

by Henry T. Sharp, A.S.C 123 

TRICKS and Gadgets .124 



Next Month . . . 

• Clyde DeVinna, A.S.C, will tell you how to 
use your library; what to read and how to read 
books on photography. There is much you can 
learn about photography from books; DeVinna 
leads the way. 

O Grace will give us his second article on 
Makeup. In addition to that we have another 
article from him that he has called Perfection 
in Projection. It will interest you. 

• Naturally there will be many other interest- 
ing articles and hints for the ambitious ama- 
teur. 



14 American Cinematographer C March 1935 




Fig. 1. A general view of 16mm sound and pic- 
ture recording camera. 



IN THE earlier stages of 16mm sound-picture progress, 
the larger part of the research was concentrated in 
the development of sound-on-disc equipment. How- 
ever, the bulk and weight of such apparatus, coupled with 
the difficulty of securing proper synchronization between 
the disc and the film, turned this interest toward a sound- 
on-film system. A combination of sound and picture on 
the same strip of film was then proposed to secure exact 
synchronization and to reduce the bulk of the entire equip- 
ment. At first, those engineers who were involved in the 
realization of such a scheme found themselves confronted 
with the seemingly impossible problems of design, weight, 
cost, dependability, and simplicity of operation of such 
apparatus. Despite all the unfavorable comments and pre- 
dictions, most of these problems have been solved one after 
the other. 

At the present two important and distinct methods 
are used in producing 16mm sound-on-film pictures. In 
the first, sound and picture are recorded simultaneously 
and directly on a single strip of film by means of a specially 
constructed 16mm recording machine. A general view of 
such a camera with its auxiliaries, built by RCA Victor 
Company, is shown in Figure 1 . In the second method, 
16mm prints are made from the existing 35mm films using 
either re-recording or optical reduction of sound. This 
article will present a discussion of the latter of these two 
methods of producing substandard sound-on-film pictures 

Optical Reduction of Picture and Re-Recording of Sound 

One of the two principal processes of preparing 16mm 
sound-on-film pictures from existing 35mm films consists 
in recording the sound and photograph on a 35mm nega- 



Methods of 



tive and preparing a positive print from it in the usual 
manner. The picture of this print is then reduced by op- 
tical reduction and its sound track is re-recorded onto 
16mm film. The final 16mm positive film is obtained us- 
ing the reduced picture and re-recorded negatives in cer- 
tain printing processes which will be explained below. 

According to the standards adopted by the Society of 
Motion Picture Engineers the dimensions of the standard 
35mm sound film camera aperture are 0.368 by 0.631 
inch while the corresponding dimensions on the standard 
16mm sound film are 0.410 by 0.294 inch. Computing 
the reduction ratios in the two directions, it will readily 
be seen that different optical reductions are required in 
the horizontal and the vertical axes. Due to the intro- 
duction of such a difference in reduction ratios it is neces- 
sary to use a special optical system employing cylindrical 
lenses. 

Furthermore, as the gap between successive picture 
frames in the standard 35mm sound film is 0.117 inch 
and the corresponding gap in the case of the standard 
16mm sound film is only 0.006 inch, which is only a very 
small fraction of the first, it is not possible to make use 
of the continuous optical reduction printing when a dupe 
• duplicate) negative is not available. For this reason a 
specially constructed printer is devised, known as step- 
printer, which prints the optically reduced picture on the 
16mm film frame by frame. 

The re-recording of the sound on 16mm is very similar 
to the original recording of sound on standard film, and 
is accomplished by a recorder which closely resembles a 
reproducer. A light ray, traversing the already recorded 
sound track of the standard film, produces light variations 
corresponding to the variable densities or variable areas 
of the sound track. These light variations falling on a 
photo-electric cell create electrical impulses which in turn 
are transformed to light variations by means of a glow 
lamp. The alternating optical exposures so produced leave 
impressions of a new and reduced sound track on the 
1 6mm film. 1 

The optical reduction of the picture area and the re- 
recording of the sound track are usually made on separate 
strips of films. If the two operations are impressed on 
the same ribbon of film, a master 16mm sound-on-film is 
obtained. 

Continuous Printing of Sound and Picture 

The 1 6mm master negative carrying the comb'ned 
picture and re-recorded sound, or the separate picture and 



Producing 16mm 
Sound Films 
from 35mm 

Re-Recording and 
Optical Reduction 

. by 

M. Margossian, B.S (E.E.) 



sound films, are used in preparing the final prints by means 
of printing machines. Figure 2a represents a general view 
of a Bell & Howell equipment which performs such a print- 
ing operation. Figure 2b is a close-up of the section of 
the same machine where the printing proper is performed. 
The printer is equipped with a three-way mask allowing 
either the picture area, or the sound, or both to be printed 
together. The setting in this particular case, as shown in 
Figure 2b, is for printing sound only. Obviously, both sound 
and picture can be printed on the one printer light setting 
when a master I6mm sound-on-film negative is available. 
With this equipment it is found preferable to use separate 
sound and picture negative, thus involving a double print- 
ing operation. 

A similar equipment, produced by E. M. Berndt of New 
York, is shown in Figure 3. The apparatus again is designed 
to make a combined picture and sound print from either 
a combined picture and sound negative, or separate picture 
and sound negatives. 

Summarizing the above, it may be seen that three dif- 
ferent operations are involved in producing 1 6mm sound 
films when a 35mm print is available: 

( l ) An optical reduction which consists simply in 
optically reducing the picture area of a 35mm print to fit 
the smaller picture area allowed for in 16mm raw stock. 

(2) A re-recording of sound which is merely the 
making of a new recording on the 16mm film from the 
35mm. 

(3) And finally, a printing operation which transfers 
the sound and picture of a master 16mm sound-on-film 

Fig. 3. Berndt Sound Printer designed to 
combined 16mm picture and sound 



March 1935 • American Cinematographer lib 




Fig. 2a. A general view of a Bell & Howell print- 
ing machine and at right, Fig. 2b, an enlarged 
view of Fig. 2a showing the location of printing 

mask. 



onto a positive 16mm film stock through a direct printing 
process. 

Optical Reduction of Picture and Sound 

In the second method of preparing substandard sound 
pictures from existing standard films, both the picture and 
the sound are reduced optically. 

The optical reduction of the picture, as explained 
above, is accomplished by using an optical reduction step- 
printer. 

The optical reduction of the sound track, however, is 
performed by continuous optical reduction printing. 2 Figure 
4 represents the original design of such a printer invented 
and designed by A. F. Victor. The upper reel contains the 



make 
prints. 




116 American Cinsmatographer c March 1935 




Fig. 4. Original design of continuous reduction 
printer made by Victor Animatograph Corp. 



standard 35mm film, which is carried down past the slit 
B and wrapped around the sprocket A. As the standard 
film passes the slit B, the light beam is carried from this 
slit to the prism C where it is deflected downward through 
the lens D, the focused image of the frequency variations 
striking the point E. During the same time, the 16mm 
film, traveling horizontally through E, has the image of 
sound impressed on its track. Passing through E, the im- 
pressed 16mm sound film is carried on to the sprocket A 
where it is wrapped around a smaller diameter sprocket. 
The mechanism of modern reduction printers is somewhat 
different from the above equipment, but the basic prin- 
ciples involved in all of them are essentially the same. 

Like the optical reduction of picture area, the reduc- 
tion ratios of sound track in the longitudinal and trans- 
verse planes are different. Hence, an anamorphote or 
distorted-image-producing optical system is used, employ- 
ing a combination of cylindrical and spherical lenses, or 
simply a pair of cylindrcial lenses with an achromatic 
microscope objective disposed between them. Figure 5 
represents the schematic diagram of such a system as used 
in RCA Victor Company's model reduction sound printer. 3 

In general, one of the following three methods is used 
to obtain the final 16mm sound-on-f ilm prints by optical 
reduction of sound and picture: 

(1) If the original master negative is available, the 
16mm final print may be obtained by two direct optical 
reduction processes of picture and sound. Undoubtedly, this 
is the best method of making 16mm films as it involves 
less operations and preserves the quality of 35mm sound 
better, eliminating all contact printing operations which 



would otherwise bring a definite loss in high frequency 
waves. 

(21 Usually, the original master negative is not used 
in preparing prints to be released. Instead, a contact 
positive print is made from it on 35mm film stock. From 
this print a 16mm dupe negative is prepared by optical 
reduction; this dupe is then used to print the final 16mm 
prints with the aid of one of the printing machines as out- 
lined above. 

(3) A third method consists in preparing a dupe 35- 
mm negative from which the 16mm prints are prepared 
by optical reduction. By this process the quality of sound 
preserved from 35mm would be somewhat better than in 
the preceding method since it involves one less printing 
operation. 

From the above discussion it may be concluded that 
optical reduction of sound and picture is a simple process 
of producing 16mm sound-on-films from existing 35mm 
stock since it involves comparatively few operations. When 
a 35mm dupe negative is available, the 16mm print is 
obtained by: 

( 1 ) An optical reduction of picture, using step print- 
ing, and 

(21 An optical reduction of sound, using continuous 
reduction printing. 

Aside from its simplicity, this process, with its optical 
reduction of sound, yields somewhat better results than 
the first method where sound is re-recorded. It yields bet- 
ter results because it eliminates certain contact printing 
operations, thereby reducing losses of high frequency waves 
which are inherent to all contact printing. 

References 

'Victor, A. F.: "Continuous Optical Reduction Printing," 
J. Soc. Mot. Pict. Eng., XXIII (Aug., 1934), No. 2, 
p. 97. 

2 Victor, A. F.: "Continuous Reduction Printer," Trans. Soc. 
Mot. Pict. Eng., Ill (1919), No. 9, p. 34. 

3D immick, G. L., Batsel, C. N., and Sachtleben, L. T. : 
"Optical Reduction Sound Printing," J. Soc. Mot. Pict. 
Eng., XXIII (Aug., 1934), No. 2, p. 108. 




TBANSVCPSE PLAN? 

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF PRINTING OPTICS PPOPCP- 
MOD£L OPTICAL 2CDUCTI0N SOUND P8lNT£P. 



Fig. 5. A schematic diagram of anamorphote op- 
tical system of model reduction printer. 



March 1935 o American Cinematographer 117 




Tips on 

Home 

Projection 



by 

Ormal I. Sprungman 



I F YOU project in your living room and do not own a suit- 
able screen, a creaseless, water-soaked bed sheet, 
I wrung out and hung up in a doorway will serve nicely 
in an emergency. Films can also be shown on light unpat- 
terned wallpaper or dull walls, although some picture- 
luminosity will be lost. Use tracing linen for a "daylight 
screen." Set the projector behind the screen and give the 
film half a turn before threading. During the winter 
months, try projecting your movies through an open win- 
dow on a smooth bank of snow for a novel effect. Scenes 
of swimming, sun-bathing and various summer sports will 
probably give your audience chilblains when viewed on this 
cold screen background. But it's worth a try. 

There are many excellent screens on the market, but 
among the movie-making fraternity there are always sev- 
eral home-workshop enthusiasts who like to make their 
own accessories. For such amateurs, we suggest a combina- 
tion silver and beaded screen, ideal for ordinary family 
group projection, which can be built inside a discarded 
1 8x24 inch picture frame. 

Remove the glass and picture-backing. Refmish the 
wooden frame a dull black. Hinge the upper left corner 
of the top of the frame and "slot" the back so that after 



the top is raised, a square of cardboard or plywood, silvered 
on one side and beaded on the other, may be inserted in 
place. Such a screen may be mounted atop the table or 
on the back of a door so that when the door is opened 
against the wall, the screen is hidden from view. Silver 
screen paint, obtainable from film supply dealers, is ap- 
plied in the usual manner. In making a beaded screen, 
the surface is white enameled and tiny glass beads sprink- 
led over the half-dried paint. The coating must be applied 
evenly. Superfluous beads may be wiped off after the 
enamel has dried. To eliminate eye-fatigue, mount blue 
or purple-tinted Christmas tree bulbs on the back of the 
frame so that the soft light will make the screen stand 
out in relief. 

If the projector is not kept in the same line with the 
screen, a distorted picture will result. In certain cases, 
however, this stunt can be used to give variety to your 
shows. By moving the projector to the right or left of 
the screen, short thick images result. By placing the ma- 
chine above or below the screen level, the picture will be 
thrown at a tangent, thus exaggerating the height of the 
film characters. 

Incidentally, the "best seat" in your showhouse can 
be determined by the following formula devised some time 
ago by experts from the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology : 

"Best seat" = 

distance of projector ^ focal length of camera lens 
to screen focal length of projector lens 

The projector must, of course, be kept in good condi- 
tion. It should be oiled regularly but not excessively or 
the film will become dirt-streaked. The film track and 
gate should likewise be kept clean to prevent film-scratch- 
ing. Torn sprocket holes should be repaired at once and 
brittle reels moistened to avoid b«eaks. A felt pad or 
piece of inner tube placed under the machine will help 
to eliminate noise and vibration. 

Black and white films may be projected in color by 
slipping yellow or red filters used for "still" camera work 
over the barrel of the projector lens. Likewise, a diffusion 
disc held in front of the lens will give pleasing, soft-focus 
results during projection. To "tone" a scene, allow a col- 
ored spotlight to flood the screen while the projector is 
running. The white in the film will remain unchanged, 
but the black, shaded portions will be replaced by the color 
of the spot light. Beautiful effects can be secured in this 
way by varying the colors. 

Another method of projecting movies in color is by 
using an easily constructed "color wheel," which is made 
by removing the core from an empty 100-foot 16mm movie 
reel, covering the four openings with colored gelatine paper 
and placing the two sides of the reel flush together. If 
necessary, enlarge openings slightly. Next, mount the 
wheel in front of the projector lens so that by rotating the 
wheel, the light will pass through the tiny openings. Let 
one of the holes remain clear for ordinary scenes. Cement 
a light blue square of gelatine over one opening for cold 
winter scenes or night shots. Use yellow for thin daylight 
scenes. Over the upper half of the fourth opening cement 
a red piece, and over the lower half a green square for 
two-color variations in projecting beautiful sunsets and 
landscapes. Other colors may be used to suit individual 
tastes. 

By setting a flawless mirror at a 45-degree angle in 
front of the lens and giving the film half a turn, it is 

(Continued on Page 1281 



118 American Cinematographer • March 1935 




• DUFAYCOLOR. 7~C£EEN • 

(HIGHLY E N LARGE D ) 
ID -*EO- 




Fig. 1 



AT THE conclusion of an article, COLOR and the 
MINIATURE CAMERA, written for this magazine 
last April, I stated that in all probability any new, 
important development in color photography would be 
applicable to the miniature camera. 

This prediction has now been borne out, with the 
announcement that Dufay Leica Colorfilm will soon be 
available for miniature cameras using 35mm film. Al- 
though Dufaycolor film has been perfected primarily for 
use in the motion picture field, its first real commercial 
application in this country will be with its use in miniature 
cameras. 

Both the advancement of color photography and the 
miniature camera user shall benefit from this decision of 
Dufaycolor Ltd. of London, *o make Dufaycolor imme- 
diately available from the many Leica dealers through- 
out this country by the appointment of E. Leitz, Inc., 
as sole distributors of this film for miniature camera use. 
Surely this decision must come from the recognition of the 
important part that the miniature camera has played in 
the advancement of photography, during the past few 
years and from the belief that color photography under this 
same spirit of enthusiastic progressiveness, will likewise 
show marked advancement. 

What is Dufay Leica Colorfilm? Perhaps a descrip- 
tion of this film, here at this point, will do much toward 
dispelling the fears of the uninitiated that Dufaycolor 
is likely to be a complicated process, much too tech- 
nical for his or her limited technical knowledge to master. 
However, that is not the case, for if you can make satis- 
factory negatives for black and white photography, then 
with no more trouble or extra camera equipment, you can 
make satisfactory color pictures. Dufaycolor does not re- 
quire any special lenses or alterations to the camera. Also 
no filters are required for exposures made by daylight. I 
have used all of the different focal length Leica lenses with 
this film, with splendid results. Focusing these lenses by 
the conventional manner of using the range-finder, I found 



Dufay Leica 



that NO allowance need be made, under all normal con- 
ditions, for the fact that the film is loaded into the camera 
with the celluloid side toward the Ipns. 

Dufay Leica Colorfilm comes in the conventional day- 
light loading roll of 30 exposures. This roll is loaded in 
the camera in the normal manner. It will, however, be 
noticed, that the film is so spooled that the celluloid or 
shiny side of the film will face the lens. (The reverse of 
black and white procedure.) This method of loading per- 
mits the color screen, which is an inherent part of the film, 
to act as color filters for the panchromatic emulsion with 
which the film is coated. Dufay Leica Colorfilm may 
be used in any of the miniature cameras that use 35mm 
film, viz. Leica, Contax, Super-Nettel, Peggy, Retina, etc. 

Althoug Dufaycolor is a single film, it is made with two 
distinct coatings; the color screen and the emulsion. The 
color screen, or reseau as it is termed, is first printed upon 
the celluloid film base. This reseau has a distinct pattern 
as is shown by Fig. I . There have been several different 
patterned color screens used for Dufaycolor. The reseau 
shown in Fig. 1 is the type of screen that is now in use for 
film coated in this country by the DuPont Film Mfg. Corp. 
for Dufaycolor Ltd. 

It will be noticed in Fig. 1 that alternate parallel lines 
and squares of color form the reseau. These rulings are 
so fine that they cannot be perceived by the naked eye. 
There are about 1000 of these rulings per inch, or about 
1 ,000,000 color units per square inch. The drawing shows 
these rulings as they appear under a 235 power microscope. 
When Dufaycolor film is projected from a stereopticon, 
the pattern formed by the rulings is noticeable only upon 
very close inspection of the projected image. From the 
normal viewing distance of the projected image, at no 
time are you conscious of any color screen pattern. The 
images are extremely sharp with a pronounced stereoscopic 
illusion and possess a charmingly artistic appearance. 

After the color screen or reseau has been printed upon 
the celluloid base, it is covered with a layer of synthetic 
resin. This isolates the reseau from the emulsion, thereby 
preventing the dyes of the screen from diffusing into the 
emulsion during the flim's subsequent development and re- 
versal. Over this layer of resin is applied the highly sen- 
sitized and well color balanced panchromatic emulsion. 

The principle by which Dufay Leica Colorfilm makes 
pictures in natural colors is very interesting. It is based 
upon the Newtonian theory that the spectrum may be 
split into three primary colors, viz. red, green, and blue- 
violet. These are the three colors that are used in the 
Dufaycolor reseau. Fig. 2 shows how Dufaycolor repro- 
duces the colors of the visible spectrum and also black, 
grey, and white. The letters R, G, and F3 in Fig. 2 indicate 
respectively the red, green, and blue-violet filters of the 
reseau. 

When a strip of Dufaycolor film is exposed in the cam- 
era, the following action takes place. The minute color 
filters in the reseau pass some color rays wholly, or par- 



Colorfilm 
for Miniature 
Cameras 



by 

C. W. D. Slifer, A.S.C. 



tially, or stop completely others; depending upon the color 
of the light ray and upon the filter or filters that it fails 
upon. In this transmitted ratio they affect the panchro- 
matic emulsion immediately behind the reseau. This emul- 
sion during the course of development and reversal becomes 
a positive. Thus when this positive is viewed by trans- 
mitted light, it permits the light to pass thru the color 
screen or reseau in the exact and original ratio, thereby 
giving a picture in natural colors. See Fig. 2. 

The exposure required for Dufay Leica Colorfilm, 
coated with DuPont panchromatic emulsion in this country, 
is approximately one lens stop greater than that required 
for black and white photography. However, as tins par- 
ticular emulsion does not require the use of a color filter 
when exposed by daylight, it becomes as fast as black and 
white, super-sensitive panchromatic film, when this film 
is used with a filter in order to secure a true monochro- 
matic rendering of the same object. 

Correct exposure is the one essential in good color pho- 
tography and the greater the contrast of your subject the 
more necessary it becomes that your exposure is correct. 
The intelligent use of a good exposure meter is to be rec- 
ommended. The Scheiner speed of this film is estimated at 
about 16 or 18 degrees. However, the speed of this film 
depends greatly upon the color of the light. I have made 
satisfactory exposures on Dufaycolor film at 1/500 part 



March 1935 • American Cinematographer 




Alfred 0. Traegerm, president of E. Leitz, Inc., 
who this year celebrates his twenty-fifth anniver- 
sary with that organization. 



of a second and also with a hand-held camera, I hcv? 
made exposures of ] A part of a second at f2:0, long after 
sundown; shots of twilight silhouettes, street scenes, etc. 
So now for the first time we have a color process of suffi- 
cient speed to permit us to make color photographs under 
a large variety of conditions. 

The processing of Dufay Leica Colorfilm is simple 
enough that all of those miniature camera enthusiasts who 
now develop their own black and white negatives may do 
it with good results. However, for those who do not care 
to process their own film, the many dealers that will dis- 
tribute Dufaycolor film will be able to do it for them. At 
this point I wish to express my thanks to Messrs. Gilbert 

I Continued on Page 127) 



Fig. 2 



VI/IBLE /PE.CTR.UM 



BLACK GREY 



c 



CELLULOIO 
FILM BASE 
COLOCL 

SILVER. 
EMULSION 




CELLULOI O 
FILM BASE 



■THIS NEGATIVE IMAGE AFTER. PR.OCE//ING BECOME/ A PO/IT1VE IMAGE 




5IUVEB 
E MULSIOM 



120 American Cinematographer • March 1935 




Makeup material with Max Factor instruction 
pamphlets. 

FOR THE past twelve months, this author has treated 
only the mechanical side of cinephotography — trick 
titling, animation, double exposures, speed control, 
lens and filter tricks — a side which I hope has appealed 
to the more technically-minded of my readers. However, 
by no means is cinephotographic perfection only possible 
from the camera manipulation, so, to round out the work, 
this series on makeup may prove of some value. 

Some months ago several readers suggested that some- 
thing along the lines of motion picture makeup might 
prove valuable to the amateur filmer, especially since so 
little is known or has been published in amateur magazines. 
Altho I knew some of the groundwork of stage makeup 
from experience in the little theatre, movie makeup was 
a very different thing, and the thought filled me with fear 
and trepidation. However, nothing tried, nothing learned, 
so off went a letter to Max Factor to find out what it was 
all about. 

Max Factor Co. sent a dozen little booklets containing 
hints on the art of makeup, and after some study of the 
probable types to try for this series, the following list of 
materials was obtained. The last four items, however, were 
from the dime store. 

Grease Paints (tubes), pancro No. 21-29 inclusive. 

Face powders (cans), of corresponding numbers to the 
paints. 

Shadows (small tubes), pancro No. 6, 21, and 22. 
Lip rouge (small boxes), light, medium, dark, studio 
special. 

Eyebrow pencil, brown. 
Black masque, in box with brush. 
White masque, in cake form. 
Nose putty, two sticks. 

Tooth enamel, one bottie each of white and black. 
Spirit gum, with self-contained applicator in bottle. 
Crepe hair, a yard each of black, brown, and white. 
Paper liner sticks, two dozen. 
Face powder brush. 
Powder puffs, combs. 

Box of cotton cleansing pats, about 3" square. 

Small bottle of "new-skin" (collodion), with applicator. 

Patches of "sticking plaster" (not- adhesive tape). 

You will find most of your movie makeup requirements 
will be pretty well taken care of with the materials just 
listed, and you will find also that these materials will last 
for quite a bit of makeup, because makeup is used spar- 
ingly for camera work. Naturally, you might want to go 

The makeup kit opened with mirror and lights in 

place. 



Dabbling 



in for wigs after the straight makeup is under control, but 
let's let the future take care of itself for awhile yet. 

In the booklets of Max Factor are shown several make- 
up cases, but after looking at the list of materials, we de- 
cided that none of the ready-made cases would hold all 
of it, and besides, we thought it would be possible to build 
in the lights and make it possible for two of us to make up 
at one time, so the case shown in the illustrations was de- 
signed and built. We've found it a most convenient carry- 
ing case as well as useful makeup case, because it's only 
12" high and long, and 8" thick when closed. The weight 
loaded is about ten pounds. 

The nine cans of face powder are stowed away in two 
sections, the cover of one carrying nine tubes of grease 
paint in canvas pockets. Other compartments hold the 
various smaller bits of materials, with removable covers, 
Two mirrors are so hinged that when an evening of making- 
up is to begin, excellent work before two lights can be done 
by two people at once. 

It is not the intention of this, the first article of the 
makeup series, to sell either Max Factor makeup materials 
or the special makeup cases we made up. However, I be- 
lieve you will find the quality of the Max Factor line so 
excellent and the convenience of the type of mcksup case 
we built so inducive to many evenings of most interesting 
work, that ycu'll buy the makeup materia's and make your 
own case. You won't be able to learn abour movie makeup 
in one night, nor in two, nor in half a dozen, so by all 
means make your layout cs convenient as pos:ible, and 
if you live in an apartment cs w3 do, mcke if so it can be 
packed away. 

When I was connected with the little theatre during 
my college days, we used grease paint which cams in long 
sticks. It was necessary to smear cold cream on the face 




March 1935 © American Cinematographer 12< 



in Makeup 
Materials 

—Part One 



by 

Wm. J. Grace 



before the grease paint was applied, and the paint was so 
thick one felt as if he were wearing a mask. Consequently, 
he was afraid to act naturally, because the paint "might 
come off." If you have had no experience with the newer 
Max Factor makeup, you're in for a delightful experience 
after having messed with the old thick paint. The new 
paint it as soft as toothpaste, and it comes in tubes just 
like toothpaste. Furthermore, you need to use only about 
a quarter of an inch of the paint — -the same amount as 
you'd squeeze out of the old toothpaste tube. 

There's quite a trick to applying the paint, as we'll see. 
That trick will be explained in next month's article, under 
the principles of makeup foundation. There is this to look 
forward to — this new grease paint will spread thinly, 
smoothly, and evenly, with absolutely no discomfort to the 
face of the most sensitive user. You won't feel at all as 
if you were wearing any "paint." 

In this series of articles we are not going to attempt 
to approach what might be termed a high degree of pro- 
fessional work. We want, however, to see just what 
limitations there are for the amateur in spite of the fine 
materials at his service and in spite of the many reams 
that have been written about makeup. 

You see the amateur approaches a technical subject, 
and makeup is technical, from a little different mental 
view-point. Some go at it with a bit of trepidation, while 
others assume it is as easy as washing your face. 

Max Factor in his article in the Cinematographic An- 
nual Vol. I made this statement, "Makeup must start 
where nature left off." This is where we want to build 
types, where we must erase defects, that is things that 
will look like defects to the camera. 

We read of cinematographers who recommend that the 
plain street makeup be used. Well, we amateurs are not 
clever enough with the camera, with the effect devices, to 
offset any blemishes our photographic subjects might have, 
so we must turn to makeup, and to learn about makeup 
we must use it, not occasionally, but often. Like any- 
thing else we may desire to do and do well, we gain per- 
fection by doing and not by wishing. 

But there isn't room left this month to do more than 
to invite you to write Max Factor, ask for his booklets and 
price list of materials, and then place your order and fix 
up a place or a case to try them out. By the time you've 
done these things, next month's article will be in your 
mailbox, and we can try some of the makeup. 




Top photo shows convenient size of makeup ease. 
Next photo shews case open; next with mirror and 
lights in position and bottom photo shows how 
the case can be used by two people. 



122 American Cinematographer • March 1935 




Editing 
Saves 

Many Films 



From Soup 
To Nuts 

by 

Ed. J. Ludes 

ARE you, gentle reader, cursed (like me) by insur- 
mountable projection difficulties? I, for instance, 
have but one projector and the time between reels 
is always an ogre — something to be feared. True, my 
audiences, like yours, are usually polite and condone those 
disgusting pauses simply because they have to, but this 
does not lessen the fact that a few minutes screen time is 
interspersed by nearly as much intermission between reels. 
I have spliced many of my subjects together and put them 
on larger reels but I find that I cannot do this to any 
great extent since my subjects vary in interest. 

My racing pictures may be of interest to some of you, 



but there are those who care not a fig for them, yet, would 
laugh with glee at the comedy I made during my vacation. 
And it's hardly fair to wade through 200 feet of racing 
stuff to show the comedy and vice versa. Of course, if I 
plan on showing the pictures beforehand, I could splice the 
film in decent order and show 400 feet at a time — BUT! 
I find that I show pictures most often on the spur of the 
moment — someone suggests a show — we set up the screen 
in one room, the projector in the other and shoot between 
the doors! 

Now like all good amateurs I have a variety of sub- 
jects. Too many, in fact. That is why I have a lot of 100- 
foot rolls on hand. So I decided to do something about it. 
I'd read of how to save miscellaneous shots and make a 
completed reel out of them, but that was not my specific 
problem. I had to save miscellaneous REELS and make a 
SHOW out of them! My solution lay in approaching the 
subject from a different angle than anyone has heretofore 
attempted. I decided to write a show and then use as 
many shots as I could out of what I had (or could get). 
Here is the final reel: 

Main title: 

JOHN FILMER PICTURES 

presents 
"FROM SOUP TO NUTS" 
A complete movie show 
in I 5 minutes 

This was printed on a card and arranged to "swing" 
to one side after being read, thus exposing a new title 
behind, which read: 

FILMER NEWSREEL 
"The Glass Eye At The 
Keyhole Of The World" 

A quick title change brought: 

DAISY'S MAN WINS SHAVING CUP 



Champion Takes Coveted Trophy From 
Field of Fast Starters. Coming From Be- 
hind In A Brilliant Spurt, Famous Horse 
Wins By Two Lengths! 

Then followed a scene of the horses stomping impa- 
tiently at the post. A gun was fired, the barrier raised and 
the race was on. A telephoto lens took the race scenes — 
following the horses around the track. "Daisy's Man" 's 
fast spurt was clearly depicted as the famous horse rounded 
the three-quarter marker and led the field on the home 
stretch, finally crossing the barrier. These shots were in- 
terspersed with normal (one inch) lens shots (of another 
race) and the subject ended with the presentation of the 
cup and wreath to the winner (telephoto). 

Then follow a number of various shots of the big lum- 
ber yard fire of several months ago, a thrilling series of 
skids on the local auto speedway, and several excellent 
views of the last parade. 

As the last scene faded the original "newsreel" title 
was again flashed on the screen, but this time it was back- 
grounded (double-exposure) by a picture of Mr. Filmer 
cranking a humorous-looking camera made out of an old 
box. The title faded out to be replaced by: 

THE END 

— which faded leaving Mr. Filmer still cranking his pseudo 

(Continued on Page 126) 



March 1935 • American Cinematographer 123 



Common Sense 
and 

Sound-on-Film 



by 

Henry T. Sharp. A.S.C. 



ONE of my friends is going around the world. The 
other day he came to me and said, "Henry, I've 
got a great idea! I'm going to get one of these 
new 16mm sound-on-film cameras and bring back a talkie 
of my tour!" Then he launched into a lyrical description 
of the strange sounds and speech he would bring back — 
of how he'd capture the voices of his shipmates and ac- 
quaintances, and record his narrative comments right on 
the historic spots he filmed. Oh, it sounded beautiful — 
but it left me as cold as an Eskimo's nose. 
You see, I tried it once. 

To be strictly truthful, I suppose I'd better admit right 
off that I didn't do it in 16mm, but in 35mm, with one 
of the very first portable recorders. The result was Doug. 
Fairbanks' "Around the World in 80 Minutes" — and a 
lot of grey hairs in the head of Mrs. Sharp's boy Henry. I 
wasn't particularly proud of either. 

So I asked Bill if he felt equal to working as earnestly 
as a professional cameraman or director whose producer 
had given him a million dollars and orders to bring back 
a great picture. You've got to approach talkies from a 
virtually professional angle if you expect to get results that 
warrant the extra cost of the equipment — to say nothing 
of your hopes. You can't go at things in the haphazard, 
impromptu way you'd make a silent picture: there are 
too many factors you must have absolutely under control. 

First of all, there is the matter of exposure, which al- 
ways bothers the non-professional filmer. But if you're 
shooting sound-on-film, you'll have two exposures to worry 
about — the sound-track as well as the picture. They are 
side by side on the same film, and they've got to balance 
up within a reasonable degree. When I made my trip, I 
used the variable density type of recording, in which the 
volume at which you record governs the exposure of your 
sound-track; so I had two variable quantities to match 
up. Often, I'd strike conditions where I couldn't avoid giv- 
ing the picture a very light exposure, coupled with loud 
(and therefore heavily-exposed) sounds. The result wasn't 
very satisfactory. Luckily, the modern amateur uses the 
variable area type of recording, in which the sound ex- 
posure is pretty nearly uniform for everything. This sim- 
plifies matters a good deal, for it reduces your problem 
to keeping the picture-exposure reasonably uniform. Of 
course, the methods used in processing the film help out 
to some extent, but even so, there's still a likelihood that 
you'll carry over the silent-film fault of most amateurs, 



STANDARDS 

Because of the standards set sometime 
ago the 16mm sound-on-film projector 
is built to take reversal film. Those 
desiring to make a negative first and 
then putting their sound into the film 
later will have to make a dupe of either 
their sound track or their picture. How- 
ever, some few sound laboratories are 
arranging to run their recorder back- 
wards to eliminate this. 



and misjudge your picture-exposures even beyond the lati- 
tude of the film and processing-control. With silent pic- 
tures, this isn't so bad, for there is sometimes still a chance 
of retrieving valuable scenes by intensifying or reducing: 
but it's different in sound. Your sound-track is correctly 
exposed, and (whether you use reversal or negative film) 
reversed or printed correctly, more or less independent of 
the picture — so if you intensify or reduce the picture, you'll 
throw your sound off balance. 

The only answer to that is to expose your picture cor- 
rectly. Get a reliable exposure-meter and use it religiously 
on every shot. Don't just use it now and then, but always! 
And before you start out, find out just how much latitude 
you will have in your picture-exposure with the particular 
type of film and processing you'll be using. This means 
tests, and plenty of them. If, like Bill, you're going to be 
traveling in out-of-the-way places, where you'll encounter 
out-of-the-way light conditions, you'll do well to make 
and develop a test whenever you run into anything you 
aren't sure of. It's simple enough: all you need is a chang- 
ing-bag and a little bottle of developer. M-Q tubes will 
do well enough, though the closer you can come to the 
solution used in the processing plant, the more accurate 
your test will be. (The Eastman D-9 formula", and two- 
minute development will give an excellent idea of your 
relative exposures if you are using reversal film.) For your 
test, all you need to do is to break off a few inches of 
film (in the dark, of course — say inside the changing- 
bag), and slip it into the bottle of developer for the proper 
time. Then you can bring it out and inspect it: it's a good 
idea, by the way, to have a few strips of normally exposed 
and developed negative handy for comparison. After glanc- 
ing at your test, of course, you can, if necessary, make the 
scene over again, properly exposed — or go on with the 
assurance that your shot is O.K. 

Next, of course, comes the inevitable question of re- 
versal film vs. negative-positive. The single-perforation 
film your sound-camera needs is available in both forms: 
granting that you have your negative developing done in 
a really good plant, you'll probably do well to use this 
system, for it will make it easier to edit, and to rectify 
mistakes in sounding. With reversal, your sound and pic- 
ture are permanently joined together; but with negative, 
since the printing of sound and picture are two separate 
steps, you can eliminate the sound, or replace it with a new 
track, or even transpose it to another picture. But more 
about editing later. 

(Continued on Page 129) 



124 American Cinematographer • March 1935 




TRICKS 

and GADGETS 



• Here's a gadget that many cn ad- 
vanced amateur is going to welcome 
with open arms. It is suggested by 
Charles and Robert Coles of New York 
City. They call it "An Accurate Frame 
Counter." 

Cinefilmers Coles are photographers 
of no mean attainment. In 1933 they 
were awarded a medal in the American 
Cinematographer Amateur Movie Con- 
test; this year they were awarded one 
of the prizes offered by the manufac- 
turers. 

The simplicity of this gadget, the fact 
that everyone can make it and that it 
can be made for practically any camera 
is going to give it a wide appeal now 
that everyone is attempting to secure 
unusual effects by winding the camera 
back for fades, lap dissolves, etc. 

Coles discovered that the key of their 
camera when laid flat did not revolve, 
but when left standing at right angles 
to the camera, the key makes one com- 
plete revolution for every three feet of 
film passing through the gate. This was 
true with their Bell & Howell Filmo. 
What it will be with other cameras will 
have to be determined by the individual 
owners. You can take a piece of devel- 
oped film, mark the frame in front of 
the aperture in the gate, set the key, 
mark the camera where the key starts, 
run the camera for one complete revolu- 
tion of the key and then mark the frame 
in the gate of the camera in front of 
the aperture. Then count the number of 
frames that have run through. As you 
know, there are 40 frames to the foot. 
If it doesn't run exactly to the last 
frame of the foot, you can still make a 
dial like the Coles counter, but divide 
it to fit your camera. 

Here's how Coles made his counter. 
A cardboard dial was made with a hole 
in the center. The circumference of the 
dial was divided into three equal parts, 
each sector representing one foot of 
film. Each third was divided into 20 
equal parts, each one of these spaces 
then represented two frames. The cam- 
era key was removed, the dial put in 
position and the key replaced. 

With this device on the cameras 



which are equipped for winding back the 
operator is going to shout out several 
hurrahs for it will permit him to secure 
smoother lap-dissolves, or if he is mak- 
ing a split stage shot with a mask, he 
can rewind to the exact frame from 
which he started. 

But there is the fellow who cannot 
wind back. Here is the way Coles rec- 




ommend they operate. It will be neces- 
sary to make this wind-back scene the 
first on the roll. 

When loading the camera, mark the 
frame of the leader which is behind the 
aperture with a notch. Then close your 
camera and run the camera to the end 
of the leader making careful note of 
the footage. Then turn the key back- 
ward by hand to the zero posiiton on 
your new dial. It is now ready to count 
frames accurately. 

Now when you turn the film back, 
take it into a dark room. Unload and 
wind the film back by hand so that the 
leader completely covers the film as it 
did when you took it from the factory 
package. Reload again in the usual way, 
placing the notched frame behind the 
aperture in the gate. Then watch your 
counter closely in running this leader off 
so that you stop at the same point you 



stopped before to start your shooting 
. . . and there you are. 

Accurate lap-dissolves are easy with 
this device. The film is loaded as de- 
scribed before and the camera run in 
the usual manner except that the key 
must rotate. When the time for the lap* 
dissolve arrives the scene is faded out 
as the key sweeps over one-third of a 
revolution, and the camera stopped. Ac- 
curate note of the readings of the foot- 
age indicator and frame counter dial is 
made, the film rewound in a changing 
bag and reloaded into the camera, again 
observing the details outlined above. 
The lens is capped and the film run for 
the exact point where the fade-out was 
begun and the camera stopped. The lens 
cap is removed, the camera started and 
the scene faded in as the key sweeps 
over one third of a revolution. Thus the 
timing will match the previous fade ex-^ 
actly. 

Process Backgrounds 

• Several months ago we published cn 
article by Jerry Ash, A.S.C., on how he 
made a picture in 16mm with process 
backgrounds and miniatures. For this 
he employed his projector and a ground- 
glass screen. 

He told how he would expose one pic- 
ture at a time and then take it one 
at a time with his camera. This same 
method, of course, could be employed 
in making titles with animated back- 
grounds. Or the ground-glass letters 
could be pasted. You could then show 
one picture from the projector, then 
photograph that picture and so on until 
you had enough footage to complete the 
title. If you then wanted this to work 
right into your picture you could then 
cut the original film that had been used 
for the animated background and sup^" 
plant your title film. If your film used 
for animated background had action in 
it, that action would now synchronize 
and tie right into your action of the 
picture by This type of editing. 

In view of the fact that all of your 
light is coming from the back your titles 
would be silhouetted and would there- 
fore show black on the screen, for this 
reason you should not select dark scenes 
for this type of title work as the dark 
scenes would naturally blend right in 
with your titles and they could not be 
read. 



DOMINATES THE FIELD OF 
16 MM. MOVIE MAKING 






Basic Model with 100-foot 
Film Chamber in Position 



FEATURES 

Ground-glass focusing 

• Adjustable -opening 
shutter • Reverse take- 
up • Masks • Revolving 
lens turret • Inter- 
changeable film cham- 
bers • Long -running 
spring motor • 8 to 64 
frames per second • One- 
and eight-frame cranks 

• Single frame release. 

EFFECTS 

Fades • Double exposure 
Dissolves • Slow motion 
X • Masked pictures 
• Speeded action 
Animation. 




FREE 

A BEAUTIFULLY 
ILLUSTRATED BOOKLET 

Be sure to send for this gen- 
erous-sized booklet, detailing 
and illustrating the many 
outstanding advantages of 
Cine-Kodak Special. Write to 
Eastman Kodak Company, 
Rochester, IN. Y.. for ''Present- 
ing Cine-Kodak Special.** 

* 

CODI 

Only Eastman makes 
the Kodak 




E C I A L 



126 American Cinematographer e March 1935 




FROM SOUP TO NUTS 



"I am thelimous 

■Ampro 

Model "A" „ 
16 mm. Projector 



Like all thorobreds, I have the goods. 
Precisely made . . . aluminum die cast 
body . . . phosphor bronze bearings 
. . . silent gears . . . automatic high 
speed rewind . . . forward and reverse 
. . . still pictures . . . and light — 
plenty of it — my economical long life 
400 watt Biplane Mazda is equal to 500 
watt results. 

Buy me on trial and judge for yourself. 
A thorobred projector at a price you can 
afford to pay. 

Your $99.50 cheerfully refunded if not 
satisfactory after ten full days trial in 
your own home. Complete with case. 
Order now. 

Full details and Bass Bargaingram is 
yours on request. 

WANTED: More Live Dealers. 



BASS 

CAMERA COMPANY 

179 W.Madison St..Chicago 



Camera Headquarters for Tourists 



(Continued from Page 122) 

camera. He, too, faded and was re- 
placed by a flash-on title reading: 
FILMER COMEDIES 
presents 

to this, in a slow fade in, was added: 

"LOVE TRIUMPHS". 
Then followed 75 feet of an interesting 
cartoon which was purchased at a local 
dealer's supply store. At the conclusion 
of the cartoon another title 
"THE END" 
is shown, to be replaced by: 

FILMER MAGIC CARPET 
Strange Happenings in Strange 
Places by Strange People as They 
Pursue Their Daily Habits. 
The title faded out and the scene 
faded in with a view of the Metropolitan 
tower with its gigantic clock (at 12 o'- 
clock noon). This was dissolved into a 
closeup (telephoto) of the clock face 
and then faded out. The following scene 
faded in on a small newsboy seated on 
the curb, holding his papers in one hand 
and munching a large apple which he 
held with the other. A dissolve brought 
into view a group of workmen eating 
lunch in the shade of a building they 
were wrecking. A telephoto lens here 
let the cameraman get close to the 
diners without their being conscious of 
the camera. Another quick dissolve dis- 
closed a lunch wagon with its quota of 
noonday diners entering and leaving 
(some picking their teeth, which added 
much to the humor of the scene). An- 
other dissolve brought to view one of 
the city's finest cafes, with well-to-dos 
going in and out. This dissolved to 
feeding time at the local zoo and the 
cameraman, through a series of very 
quick lap dissolves, showed the table 
manners of an alligator, a pair of hun- 
gry lions and a group of chattering mon- 
keys. Another "END" title faded into: 
JOHN FILMER 
PRESENTS 
which was quickly dissolved to: 
Li la Sweet and 
Dick Strongheart 
then, after a second or two, the word 
in 

fades in, holds a few seconds more and 
the whole fades out and the following 
fades in: 

"MANOR MYSTERY". 
The main title fades out and the screen 
is left dark for at least five seconds. 
By this time the audience begins to 
wonder if you have failed (at last) in 
your splicing, but their interest is sud- 
denly riveted again when, out of this 
same darkness, they see the beam of a 
flashlight — playing around walls and 
floor, finally coming to rest on a large 
picture hung on the wall. The light re- 



mains stationary at this point while the 
camera (on a dolly or Junior's wagon) 
approaches the picture and finally stops 
at a closeup. Into the scene a hand 
stealthily creeps, grasps the frame of 
the picture and pulls it back from the 
wall, revealing a wall safe (cardboard 
and an old radio dial) . 

There is no use going into the drama 
from here, for each of you would have 
a different plot anyway, but I'm sure 
you get the idea. Good old MELO- 
DRAMA in its Nth degree, and there 
were plenty of laughs in each foot! 

One really good scene, however, which 
provided the end of the plot, was so 
commendable as to deserve mention 
here, and was made as follows: 

The heroine was in a dimly lit room 
awaiting the return of her hero (who 
has gone to investigate a noise in an- 
other part of the house) . As she 
watches, a secret panel slowly opens be- 
hind her and a long black arm emerges 
and reaches for her shoulder. It closes 
and she is dragged toward the panel 
just as the hero returns and fires at the 
"RAT." The hand relaxes and the 
"RAT" falls to the floor, dead. The 
hero turns up the lights and the mask 3 
and tail are pulled off the villian, disclos- 
ing the heroine's step-father, a disgrace- 
ful wretch who was trying to steal her 
money. The hero gathers the heroine 
in his arms as the scene fades into 
THE END. 

The secret panel shot had been made 
by the clever use of the door on Mrs. 
Filmer's ironing board cabinet; this door 
happened to be near the real doorway. 
The "RAT" was hidden in the doorway, 
but when the ironing board door was 
opened and the hand thrust forward, it 
gave the desired effect. 

Immediately after the last title, was 
another of a humorous, yet practical 
nature, carrying out the original idea. It 
read : 

FILMER THEATER GUESTS 
May Park Free in the Holly- 
wood Boulevard Parking 
Area. 

This was backgrounded with a scene 
of the street in front of the house and 
always gets a big laugh from the aud- 
ience. It was followed by a SCROLL 
TITLE which read: 

PREVIEWS — 
Coming to this Theater in the near 
future (we hope) more films of 
this same type. We hope you have 
enjoyed yourselves. 

And now, if you will be kind 
enough to assemble in the other 
room you will find a buffet lunch is 
being served. 



March 1935 • American Cmcmatographer 127 



THAT'S ALL— THANK YOU! 
Well, there it is! A lot to cram into 
four hundred feet of film you'll admit, 
but the necessity for brevity of each 
scene makes for its success to a great 
measure. One has no chance to be 
bored, for the subjects are constantly 
changing and the humor of the whole 
reel is apparent — even in reading this. 
You will want to use your own subjects, 
of course, but this outline can start you 
in the right direction toward making c; 
real reel "FROM SOUP TO NUTS." Good 
luck to you filmers! 

Dufay Leica Colorfilm for 
Miniature Cameras 

(Continued from Page 119) 

Morgan and Orville Krehbiel, of The 
Morgan Camera Shop in Hollywood for 
the cooperation they gave me during our 
experiments with Dufaycolor film and 
for their work in processing the many 
rolls of film used for these experiments. 

The regular Reelo or Correx develop- 
ing tanks may be used for the process- 
ing of the color film. During the re- 
versal stage the film is unwound from 
the reel and exposed to light and then 
carefully rewound on the reel for the 
balance of the processing. A more con- 
venient method of developing would be 
to use the glass developing drum outfit. 
The film can be placed on this drum and 
left there through the entire process. 

The processing formulae used for Du- 
fay Leica Colorfilm (DuPont emulsion I 
is as follows: 

1. First Development 

Water up to (at 1 25°F. ) ....2000 cc. 

Metol 1 3 grams 

Hydroquinone 4 grams 

Sodium Sulphite, dry 100 grams 

Potassium Bromide - 5 Vi grams 

Ammonia, spec. grav. 0.91 .... 33 cc. 

Dissolve the above chemicals in the 
order named, cool to 65°F. and add am- 
monia (if ammonia of stronger specific 
gravity only is available either dilute 
same or use proportionately less, ac- 
cording to its strength) . 

Development time in the above bath 
with correctly exposed subjects, 2Vz to 3 
minutes at 65°F. 

2. Wash — One minute. 

3. Bleaching Both (Reversing) 
Potassium Permanganate .... 3 grams 

Sulphuric Acid 1 cc. 

Water 1000 cc. 

Bleach until image is clearly visible, 
time about 4 minutes. 

4. Wash for about 2 minutes in run- 

ning water. 

5. Rinse for about 2 minutes in follow- 

ing clearing bath. 
Clearing Bath — 2V2% solution of 
Sodium Bisulphite. 

Water 1 000 cc. 

Sodium Bisulphite 25 grams 

6. Rinse after clearing. 

7. Expose film to strong artificial light 




LEICA 



U.S. Pat. No. 1,960,044 

When you buy a LEICA Camera, you are fully 
equipped for "all-round" picture making. Built- 
in range-finder provides automatic focusing. Focal 
plane shutter with speeds of 1 to 1 /500th sec- 
onds, includes all slow speeds. 

As your individual requirements increase, you can 
choose from over 300 inexpensive accessories that 
will adapt your LEICA to hundreds of additional 
uses. 

LEICA offers a complete line of developing, print- 
ing, enlarging and projection apparatus especially 
designed for LEICA and other miniature pictures. 
LEICA camera attachments make it the most ver- 
satile of all cameras. Some of these are the Focus- 
ing Copy Attachment, Stereo and Panorama at- 
tachments. LEICA Interchangeable lenses include 
tele and high speed lenses for all types of photog- 
raphy. 

Prices of LEICA Cameras start at $99.00. 
Write for free illustrated booklet. 



E. LEITZ, INC., Dept. 660 



THE CAMERA'S 
COMPLETE 
IN ITSELF — 
BUT YOU CAN 
CHOOSE FROM 
OVER 300 
ACCESSORIES 
FOR UTMOST 
VERSATILITY 



60 East 10th St. 



New York, N. Y. 




Valoy 
Universal 
Enlarger 



(100-watt bulb) for about a minute or 
until the film begins to turn slightly 
pinkish. Then the film is redeveloped 
in any good metol-hydroquinone bath. 
The following may be used: 
Water up to (at 1 25°F. ) ....4000 cc. 

Metol 4 grams 

Sodium Sulphite, dry 200 grams 

Hydroquinone 1 8 grams 

Sodium Carbonate, dry 75 grams 

Potassium Bromide 4 grams 

Time of final development, 3 to 4 
minutes at 65°F. 
8. Rinse 

The film is now fixed and hardened, 
given a final washing, and then dried. 

This processed Dufaycolor strip is now 
ready for projection. Fortunately for this 
process, there are several excellent pro- 



The Morgan Laboratory 

is equipped to develop and reverse 
the Dufay Color film at $1.00 a 
roll. 

Order your Dufay Color film from 
us. $3.00 for 30 exposures. 

MORGAN CAMERA SHOP 
6305 Sunset Blvd., Hollywood, Cal. 



jectors for Leica pictures already avail- 
able. It is a curious fact, that lower 
screen brilliancy is more acceptable for 
color than for black and white. So even 



128 American Cinematographer • March 1935 



The New 16mm 

PANCHROMATIC NEGATIVES 

I Eastman, Agfa, Dupont) 

will surprise you with their fine qual- 
ity, their beautiful tones and grainless 
reproductions, if you have them devel- 
oped by the 

DUNNINC GRAINLESS METHOD 

DUNNING PROCESS COMPANY 

932 N. La Brea Avenue 
Hollywood, Calif. 

(35mm reduced to 16mm) 



for 

WIDE ANGLE SHOTS 

The wide angle of these lenses — their un- 
usual speed — adapt them uniquely to the 
most difficult conditions encountered in- 
doors. . . . Outdoors they are suited 
for all sports, where the action is close at 
hand, extended and fast. Sharp definition 
and fast. Sharp definition and high cor- 
rections assure a crispness and brilliancy 
reflected in unexcelled screen performance. 



Kino-Plasmat 
f/1.5 
Trioplan f/2.8 
From $39 up. 
Literature on 
request. 

HUGO 
MEYER 
& C O. 

245 W. 55 St. 
New York 



HUGO MEYER 
15mm LENSES 




TIC 



M. Berndt 



announces 

the formation of a new com- 
pany including Mr. John A. 
Maurer, widely known as an 
authority in electronics and 
sound recording and repro- 
duction. This organization 
will specialize in the type of 
precision work in the 16 and 
35mm fields in which Mr. 
Berndt has pioneered and 
will shortly announce inter- 
esting developments in high 
quality 1 6mm recording. 
Eric M. Berndt takes pleas- 
ure in introducing 

The 

Berndt -Maurer Corp. 

112 E. 73 rd St. New York 



the small Umena projector MOO-watt) 
is excellent for projecting nice size im- 
ages in color. The color film pictures 
should be cut apart and bound between 
2"x2" cover glasses. In this way the 
films are very convenient to handle and 
to project. 

Dufay Leica Colorfilm may be used 
for magazine illustrations. In fact it 
is being done in England at the pres- 
ent time. Recently, there appeared in a 
British publication some candid pictures 
made of King George. They were repro- 
duced in full color and were almost 8 
by 1 inches in size. 

It is expected that within the near 
future, an economical means of provid- 
ing color prints from Dufaycolor film, 
will be offered to users of this color film. 
This will certainly fulfill a long desired 
wish. 

The future of color photography looks 
very bright, indeed. The rapidly increas- 
ing use of color photographs in adver- 
tisements and for magazine illustrations, 
indicates that the public is becoming 
increasingly color conscious. The impetus 
that color photography will receive, 
now that Dufay Leica Colorfilm and 
the miniature camera make photography 
possible in colors in many interesting 
fields that once were limited to black 
and white, will be all that is needed to 
make it exceedingly popular. So, make 
way for the candid color photograph! 



Tips on Home Projection 

(Continued from Page 1171 

possible to project pictures around a cor- 
ner. To "step up" the image, place the 
mirror equidistant from projector and 
screen and the size will be doubled. 

Never throw away the black, unex- 
posed strips of film which are cut out 
and set aside while editing. Splice 2- 
foot leaders and trailers into your reels 
to prevent unnecessary white glare on 
the screen after the reel has been pro- 
jected. 

Using red or black crayon, print the 
title of every 400-foot reel on the cover 
of each humidor can to identify the sub- 
ject. Because crayon lettering is hard- 
wearing yet easily removed, this has 
an advantage over waterproof ink or 
enamel paint. 

Lastly, here is a helpful "kink" which 
makes cleaning films a pleasure. Sew 
a 2-inch square of flannel or other soft, 
lintless cloth on the thumb and fore- 
finger of an old left-handed glove. 
Moisten each pad with film cleaning 
solution and allow the film to pass 
lightly between these squares while the 
right hand turns the takeup reel. In 
this way, films can be cleaned quickly 
and efficiently. They will always be 
sparkling and clear. 



Fotoshop Film Specials 

16mm 100-foot rolls 

Super Speed Panchromatic $3.79 

Super Sensitive (Neg. and Pos.).... 5.50 

Panchromatic (Neg. and Pos.) 4.75 

Regular Ortho - 2 75 

These Prices Include Processing. 
We can supply any make of negative 
film you may desire — Eastman, Agfa, 
Dupont, Gevaert — at these same prices. 

FOTOSHOP LABORATORY 
SERVICES 

Fine Crain Developing 
Printing Duplicating 
35mm Reductions 

Let Us Quote You On Your Next 
Requirements. 

FOTOSHOP, INC. 

136 W. 32 St., New York City 



Peerl 



ess 



.ine 



N 



ews 



America's first I6mm NEWS REEL and 
Motion Picture Review 
A 400-ft. Variety Subject 
Issued once each month 

At your dealers. 
Literature on request. 

PEERLESS MOTION PICTURE 
INDUSTRIES 
1327 N. Highland 
Hollywood, Calif. 



QUALITY 



Some articles are good at a price or 
have a commercial value because they 
are chea.T. Kin-O-Lux 16mm Reversal 
Film, however, is d.stinguished by a 
quality that bears no relation to its 
moderate cost. 

No. 1 Green Box, 100 ft $3.00 

50 ft 2.00 

No. 2 Red Box, 100 ft 3.50 

50 ft 2.50 

Prices include 
Processing, 

Scratch- 
Proofing and H^vll4 
return postage. 



KIN-O-LUX, Inc. 

107 W. 40th St. N.Y. 




CINEMATIC ACCESSORIES 

Variable View Finder 

Shows you exactly the field of view 
covered by the lens you are using, any 
lens from 1 to 4 inches. 

REFLEX FOCUSER 
Indicates correct field and allows focus- 
ing on groundglass by means of lOx 
magnifying eyepiece. Can be used with 
lenses from 3" up, on cameras such as 
Filmo, Victor, etc. 

Effect Device and Mask Box 
Embodies all the finest mechanical aids 
for every effect. Used by numerous 
cinematic groups and clubs. 

Catalog on request. 

C. P. Goerx American Optical Co. 
317 East 34th St. New York 



March 1935 • American Cinematographer 129 



COMMONSENSE AND SOliriD-ON-FILM 



(Continued from Page 123) 



All these technical details about ex- 
posure, film, tests, and so on sound 
pretty formidable, don't they? But you 
ain't heard nothin' yet! You haven't 
even gotten to making your scene. Re- 
member when you were a little boy, and 
had to "speak a piece" in school, how 
scared you got — how you gulped and 
gurgled, while every recollection of the 
piece fled from your mind? Well, nine 
people out of ten get just as scared 
when they get in front of a microphone. 
John Citizen and his wife are pretty 
silly specimens when they get in front 
of a silent-picture camera — and they're 
Iftcely to be a hundred times worse trying 
to improvise words in front of a sound- 
camera. This means that you'll have to 
prepare everything you shoot in sound: 
work out a script, with dialog, and re- 
hearse your people until they "do their 
stuff" pretty near perfectly, And even 
then, the chances are ten to one that 
they'll get mike-fright when you actu- 
ally shoot the scene! 

So you'll simply have to "stage" ev- 
ery bit of talkie action — even the ones 
you want to seem most spontaneous and 
impromptu. When we were making 
"Around the World in 80 Minutes," we 
learned this lesson from sad experience. 
Doug has been acting on the stage and 
screen for more than twenty-five years, 
but even he found he wasn't so hot "ad- 
libbing" in front of a sound-camera. 
As a result, we "staged" nearly all of 
our sound scenes as carefully as though 
we were working in a studio. The really 
impromptu shots, you'll remember, were 
shot silent (with our Eyemos), and the 
sound was added later. 

The same is just as true of those 
scenes where you supply a Graham Mc- 
Namee-esque narrative. If anything, it's 
rather more so, for it's mighty near im- 
possible to concentrate properly on your 
camerawork and spout bright discourse 
at the same time — especially if the 
bright discourse is being recorded, and 
you know it. Will Rogers might do it, 
or Bill Fields — at least the talking part 
— but you and I would find it an im- 
possible assignment. 

„Then, there's another thing. Shooting 
silent pictures, if you muff a scene, you 
can usually shoot it over again, and 
snip the bad one out of your film after- 
wards. But cutting sound-on-f i Im isn't 
so easy! In the studios, we record our 
sound on a separate film, and only join 
it with the picture in the finished print. 
But in amateur sound-on-film, which is 
what we call "single-system" sound, 
the sound and picture are on the same 
strip of film: the sound for any given 
frame is twenty-five frames ahead of 
the picture, so if you cut for the picture, 
you're likely to trim out a lot of com- 
mas, periods, and semicolons you really 



want to keep in the sound-track — while 
if you cut for the sound (which is diffi- 
cult), your picture isn't likely to be 
well-cut. There are mighty few profes- 
sional film-editors who care to cut 
single-system film. 

So far, you see, I've managed to 
punch a lot of holes in friend Bill's 
great plan. But it's a pretty poor critic 
who only tears things down: isn't there 
some idea that would help him get his 
sound-films more easily? Well, here is 
what I advised him to do. First of all, 
I suggested that he keep his present 
camera, and film his trip silent. Then 
when he came home, he could get a 
sound-camera and, using it strictly as 
a recorder, make up a really good sound- 
track of dialog, narrative and music, 
which could very easily be fitted to his 
already-edited silent picture. If the pic- 
ture had been shot on negative, the job 
would be simple; if it had been done on 
reversal, a duplicate negative would 
have to be made. In any event, the 
laboratories don't charge any more for 



SOUND-ON-FILM 



RENTAL LIBRARY « 

A large variety of subjects always 
available. Comedies, Dramas, Cartoons, 
Educational Subjects, etc. 

Send self-addressed, stamped envelope 
for list of subjects. 

Visual Instruction Supply Corp. 

1757 Broadway Brooklyn, N. Y. 




The Ideal humidifying can for your Alms. 
Prices to Dealers on Application. 



KINO-LUX .INC. NEW YORK" 



ATTENTION! 

Owners af 16mm 
Sound an Film Projectors 

Our new modern studio and equip- 
ment, devoted exclusively to 16- 
mm sound pictures, makes it pos- 
sible to add sound to your silent 
reversal and negative 16mm pic- 
tures, at a price within your reach. 

Here we can add music in the 
theme and tempo of your scenes, 
or accompany your pictures with 
a descriptive talk by a trained an- 
nouncer — and with background 
music if desired. We have added 
sound on film to two of the Ama- 
teur Cinema League's Ten Best 
Pictures of the year, why not your 
pictures too? 

Give your films that Professional 
Touch — the Punch and Vitality of 
the Modern Newsreel. Investigate. 

G. A. BUSCH & CO. 

33 West 60th St. New York 

CIRCLE 7-2408 




BRITf-LITe 
TAUVI SION 



portable projection 
screens 



BRITELITE TRUViSION MOVIE SCREENS 

Britelite-Truvision Motion Picture Screens have achieved a reputation for outstand- 
ing merit. Their advanced design provides exceptional proiection performance — 
to an extent never attained before. They come in a wide variety of styles including 
folding, back board, metal tube and easel models. They assure brilliance, color, 
depth and sharp definition. 

30x40 DE LUXE "A" MODEL $15.00 List 

Other sizes and models priced in proportion. 

INDOOR FLOOD LIGHT REFLECTORS 



TRIPLE XXX MODEL 

with HI-LO switch and tripod. Three- 
Reflector hand unit with 6 1 '2 -ft. rubber 
cord and plug. Finest unit for indoor 
photography $8.75 list. 



BIG BEN MODEL 
Clamp grip snaps on any handy chair, 
door, shelf, or table. Ten-inch corru- 
gated aluminum reflector on swivel to 

direct light $1.50 list. 

For 2 bulbs $1.75 list. 



At your Dealer or write for complete catalog of 
BRITELITE TRUVISION MOVIE PRODUCTS 

made by 

Motion Picture Screen & Accessories Co. 



49-51 West 24th Street 



New York 



130 American Cinematographer • March 1935 



sound-printing if sound and pictures are 
on two separate negatives, or one. 

Secondly — and I think Bill will do 
this, for he has his heart set on getting 
a sound-camera — he could use the out- 
fit, shooting whatever he could in sound, 
and the rest silent (by simply removing 
the batteries that power the sound- 
equipment), and making most of his 
sound-track later, as in my first sug- 
gestion. This, of course, would give him 
a chance to try recording the actual 
noises of his alluring lands, and making 
dialog-scenes of his friends. In this, I 
know he's going to learn a lot about 
microphone - placing. There is really 
quite a trick to getting a mike where 
it will give you a good record, and yet 
be either out of the picture, or unnot- 
iced. Recording in the open, by the way, 
you can often hide the mike behind 
some bushes, or the like, right in the 
picture, yet give no suggestion that the 
thing is there. And, for good recording, 
you'll have to have the mike close to the 
people — about a yard (or less) from 
their mouths, as a rule. This, incident- 
ally, suggests another reason why it is 
a good idea to make as much of your 
sound as is possible separately. 

About at this point, Bill asked me 
how I expected him to record music for 
his sound-track. I reminded him that 
he has a phonograph — and it is quite 
easy to play any record he chooses to 
use in his score, with the microphone 
close to the phonograph's loudspeaker. 
The fact that the motor of a 16mm 
sound-camera will only run about 25 
feet of film at a winding complicates 
this somewhat, but even so, it can be 
done. Here's another point to look out 
for: phonograph records aren't by any 
means all recorded at the same volume- 
level, so you'll have to be mighty care- 
ful to balance this up, or your accom- 
paniment will be faint for a few scenes, 
and then suddenly blast forth like thun- 
der. 

Summing the whole matter up, if 
you're going to try sound-on-film pic- 
tures, you'll find that you have to pre- 
pare everything as carefully as though 
you were Cecil DeMille making a gigan- 
tic spectacle. You'll have to have the 
patience of Job in directing your actors. 
You'll have to have your technique 
— especially exposure — letter-perfect. 
You'll have to cut your picture with your 
camera. And most of all, you'll have to 
work like a horse! If this isn't too high 
a price to pay for the thrill of making 
your own sound-films, go to it: you'll 
have a big job on your hands — but you'll 
get pictures that won't need any apolo- 
gies. 

"Eastman D-9 developer: 



Stock Solution A 

Water (about 125°F.) 1 6 oz. 

Sodium Bisulphite 3 A oz. 

Hydroquinone % oz. 

Potassium Bromide 3 A oz. 

Cold water to make 32 oz. 



CLASSI FIED 

Rates: Seven cents a word. Minimum 
charge, one dollar per insertion. 



FOR SALE— MISCELLANEOUS 



MITCHELL 1,000-ft. magazine. Used veiy 
little, $55.00. Ries & Fitzpatrick, 1557 No. 
Vine St., Hollywood, Calif. M 



CRAFLEX, 4x5 Revolving Back Auto, in new 
condition. Graf Variable and 2-18 film 
magazines. Cost almost $300, for $150.00. 
Watson McAlexander, 616 So. 85th St., 
Birmingham, Ala. M 



EDUCATIONAL Camera Blimp and Dolly for 
Mitchell Camera. Follow Focus Device, gear- 
ed free head, three wheels, pneumatic tires, 
cost $1250, special $500. Hollywood Camera 
Exchange, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, 
Calif. Cable HOCAMEX. 



GENUINE Bell & Howell, 1000-ft. magazines 
in excellent condition, $50.00 each. Four 
hundred foot magazines, $25.00 each. Four 
hundred foot Mitchell magazines, $25.00 
each. Cases for above, $10.00 each. Holly- 
wood Camera Exchange, 1600 Cahuenga 
Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. Cable HOCAMEX. 



ARTREEVES latest 1935 portable double sound 
recording unit with double sprocket recorder, 
automatic speed conTrol motor, twin fidelity 
optical unit. Latest type camera motor. 
New type microphone. Complete factory 
guaranteed, $2,400. This is the only au- 
thentic ArtReeves equipment for sale in 
Hollywood outside factory. Camera Supply 
Co., Ltd., 1515 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, 
Calif. 



BELL & Howell and Eyemo Cameras, lenses, 
magazines, tripods, moviolas, splicers, re- 
winds, measuring and synchronizing ma- 
chines. All kinds sound and laboratory 
equipment. Process, optical reduction and 
step printers. Eastman & Dupont spliced 
negatives tested and guaranteed 2'^c per 
foot, 100-ft. rolls, black leader each end on 
spools, $2.75. Inquiries invited. CONTI- 
NENTAL FILMCRAFT, 1611 Cosmo St., Hol- 
lywood, Calif. 



SPECIAL 16mm SOUND-ON-FILM RELEASE 
The 32nd Eucharistic Congress, held in 
Buenos Aires, Argentine. Special permission 
of Papal Legate, Cardinal Pacelli. A splendid 
portrayal of the event that cannot fail to 
interest any Catholic audience. Extremely 
valuable for Lenten presentation. Two reels. 
Other religious subjects available in 8mm 
and 16mm. Harry Mendelwager, 317 W. 
50th St., New York, New York. 



MITCHELL CAMERA, very quiet steel gears, 
3 Pan Tachar lenses. Free head, complete 
studio equipment, excellent condition, 
$1450. Camera Supply Co., Ltd., 1515 N. 
Cahuen ga Blvd., Holiywood, Calif. 

BELL & HOWELL CAMERA HEAD, 170 de- 
grees three lenses, B & H tripod legs and 
head, beautiful condition, $50.00. Camera 
Supply Co., Ltd., 1515 Cahuenga Blvd., Hol- 
lywood, Calif. 



Stock Solution B 

Cold water 32 oz. 

Sodium Hydroxide 

(Caustic Soda) 1 % oz. 

Use equal parts of A and B, and develop 
2 to 2'/2 minutes at 68°F. Reversal 
film has a non-halation backing which 
can be removed by wiping with methyl 
alcohol. 

The two Stock Solutions keep well sep- 
arately, but when mixed deteriorate ver/ 
tapidly. Cold water should always be 
used when preparing Solution B, as con- 
siderable heat is evolved. When mixing 
the two solutions, Solution A should be 
stirred thoroughly to prevent precipita- 
t'on of the caustic. 



ADVERTISING 



VERY POWERFUL FLOODLIGHTS of new de- 
sign. Will burn through a 1000-W. Rifle 
with Cable, $5.00. With 12-foot collapsible 
Stand, $20.00. Camera Supply Co., Ltd , 
1515 N. Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 



3 400-ft. reels and 3 Humidor Cans, all for 
$2.25 plus postage. Fotoshop, Inc., 136 W. 
32nd St., New York City. T 



SOUND Moviola Model UC, price $450.00. 
Also new H.C.E. free-head and legs for Bell 
& Howell, Eyemo or DeVry portable cameras, 
$75.00 complete. Hollywood Camera Ex- 
change, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, 
Calif. 



LIKE NEW — Mitchell Camera, silenced Acad- 
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tripod, 1000-ft. magazines, complete — 
$2000. Hollywood Camera Exchange, 1600 
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LIKE NEW — Artreeves portable double sound 
recording outfit with Bell & Howell Silenced 
camera, complete in every detail. A real 
bargain, price $3500. Price without camera, 
$2500. Hollywood Camera Exchange, 1600 
N. Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. Cable 
address: HOCAMEX. 



EASTMAN and Dupont short end negative, 
spliced, tested and guaranteed or money re- 
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$2.75. Inquiries invited. CONTINENTAL 
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Calif. 



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TRADE Wanted: CARL ZEISS 35mm "Kinamo" 
with or without f/3.5 Tessar. Want Leica 
or lenses for "Filmo 70-D." Watson Mc- 
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Ala. M 



WILL pay cash for professional or 16mm cam- 
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Camera Exchange, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd., 
Hollywood, Calif. Hollywood 3651. 



WANTED — Number 1 Eastman Stereopticon 
camera. Harry Perry, OXford 1908. 



WANTED — Daylight Developing tank for 3.%- 
x4}4 cut film. Box 246, American Cinema- 
tographer, 6331 Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood, 
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tors, parts and accessories. Motion Picture 
Camera Supply, Inc., 723 7th Ave., New 
York, New York. T 



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WE BUY, sell or rent everything necessary for 
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Ruby Camera Exchange, 729 7th Ave., New 
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Cinematographic 



Annual, Vol. 1 



Now $2.50 



MEMBERS** 



Directors of 
Photography 

Abel, David 
Andersen, Milfoid A 
Andriot, Lucien 
Arnold, John 
Ash, Jerome H. 
August, Joseph 
Barlatier, Andre 
Barnes, George S. 
tBell, Chas. E. 
tBenoit, Georges 
Boyle, Chas. P. 
Boyle, John W. 
Brodine, Norbert F. 
Brown, Jas. S., Jr. 
Chancellor, Philip 
Clark, Dan 
Clarke, Charles G. 
Corby, Francis 
Croniager, Edward 
Crosby, Floyd D. 
Daniels, William H 
tDavis, Charles J. 
de Grasse, Robert 
Depew, Ernest S. 
DeVinna, Clyde 
Diefz, Wm. H. 
tDored, John 
*Dubray, Joseph A. 
tDuPar, E. B. 
Dyer, Edwin L. 
Dyer, Elmer G. 
Eagler, Paul 
taeson, .Arthur 
Fernstrom, Ray 
Fischbeck, Harry 
Folsey, George J., Jr. 
Freulich, Henry 
*Freund, Karl 
Fryer, Richard 
Gaudio, Gaetano 
Gerstad, Merritt B. 
Gilks, Alfred 
Glennon, Bert 
Good, Frank B. 
Haller, Ernest 
Halperin, Sol 
tHarten, Charles 
tHerbert, Charles W. 
Hickox, Sid 
Hickson, John T. 
rlowe, James Wong 
Hunt, Roy 
Jackson, Harry 
Jennings, J. D. 
June, Ray 
Kershner, Glenn 
Kline, Ben 
tKnechtel, Lloyd 
Kohler, Henry N. 
Krasner, Milton 
Kull, Adolph E. 
Landers, Sam 
Lang, Charles B., Jr. 
Lloyd, Art 
Lundin, Walter 
Lyons, Chet 
McCord, Ted 
McGill, Barney 
Mackenzie, Jack 
tMacWilliams, Glenn 
Marley, J. Peverell 
Marsh, Oliver 
Marshall, Chas. A. 
Marshall, William C. 
Martinelli, Arthur 
Marzorati, Harold J. 
Mate, Rudolph 
Meehan, Geo. B., Jr. 
Mellor, William C. 
Miller, Arthur 
Miller, Virgil E. 
Milner, Victor 
Morgan, Ira H. 
Musuraca, Nick 
Neuman, Harry C. 
O'Connell, L. William 
Overbaugh, Roy F. 
Palmer, Ernest 
tPaul, Dr. Edward F. 
Peach, Kenneth 
Perry, Harry 
tPerry, Paul P, 
Planck, Robert H. 
Polito, Sol 
Rees, William A. 
Reynolds, Ben F. 
Robinson, George 
Rose, Jackson J . 
Rosher, Charles 
Rosson, Harold 
tRuttenberg, Joseph 
Schneiderman, George 



Schoenbaum, Charles 
Seitz, John F. 
Shamroy, Leon 
Sharp, Henry 
"Shearer, Douglas 
Siegler, Allen 
tSilver, John 
tSmith, Jack 
Smith, Leonard 
Snyder, Edward J. 
Sparkuhl, Theodor 
tSteiner, William, Jr. 
Stengler, Mack 
Stout, Archie J. 
Strenge, Walter 
Struss, Karl 
Stumar, Charles 
Stumor, John 
Tetzlaff, Ted 
Thompson, William C 
Todd, Arthur 
Toland, Gregg 
Tover, Leo 
Towers, Richard 
Tutwiler, Tom 
Valentine, Joseph A. 
■ Von Buren, Ned 
Van Enger, Willard 
Van Trees, James 
IVarges, Ariel 
von Sternberg, Josef 
Wagner, Sidney C. 
Walker, Joseph 
Warren, Dwight 
Wenstrom, Harold 
Wetzel, Al. 
Wheeler, William 
White, Lester 
Wyckoff, Alvm 
i'Zucker, Frank C. 

Operative 

First Cameramen 

Tobey, Robert 

Special Process 

Binger, Ray 
Cully, Russell A. 
Edouart, Farciot 
Fabian, Maxmillian 
Finger, John 
Gr.ggs, Loyal 
Haskin, Byron 
Jcckman, Fred 
Jackman, Fred, Jr. 
Kelley, W. Wallace 
KutntKamp, hi. t-. 
Lipstein, Harold 
Pollock, Gordon 
Ries, Irving C. 
Smith, Arthur 
Walker, Vernon L. 
Williams, William N. 
Wrigley, Dewey 
Wimpy, Rex 
Zech, Harry 

Operative 
Cinema tographers 

Anderson, Don 
Anderson, Wesley 
Arling, Arthur E. 
Badaracco, Jacob 
Bader, Walter 
Ballard, Lucien 
Bell, Jack C. 
Bennett, Guy M. 
Bennett, Monroe 
Bentley, Fred 
Biroc, Joe 
Blackstone, Cliff 
Bradley, Wilbur H. 
Browne, Fayte M. 
Burks, Robert 
Campbell, Arthur 
Castle, Walter H. 
Chewning, Wallace 
Clark, Roy 
Clemens, Geo. T. 
Cline, Wilfrid E. 
Cohen, Edward J. 
Collings, Russell D. 
Cortez, Stanley 
Davis, Harry 
Davis, Leland E. 
Dean, Faxon 
Diamond, Jas. R. 
Dunn, Linwood G. 
Eslick, LeRoy 
Fapp, Daniel L. 
Feindel, Jockey 
Fetters, C. Curtis 
Finger, Frank 
Fitzgerald, Edward 
Galezio, Len 



Garnett, Paul 
Gertsman, Maury 
Gibbons, Jeff T. 
Glassberg, Irving 
Gordon, James 
Gray, King D. 
Green, Kenneth 
Greene, Al M. 
Guffey, Burnett 
Guthrie, Carl 
Hallenberger, Harry 
Harper, James B. 
Henderson, Edward 
Hoag, Robert 
Huggins, L. Owens 
Jennings, Lewis E. 
tKelly, Wm. J. 
Knott, James 
Landon, Theodore 
Lane, Al L. 
Lanning, Reggie 
LaShelle, Joseph 
Laszlo, Ernest 
Lawton, Charles C. 
Lerpae, Paul K. 
Lindon, Lionel A. 
Lynch, Warren 
Lyons, Edgar H. 
Mayer, Fred 
Meade, Kyme 
Merland, Harry 
Metty, R. L. 
Mols, Pierre M. 
Newhard, Guy J. 
Newhard, Robert S. 
Nogle, Geo. G. 
Novak, Joe 
Palmer, Robert 
Pierce, Otto 
Pittack, Robert 
Pyle, Edward 
Ragin, David 
Ramsey, H. Clark 
Ramsey, Ray L. 
Rand, William 
Redman, Frank 
Ries, Ray 

Roberts, Albert G. 
Roberts, Irmin 
Roberts, Josiah 
Robinson, Walter C. 
Roe, Guy 
Rosenberg. Irving 
Salerno, Charles, Jr. 
Scheurich, Victor 
Schmitz, John j 
Schurr, William F. 
Schoedsack, G. F 
Smith, William Cooper 
Shipham, Bert 
Snyder, Wm. 
Stine, Clifford R. 
Tappenbeck, Hatto 
Thompson, Stuart 
Titus, Frank 
Ulm, William R. 
Unholz, George 
Vaughan, Roy V. 
Vogel, Paul Charles 
Vogel, Willard I. 
Wester, Carl 
White, Ben 
Wild, Harrv 
Wilky, Guy L. 
Williams, Al E. 
Williamson, James 

Assistant 
Cinematographers 

Abbott, L. B. 
Abramson, Melvin 
Adams, Eddie 
Adams, Ralph G. 
Ahern, Lloyd 
Anderson, Eddie 
Babbitt, Royal F. 
Baldwin, Herold 
Barth, Willard 
Beckner, Neal 
Bergholz, Emmett 
Bessette, Raoul 
Boegs, Haskell 
Bohny, Chas. R. 
Bourne, George 
Bradford, William 
Bridenbecker, Milton 
Brigham, Donald H. 
Bronner, Robert 
Burgess, Frank 
Burke, Charles 
Cairus, Lawrence 
Caldwell, John C. 
Carter, Ellis W. 
Citron, Joseph A. 
Clothier, William H 



Cohan, Ben 
Cohen, Sam 
Collins, Edward C. 
Crawford, Lee 
Crockett, Ernest J. 
Cronjager, Henry, jr. 
Crouse, John 
Curtiss, Judd 
Daly, James 
Dalzell, Arch R. 
Davenport, Jean L. 
Davis, Mark 
Davis, Robt. D., Jr. 
Davol, Richard S. 
Dawe, Harry 
Dawson, Fred 
DeAngelis, Louis 
tae Cazstellaine, Paul 
Deverman, Dale 
Diskant, George 
Dodds, Wm. 
Dowling, Thomas L. 
Dugas, Frank 
Eagan, J. P. 
Eckert, John 
Elliott, August J. 
tEtra, Jack 
Evans, Frank D. 
Farley, Joseph L. 
Fischer, Herbert J. 
Foxall, William 
Fredricks, Ellsworth 
Garvin, Edward 
Gaudio, Frank, Jr. 
Geissler, Charles R. 
Gerstle, Arthur 
Goss, James M., Jr. 
Grand, Marcel 
Green, Don 
Greer, John 
Hackett, James C. 
Harlan, Russell 
Hayes, Towne D. 
Higgins, James Colman 
Higgs, Stuart P. 
Hoffman, Roswell 
tHolcombe, Walter B. 
Hunter, Kenneth 
Kauffman, R. King, Jr. 
Kearns, Edward 
Keller, Alfred S. 
Kelley, George F. 
Klein, Irving 
Kluznik, MaiT 
Lackey, Walter K. 
Lane, Art 
Laraby, Nelson 
Leahy, Chas. P. 
Lerpee, Carl 
Lewis, C. L. 
Liggett, Eugene 
Lockwood, Paul 
Love, Cecil 
Lykins, Vollie Joe 
McDonald, Frank 
McEdward, Nelson C 
MacDonneil, Stanley 
Maclntyre, Andy 
Marble, Harry 
Martinelli, Enzo 
Mautino, Bud 
Meade, Kenneth 
Mehl, John 
Mohn, Paul 
Molina, Luis 
Moreno, Robert C. 
Morris, Thomas C. 
Myers, Albert 
Norton, Kay 
Orsatti, Alfred 
Parkins, Harry 
Rankin, Walter 
Reinhold, Wm. G. 
Rhea, Robert 
Riley, William 
Russell, John L,, Jr. 
Sanford, S. A. 
Sargent, Don 
Scheving, Albert 
Schuch, William 
Shirpser, C. 
Shorr, Lester 
Slifer, Clarence 
Sloane, James 
Smalley, Alfred E. 
Smith, H. C. 
Soderberg, Edward F. 
Southcott, Fleet 
Straumer, E. Charles 
Strong, Glenn 
Strong, William M. 
Terzo, Fred 
Thomas, Jack 
Tolmie, Rod 
Tripp, Roy 



Van Trees, James, Jr. 
Van Wormer, John Pierce 
Walsh, Mike 
Ward, Lioya 
Weiler, John 
Weissman, Leonard 
Wellman, Harold 
Wendall, Jack E. 
Whitley, William 
Worth, Lothrop 

Still Photographers 

Allan, Ted 
Alsop, George 
Bachrach, Ernie 
Bjerring, Frank 
Blanc, Harry 
Breau, Joseph F. 
Bredell, Elwood 
Brown, Milton 
Clarke, Sherman L. 
Coburn, Robert 
Cooper, John 
Cronenweth, W. E. 
Crosby, Warner N. 
Crowley, Earl 
Ellis, John 
English, Donald A. 
Estep, Junius D. 
Evansmith, Henry 
Farrell, David H. 
Fraker, W. A. 
Freulich, Roman 
Fryer, Elmer 
Grimes, William H. 
Head, Gordon G. 
Hendrickson, Fred S. 
Hopcraft, N. John 
Johnson, Roy L. 
Julian, Mac 
Kahle, Alexander 
Kling, Clifton 
Kornman, Gene 
Lippman. Irving 
Lobben, C. Kenneth 
Longet, Gaston 
Longworth, Bert 
Lynch, Bert 
Manatt, S. C. 
Marigold, Mickey 
McAlpin, Hal A. 
Morrison. Talmage H. 
Richardson, G. E. 
Richee, Eugene R. 
Robbins, Leroy S. 
Rowley, Les 
Schafer, Adolph L. 
Sibbald, Merritt J. 
Six, Bert 
Stone, Ed 
Tanner, Frank 
Thomas, Wm. E. 
Van Pelt, Homer 
Walling, Will, J. 
Welbourne. Chas. Scott 
Wyckoff, Harold M. 

Portrait 
Photographers 

MacDonald, Melvin A. 

Honorary Members 

Mr. E. 0. Blackburn, 

Los Angeles, Calif. 
+ Mr. George Eastman, 

Rochester, N. Y. 
; Mr Thomas A. Edison. 

Orange, N. J. 
Mr. Albert S. Howell, 

Chicago, III. 

Associate Members 

Mr. Louis A. Bonn 
Mr. George Cave 
Dr. L. M. Dieterich 
Mr. Fred Gage 
Mr. Emery Huse 
Dr. Lloyd A. Jones 
Dr. C. E. K. Mees 
Dr. Herbert Meyer 
Mr. Hollis Moyse 
Dr. W. B. Rayton 
Dr. V. B. Sease 
Dr. J. S. Watson, Jr. 

Inactive Members 

Cowling, Herford T. 
Dunning, Dodge 
DuPont, Max B. 
Fildew, William 
Glouner, Martin C. 
Graham, Stanley 
Jackman, Dr. Floyd 
Lockwood, J. R. 
Roos, Len H. 
Stull, William 



-Membership by Invitation only. 



^Directors of Photography in Executive Positions. 



Non-Resident Members 



t Deceased 



FOREIGN AGENCIES 



JOHN H. TAYLOR 
75, Albany Street 
London, N.W. 1, 
England 




D. NAGASE & CO., LTD. 
7, Itachibori Minamidori 
1 Chome 
Osaka, Japan 



BOMBAY RADIO CO., 
Ltd. 

16, New Queen's Road 
Bombay, 4, India 



ARMINIO CONTI 

5 Via De Mille 
Rome, Italy 



CLAUD C. CARTER 
35-43 Missenden Road 
Sydney, Australia 



Mitchell Camera Corporation 

665 N. ROBERTSON BOULEVARD 
WEST HOLLYWOOD, CALIF. 

Cable Address "MITCAMCO" Phone OXford 1 05 1 



APRIL, 1935 

PRICE 25c 

Published in Hollywood 
By the 

American Society of Cinematographers 






VICTOR 
MILNER, A. S.C 

See Page Ml 




GREGORY LA CAVA • CLAUDETTE COLBERT 
CHARLES BOYER • LEON SHAMROY 



Du Pont Film Manufacturing Corporation 



35 WEST 45 th STREET 
NEW YORK CITY 

PLANT • • • PARLIN, N. J. 



SMITH & ALLER LTD. 

6656 -SANTA MONICA BLVD. 
HOLLYWOOD, CAL. 



TRADE MARK HAS NEVER BEEN PLACED ON AN INFERIOR PRODUCT 



April 1935 • American Cinematographer 135 



AMERICAN 
CINEMATOGRAPHER 



A Technical and Educational publication 
of motion picture photography. 

Published monthly by the 
AMERICAN SOCIETY 
OF CINEMATOGRAPHERS, INC. 
6331 Hollywood Boulevard 
Hollywood, California 

Telephone GRanite 2135 

JOHN ARNOLD, President, A.S.C. 

GEORGE SCHNEIDERMAN, Treasurer, A.S.C. 



Volume 16 



APRIL 1935 



Number 4 



What to Read 



RHYTHMIC Flow — Mental and Visual 

by A. Lindsley Lane, A.S.C 138 

RECORDING "One Night of Love" 

by John Livadary 140 

ACADEMY Award Won by Victor Milner.,141 

INTERPRETATIVE Photography Wins 
Nomination 

by James L. Fritz 142 

AUDIENCE Must Believe 

by Harry Burdick .143 

CINEMATOGRAPHY in the Tropics 

by P. M. Chancellor, A.S.C 144 

TELEPHOTO Shots 145 

PHOTOGRAPHY of the Month 146 

NEW Sound Editor 148 



Next Month 



• There will be several interesting articles on 
some of the leading cameramen in the Holly- 
wood studios. In these articles we will attempt 
to give you an insight into the methods used 
by these men to secure the type of photography 
for which they are famous. 



• There will also be several articles of a tech- 
nical nature contributed by members of the 
A.S.C. 




The Staff 

EDITOR 

Charles J. VerHalen 

TECHNICAL EDITOR 

Emery Huse, A. S. C. 

ASSOCIATES 

Walter Blanchard 
Karl Hale 

CIRCULATION MANAGER 

M. Miller 

ADVISORY 
EDITORIAL BOARD 



Victor Milner, 
Chas. G. Clark, 
Hatto Tappenbeck, 
Jackson J. Rose, 
Fred Gage, 
Dr. J. S. Watson, Jr., 
Dr. L. M. Dieterich, 
Dr. L. A. Jones, 
Dr. C. E. K. Mees, 
Dr. W. B. Rayton, 
Dr. Herbert Meyer, 
Dr. V. B. Sease, 



A. S. 
A. S 
A. S 



FOREIGN REPRESENTATIVES 

Georges Benoit, 1 00, Allee Franklin, 
Pavillions-sous-Bois. France. Seine. Tele- 
phone LeRaincy 13-19. 

NEW YORK REPRESENTATIVE 

S. R. Cowan, 19 East 47th St., New York 
City. Phone Plaza 3-0483. 



ESTABLISHED 1918. Advertising Rates on application. 
Subscription: U.S. $2.50 a year; Canada $3.50 a year; 
Foreign $3.50 a year. Single copies 25c. Foreign 
single copies 35c. COPYRIGHT 1935 by American 
Society of Cinematographers, Inc. 



Neither the American Cinematographer nor 
the American Society of Cinematographers 
is responsible for statements made by au- 
thors. This magazine will not be responsible 
for unsolicited manuscripts. 



136 American Cinematographer • April 1935 



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April 1935 • American Cinematographer 137 



THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CINEMA- 
TOGRAPHERS was founded in 1918 for 
the purpose of bringing into closer con- 
federation and cooperation all those leaders in 
the cinematographic art and science whose 
aim is and ever will be to strive for pre-emi- 
nence in artistic perfection and technical mas- 
tery of this art and science. Its purpose is to 
further the artistic and scientific advancement 
of the cinema and its allied crafts through un- 
ceasing research and experimentation as well 
as through bringing the artists and the scien- 
tists of cinematography into more intimate 
fellowship. To this end its membership is com- 
posed of the outstanding cinematographers of 
the world with Associate and Honorary mem- 
berships bestowed upon those who, though not 
active cinematographers, are engaged none 
the less in kindred pursuits, and who have, by 
their achievements, contributed outstandingly 
to the progress of cinematography as an Art 
or as a Science. To further these lofty aims 
and to fittingly chronicle the progress of cine- 
matography, the Society's publication, The 
American Cinematographer, is dedicated. 



AMERICAN 
SOCIETY OF 
CINEMATOGRAPHERS 



OFFICERS 

JOHN ARNOLD 
VICTOR MILNER 
JOHN W. BOYLE 
ELMER G. DYER 
GEORGE SCHNEIDERMAN 
FRANK B. GOOD 



President 
First Vice-President 
Second Vice-President 
Third Vice-President 
Treasurer 
Secretary 



BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

John Arnold Frank Good 

John W. Boyle Fred Jackman 

Dan Clark Ray June 

Elmer Dyer Charles B. Lang, Jr. 

Arthur Edeson Victor r/ilner 

George Folsey George Schneiderman 

Alfred Gilks James Van Trees 

Vernon L. Walker 

Frederick L. Kley, Executive Business Manager 



PAST PRESIDENTS 

Philip E. Rosen 
Gaetano Gaudio 
James Van Trees 
John W. Boyle 

Fred W. Jackman 



HONORARY MEMBERS 



Hal Mohr 
Homer Scott 
John F. Seitz 
Daniel B. Clark 



Mr. Albert S. Howell 
Mr. Edward 0. Blackburn 



PUBLIC RELATIONS COMMITTEE 

John Arnold Ariel Varges 

Frank Zucker Edwin L. Dyi_. 

Charles Bell Charles W. Herbert 

Charles J. Davis Mack Stengler 

George Benort John Dored 

Glenn MacWilliams Philip M. Chanceilor 

Max B. DuPont 



PRODUCTION COMMITTEE 

Dan. el B. Clark 
John W. Boyle 



Elmer G. Dyer 
Ned Van Buren 



MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE 

Charles G. Clarke 

George Folsey 



Alfred Gilks 



ENTERTAINMENT COMMITTEE 

John W. Boyle 
Charles B. Lang, Jr. 

Alvin Wyckoff 



Frank B. Good 
Vernon Walker 



RESEARCH COMMITTEE 

Victor Milner, Arthur Miller, Dr. Herbert 
Meyer, ]ohn Arnold, )ohn F. Seitz, 
Emery Huse, Dr. L. M. Dietrich 



WELFARE COMMITTEE 

Ray June 



Fred W. Jackman 



CENERAL COUNSEL 

Arthur C. Webb 



James Van Trees 



138 American Cinematographer • April 1935 



GIVEN a good tale to tell, the next thing is to tell 
it well cinematically. Many a good story, ably 
directed and photographed (in the narrow sense), 
fails to become a good photoplay. For, poorly conceived in 
"audience emotional reaction" flow (the nervous intensity 
of the percipient not being smoothly sustained in a grad- 
ually mounting "trough and crest" undulation), the picture 
version fails to bring out all the native dramatic values 
possessed by the original story — is found wanting because 
of its lack of a rhythmic, inevitable "flow and ebb" of the 
life portrayed. And, only through complete integration of 
the story's subject-matter with "camera participation" and 
"cutting" can the ideal picture-audience result be realized; 
such as found, for example, in "Broadway Bill." 

Cutting exerts a direct influence upon picture flow. 
This is proven by the simplest possible means: the expedient 
of short cuts in rapid succession (as opposed to long cuts 
in slow succession) seemingly hastens the cinematic move- 
ment (percipient experience), though in fact, it may or 
may not actually do so, depending on the nature of the 
subject-matter and the camera's interpretive efficiency 
in the particular instance. While in some cases fast cutting 
actually builds an accelerated emotional participation with- 
in the percipient, in other instances it simply repeats a 
cycle of non-progressive emotion. Thus the very existence 
of this sometimes false impression of hastened experience 
is one verification of: Cutting and camera-participation 
must be entirely harmonized and integrated with the pic- 
ture's subject-matter to a conserved and unified, rising 
cumulation. 

In enhancing a cumulative crescendo within the se- 
quence, certain general cutting techniques have proven 
their merit through years of practical film making, such 
as: starting with a long shot, cutting to a medium shot, 
and then to closeups. In this most elementary of patterns 
there is one great validity, that of ascending intimacy. 

Another conventional technique is the close scrutiny 
of a significant facial expression, or of some animate or 
inanimate symbolism, with the camera pulling away reveal- 
ing the emphasized object relative to the dramatically 
consecutive context of characters and/or surroundings; 
followed by a series of medium inter-cuts, and finally 
spreading out to full-shot action for the curtain scene of 
the sequence. 

Within the synthetic flow of cinematic movement there 
are several coordinated rhythms. We have just observed 
that one of these is camera scope (full shot) through to 
intimacy (close-up), or vice versa; in prolonged swells, 
or rapid-fire shuttling in and out, or their mixture as the 
case may be. Its purpose being identical with that of each 
of the several rhythms: to present clearly to the audience 
the deeper human relationships that exist and develop 
between story characters — so very essential to cogent story- 
telling. For (it is impossible to emphasize the point too 
much) this rhythm of individual human life in its contacts 
with other life around it, must be experienced vitally by 
the theatregoer through the medium of the all-knowing 
cinematic eye and ear, if the picture story is to be fully 
successful. 

Thus we remark the "follow shot," so abundantly used 
in intimately tracing characters or things from one place, 
person or situation to another place, person or situation; 
or for an unyielding, progressively closer, or broader, iden- 
tification of the percipient with actor or symbol. Some- 
times these shots are well done, delineating the true sig- 
nificance of the relationships concerned; and at other times 
as poorly executed, missing the keneer dramatics of the 
conflict or sympathy between the characters or symbols; 
or worst of all, introducing only superficial connections. 

The real cinematographic interpreting of these human 



Rhyth 



mic 



activities is, in the final analysis, a skillful blend of cuts 
and mobile camera, achieving the fullest cinematic effec- 
tiveness by an entirely unself-conscious "participation" in 
the "central emotional strain" threading rhythmically 
through the story. 

For example, as a bit of the synthetic whole picture, 
there is a shot in "The Barretts of Wimpole Street" de- 
picting the unhappy relationship between despotic father 
and browbeaten children, which illustrates perfectly the 
much-to-be-desired and ideal "oneness" of "omniscient 
eye" and "rhythmic flow of emotional vibrations." 

A series of cuts show the young people enjoying a polka 
done by Henrietta in Elizabeth's sitting room. The camera 
then joins Henrietta in her dance, following her about the 
room. As she sweeps widely in the direction of the hall 
door the camera, instead of swinging back with her toward 
the center of the room, continces on irresponsibly and 
gayly toward the door and bumps abruptly into the scowling 
elder Barrett just entering the room and watching Henrietta 
as she polkas and the others as they gleefully applaud her. 
Another series of cuts develops the denouement of the clash 
as the father explodes in his wrath. 

In this follow shot the camera's movement is the actu- 
ating element which so vividly crystallizes for the percip- 
ient the dismal state of affairs between father and children. 
The camera has taken unto itself the children's stolen joy, 
participating with them in it through Henrietta's dancing, 
and has been caught unawares and checked up with fright- 
ening abruptness by the ever-threatening menace (the 




April 1935 • American Cinematographer 139 



Flow — 
Mental 
and Visua 

by 

A. Lindsley Lane, A.S.C. 

"central emotional strain" in this easel that clouds the 
young folks' spirits. It is, in this instance, the most effec- 
tive way of bringing together and superimposing the two 
opposing experiences of father and children into a pungent, 
dramatic whole experience for the theatregoer. Here the 
cumulative sweep of suspense and combat is compressed 
into the single (and therefore doubly vitall impress of the 
one panning shot. Contrary to the usual untensive effect 
of a moving camera, the camera movement in this scene 




conserves and keys perfectly the startling intrusion of the 
ominous Barrett. There is both "conservation" and "com- 
plication" here, as there should be in every properly con- 
ceived and executed mobile camera shot; otherwise, the 
use of the mobile camera is worse than meaningless, is 
in fact, destructive to the emotional rhythm of the cine- 
matic flow. 

Looking at another aspect of cinematic flow, as it 
pertains especially to the cinematographer. Physically 
rhythmic matter, such as figure exit and entrance timing 
and placing in the screen area, possesses much dramatic 
value; for there are always the screen-limits and their 
influencing pressures, immediately associated with the per- 
cipient's imaginative experiences. In this regard it will 



be helpful to spend a moment on the two complementary 
physio-psychological stresses of: (1 ) actually visible screen 
movement; and (2) mentally visualized off-screen move- 
ment. Both of these flows are a part of cinematic move- 
ment, each interacting with and augmenting the other in 
the picture-percipient experience. 

There is a powerful dual psychological function residing 
constantly in the screen-limits, namely: "elimination" and 
"suggestion." It is the relative proportions of each of 
these, conditioned within the percipient's mind at the par- 
ticular time, that denotes the nature of the shot on the 
screen. Either the shot is one of directionalized elimina- 
tion; or it is one of evolving suggestion. (Note that there 
is an intrinsic rhythm in both of these processes!. Either 
the shot is framed to eliminate irrelevant or distracting 
matter from the percipient's experience; or it is framed to 
suggest in his imagination certain idealizations or concen- 
trations of meaningful contiguous influences or matter. 

In the shot played primarily for all its own worth and 
for nothing else about its immediate concern, the picture 
is composed so as to be almost completely self-contained, 
not only in detail of contributive matter, but also in the 
formation of its psychological stresses. There will be no 
indicating stimuli of whatever sort pointing outside of the 
screened area, except as a most subordinate subconscious 
association of ideas. 

But in the shot definitely played to suggest dramatic 
affinity with an off-screen experience or inter-cut shot, 
there is the change from a neutral function of the picture- 
limit as in the self-contained shot, to one of positive func- 
tion. The picture edge then becomes a live element, due 
to its physical demarkation of the actually visible from the 
imagined visual. And this rhythmic element is the one 
so prevalently disregarded by picture makers. 

I refer to the almost absolute practice of not allowing 
the eyes of a closeup head to look off the short side of 
the screen; or of a walking or running figure to advance 
toward the short side for o sustained time. This custom 
as an unvarying rule is without foundation in the motion 
picture and fails to take into account the cumulative unity 
of the picture sequence. Certain phases of cinematic com- 
position may seem to contravene orthodox static composi- 
tion and yet not do so psychologically, and are in fact, but 
the cinematic extension of the old accepted principles and 
among the most potent factors of cinematic rhythm. 

As witness, in a shot of the evolving suggestion type, 
there are occasions when the stress generated within the 
percipient for the screen character, would have the char- 
acter (profile figure I close to the screen edge with his 
back toward the screen center, so that the character could 
move backward unhindered, away from the nearest edge 
and away from the percipient-imagined scene directly in 
front of the character. Such stress is generated, for in- 
stance, when the screen character is fearfully, frozenly 
watching the advancing steps of a mortal enemy. The 
placement in this way of the figure on the screen greatly 
magnifies the dramatic impetus by impelling tangibility 
and graphicness in the imagined section of the conflict. 

The advancing enemy in the inter-cut shot is framed 
in a like manner. He is moving to the closer edge of the 
screen; thus the wider space in back of him suggests his 
imminence to the stricken prey, with the resultant energy 
developed within the percipient striving to hold and pull 
back the advancement. This particular cinematic composi- 
tion rhythm is especially effective when audience sympathy 
is with the fearful one. In other instances, with the re- 
versal of audience sympathy to the advancing character, 
there would be the dramatic need of re-stressing the char- 
acters on the screen. 

Continued on Page 151 



140 American Cinematographer • April 1935 




John Livadary, Winner of the Academy of Motion 
Picture Arts and Sciences 1934 Award for Sound 
in the Picture "One Night of Love." 



Recording 
"One Night 
of Love" 

by 

John Livadary 

Chief of Sound Department, Columbia Studio. 

IT WAS early determined that the musical sequences of 
"One Night of Love" could most advantageously be 
made by recording the sound under conditions as nearly . 
ideal 'acoustically and psychologically) as might be pos- 
sible, thereafter taking care of the release-print sound 
problems by re-recording. This would enable us to utilize 
the fullest range obtainable in the original recording, later 
compressing it, in the re-recording process, to a range 
within the reproductive capabilities of the average theatre's 
equipment. In consequence, it would clearly be wise to 
make the original recording by whatever means might be 
found to give a record of the greatest volume range and 
tonal fidelity. 

After a survey of recording practice and equipment, it 



was determined that the so-called "hill and dale" method 
of recording on wax discs offered the greatest possibilities, 
though it had not previously seemed applicable to motion 
picture use, and it was accordingly adopted. The "hill 
and dale" method is basically a revival of Edison's original 
method of recording sound by means of a stylus which cuts 
a groove of varying depth in a soft material; but recent 
developments, not only in microphones, recording channels, 
and the like, but in the materials of both the original wax 
and the final, pressed disc, and in the methods of plating 
and stamping the discs, have improved it to a point where 
it is in no way comparable to previous conceptions of disc 
recording. In conventional records — including those used 
for talking picture, broadcast and phonograph purposes — 
the needle travels laterally in the groove, tracing a wavy 
line between the walls of the groove. This method has 
several disadvantages, not the least of which is the fact 
that a sudden peak of volume tends to make the recording 
stylus over-modulate, cutting through into the ad|oining 
groove and spoiling the record, or at least leaving the 
groove-wall dangerously thin, so that only a small amount 
of wear is necessary before the groove breaks down, un- 
fitting the disc for further use. In the "hill and dale" 
method, however, since both stylus and needle move ver- 
tically, this hazard is avoided, and the recordable volume 
range increases from about 25 or 30 db to 40 or 50 db. 
In addition, much more faithful reproduction is possible 
as a result of flatter frequency characteristics and less 
non-linear distortion in the recording and reproducing 
channels, and objectionable "surface noise" is almost en- 
tirely eliminated. 

In recording the musical sequences, records were made 
simultaneously on film (>viih the regular "wide-range" 
recording) and on the vertical-cut disc; the latter was 
found definitely superior, and was used exclusively in pro- 
ducing the final release version. 

There was an interesting problem in rnicrophone place- 
ment in the making of these" sequences,' for the singer's 
artistic caprices precluded the logical practice of pre-scor- 
ing the accompaniment, and recording the solo to a play- 
back. Therefore, the soloist had to be recordset! with a 
70-piece symphony orchestra -and a large chorus at a 
single "take," with the added complication of being forced 
to work in a large sound-stage, which was much too 
"dead," from a reverberation, standpoint, to bes satisfac- 
tory acoustically. The problem was solved by J#\e use of 
multiple microphones: two dynamic, mikes for tne orches- 
tral pick-up, one about 30 feet from the orchestra, and 
the other, fitted with a variable, high-pass filter, about 
90 feet away, to introduce a sort of synthetic reverbera- 
tion into the record. Miss Moore desired an unusually 
close association with the orchestra, so her voice was re- 
corded with a special directional microphone, placed di- 
rectly in front of her, but at right angles to most of the 
orchestra, thus utilizing the marked directional qualities 
of this type of microphone. A fourth microphone recorded 
the chorus. 

The recording wax, in sharp contrast to the heavy 
waxes previously used in disc recording, consisted of only 
a very thin layer of wax flowed onto a metal supporting- 
surface. This method permits a much finer and more 
homogeneous surface-texture than is possible with earlier 
methods. In order to take full advantage of this ultra- 
smooth surface, the recording-head does not use the con- 
ventional sapphire-ball bearing or support in front of the 
cutting tool, but utilizes a minute stream of compressed 

Continued on Page 1 52 



April 1935 • American Cincmaiorrapher 141 



Academy Award 
Won By 

Victor Milner, A.S.C 

VICTOR Milner, First Vice-President of the American 
Society of Cinematographers, has been acclaimed by 
the Motion Picture Industry the outstanding camera- 
artist of 1934, receiving the Cinematography Award of 
the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences for his 
achievement in photographing "Cleopatra." In a year in 
which all of the other major awards have been subject to 
criticism, Milner's stands out as the one meriting wide- 
spread popular approval. Moreover, both the nomination 
of the finalists and the selection of Milner as the ultimate 
winner concur with both popular sentiment within the 
Industry and the experienced judgment of the camera pro- 
fession. 

In the opinion of his fellow-cinematographers, Milner 
has for many years been esteemed one of the greatest 
exponents of camera artistry, but the nature of most of 
his recent productions, together with the very skill which, 
while bringing him the acclaim of his fellows, invariably 
held photography as subservient to the interests of the 
production, withheld from him the opportunity for so spec- 
tacular a display of artistry as meets public acclaim. In 
"Cleopatra," however, Milner was offered unusual oppor- 
tunities for the spectacular, and he took full advantage 
of them without for a moment diverging even slightly from 
his established precedents of photographic taste. 

In many respects, "Cleopatra" revealed Milner in a 
new mood. The many productions he has made with Ernst 
Lubitsch have been characterized by a peculiarly brittle bril- 
liance which, while harmonizing perfectly with the Lubitsch 
directorial style, deliberately avoided any self-assertion on 
the part of the camera. Some of his other productions, 
like "The Way of All Flesh" and "Song of Songs," re- 
veal a sombre, almost Slavic, melancholy, rising to great 
pictorial heights. Another of his earlier films, "The Wan- 
derer" (made several years before the Academy came into 
being), revealed him as a master of exquisite pictorialism 
reminiscent of Corot and other great masters. In none of 
his previous work, however, has he in any way paralleled 
the mood revealed in "Cleopatra." The keynote of his 
treatment of this production was unrestrained, yet so- 
phisticated, luxury, carried to a point which makes the 
overworked adjective "gorgeous" the only fitting descrip- 
tion. 

In any production of DeMillian magnitude, especially 
one utilizing spectacular and richly atmospheric costumes 
and settings, striking compositions are to be expected. 
Equally to be expected in any production photographed by 
an artist of Milner's eminence is flawless treatment of the 
protagonists. But in "Cleopatra," Milner makes his cam- 




era play an arresting role in the subjective presentation of 
the story: he motivates every scene wrth photography 
which embodies the lavish sensuality of ancient Egypt and 
the patrician depravity of Caesarean Rome perfectly ob- 
jectified. 

Careful analysis reveals that this effect is in a great 
measure due to Milner's mastery of the Art of lighting. 
Not only has he painted his compositions with light and 
shade and sculptured his players, but, with surpassing skill, 
he has wielded light, as with the most delicate of brush- 
strokes, to enhance the textural values of the sumptuous 
settings and costumes. Not for nothing have his fellows 
acclaimed him as one of the great masters of lighting! In 
"Cleopatra," his sheer mastery of light makes the sensual 
richness of the scenes something which can almost be felt 
physically. 

Milner's approach to his work reveals him as not only 
a great artist, but a craftsman of painstaking accuracy. 
No detail is too small to merit careful attention, nor is 
any physical or mental effort too great. To even the most 
unpromising "program picture," he brings superbly finished 
photography, and a vital enthusiasm. In sharp contrast to 
his scrupulous workmanship, the man himself is vibrant 
with nervous energy, which he lavishes almost prodigally 
upon his work. 

He places paramount stress upon the creation of dra- 
matic moods with lighting; in his estimation it is not 
enough that a scene be an intrinsically beautiful bit of 
photographic pictorialism: Cinematography is essentially 
a vehicle for dramatic expression, and every phase of the 
photography should exist for the specific purpose of telling 
the scene's story. To him, it is the Cinematographer's duty 
to make every scene a gripping emotional experience, per- 
fectly attuned to the dramatic mood of the action. 



142 American Cinematographer • April 1935 




George 
Folsey, 
A.S.C. 



Interpretative 
Photography Wins 
Folsey Academy 
Nomination 



by 

James L. Fritz 

Formerly drama editor, St. Louis Post-Dispatch 
and N. Y. Daily Mirror. 



GEORGE Folsey, one of this year's nominees for the 
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences 
award, was undoubtedly given this honor on his 
interpretative photographic ability. 

Although Folsey is best known for his talent to inject 
the illusion of brilliance into his work, "Operator 13," the 
production which won him the consideration of the Acad- 
emy, possessed none of this quality. In this picture the 
subject, Miss Davies, required a romantic and softening 
treatment, instead of the sophisticated aspect with which 
this star is usually cloaked. It was for this excellent hand- 
ling, on the part of the cinematographer, of the subject in 
an entirely different atmosphere that classed him among 
the three outstanding cinematographers of the year. 



On the other hand, Folsey's ability to inject sparkling 
and vitalic brilliance into a production was displayed to 
an advantage in a previous picture, also starring Miss 
Davies, "Going Hollywood." After viewing these two pro- 
ductions one can readily realize the versatility necessary 
on the part of the ace cinematographer. It is hard to say 
which of the two is the best example of Folsey's work. 
However, in the latter production the true quality of bril- 
liance, with which Folsey is always identified and for which 
he seems to strive in most instances, makes itself strikingly 
noticed. 

Folsey explained his ability to inject this brilliance into 
his pictures, by telling us that when the cinematographer 
is striving for brilliance, he must create a color or tone 
that is directly opposite to another color or tone. This 
effect is obtained by the correct blending of lights and 
shadows. To give the subject this treatment, the cinema- 
tographer must have, at all times, the feel of the mood 
of the subject. 

To understand the mood of the subject, the cinema- 
tographer must also have the absolute understanding of 
the mood of the story. He must obtain this understanding 
of the moods of the story and subject, so that he will be 
able to light and surround the subject with a background 
coinciding with these moods. The background should 
never be allowed to become more important than the sub- 
ject, and yet, it should never be allowed to reach such a 
degree of unimportance, that it no longer has any relation 
to the subject. To obtain this perfect relationship between 
subject and background, Folsey never allows his back- 
ground to become monotone, but instead, he always intro- 
duces a contrast in shadows that will blend this relationship 
with perfect harmony. 

Shadows are the cinematographer's best friend. With 
them he is not only able to increase or decrease the quality 
of his composition, and display the subiect to a greater 
advantage, but, with them, he can attune the audience s 
mind to any mood he desires, and key the response to any 
emotional point or pitch. If the cinematographer keeps an 
attentive eye on the handling of shadows, he can prepare 
the audience for any desired dramatic tempo. He can also 
create a subconscious, emotional receptiveness on the part 
of the audience that greatly enhances the dramatic, vital- 
ic, and entertainment quality of the production. 

So that he is able to have this understanding of the 
proper manipulation of lights and shadows, Folsey particu- 
larly takes notice of the shadow effects caused by natural 
elements. Walking down the street in the rain, he studies 
the fantastic shadows that the street lights throw gro- 
tesquely on the wet, glistening pavements. The church 
steeple when it is cloaked in a dense fog gives him the 
illusion of mystery and weirdness, which surrounds the 
majestic structure, while again climatic conditions created 
those friends of the cinematographer — shadows. 

Every cinematographer, Folsey believes, when studying 
shadows and their effects, should give extensive thought 
as to where the light comes from. It is true that the illu- 
sions and effects of brilliance, vitality, luxuriousness, and 
mystery which the cinematographer of today strives to in- 
iect into his work, are less difficult to obtain than they 
were six or seven years ago. This is due to the fact that 
today the cinematographer is working with a much faster 
film, therefore making possible a minimum of illumination. 

Folsey also tells us that to do justice to the subject and 
story the cinemtaographer should have a personal and 
sound acquaintance with the situation he is photographing. 

Continued on Page 151 



April 1935 • American Cinematographer 143 



Aud ience 
Must Bel ieve — 

is Charles Roshers Creed 



by 

Harry Burdick 

WHEN Charles Rosher was awarded the cinematog- 
raphic assignment of "The Affairs of Cellini," he 
accepted with more than the ordinary degree of 
enthusiasm. The locale of the story is Florence, Italy. 
Rosher had spent several months in that historic city a few 
years back and had come to know it well. He determined 
to recapture on celluloid the life and charm of the gay 
community. How well he succeeded is indicated by the 
picture's nomination as one of the three outstanding ex- 
amples of the past year's cinematographic achievements. 

At the start, as his camera began functioning, there 
was no inkling in Rosher's mind that here might be a 
cinematographic masterpiece in the making. It was a cos- 
tume picture with interesting scenes, yes; but not a spec- 
tacular extravaganza overflowing with optical opportuni- 
ties. More, the tight thirty-day shooting schedule afforded 
little time for extensive experimentation. Actually, it was 
galloped through to completion in twenty-four days. 

It was, therefore, far from being a "natural" for high 
cinematographic honors. It was the sheer artistry and 
genius of Rosher's camera eye, working in routine manner 
and under driving pressure, that elevated the picture from 
an ordinary level which circumstances might have dictated 
to its ultimate cinematographic heights. 

In fine, Rosher took the materials of "just another 
picture" and molded a photographic gem. One can easily 
discern in the achievement a striking illustration of the 
adage relating to making the most of the opportunities 
at hand. 

Rosher is inherently an artist. You see it revealed in 
his charming ranch home, in his flower gardens, and in 
all his photography. 

He has been utilizing camera lenses as vehicles of ex- 
pression, for portrait and cinema halls, some thirty-odd 
years. And these years have made definite influence on 
the trend of Rosher's pictorial interpretations. 

Basically, the camera is an instrument of reproductive 
fidelity. It has conveyed to Rosher a passion for cinema- 
tographic realness. He is very much the fundamentalist, 
the realist. 

His pictures all contain a definite and appealing pho- 
tographic charm. But underlying is his never - ceasing 
quest for realism. Not the stark, raw realism of the man- 
killer. Rather, he wants more than anything else to make 
his characters on the screen to appear real and believable 
— to be genuine human beings of living flesh and blood 
instead of figures released from book pages. 




Charles Rosher. A.S.C.. whose photography in "Af- 
fairs of Cellini" won him nomination for Academy 

Award. 



To this end, he advises against makeup so far as is 
possible. In the Cellini work, Constance Bennett wore 
only ordinary street makeup. Unless rigidly censored, he 
avers, makeup gives the actor or actress a false and unreal 
appearance that is at once labeled in the audience mind 
as being of the theater. He heartily dislikes faces made 
into bland masks, lips that reflect a varnish pail. 

He likes to transmit to the screen the little individual 
imperfections that establish character in a face; delicate 
traceries of the skin, throbbing linings of veins, even a 
mite of blemish or honest wrinkle. For of such things 
are living faces actually made. He likes to capture them 
with his camera. 

He holds definite antipathy for scenes that seem pur- 
posely posed, for unnatural groupings and artificial actions 
that cry loudly of theatrical origin. So long as the audience 
sits before the unwinding of his picture, Rosher wants 
that audience to believe what it sees without qualification. 
Above all, he wants it to feel and believe it is looking at 
real people and real scenes. 

And so he devotes all the wizardry of his cinematog- 
raphic arts to portraying a fidelity to actuality, a believable 
realness. Even an incidental broiled steak in a cafe scene, 
as instance, must be presented to seem hot, sizzling, appe- 
tizing, good enough to eat. 

He likes clear pictures. He doesn't go in for diffusing 
and other so-termed arty effects gained by mechanical 
means, although he has made them when conditions re- 
quired. They may be photographically beautiful, gorgeous 
even, to look upon; but they aren't real. 

Not that there is any touch of monotone to Rosher's 
work. The Cellini picture is fair instance. 

The famed goldsmith and freebooter of the sixteenth 
century lived in a gay era, a prosperous and colorful per- 
iod. Palaces were alight with splendor and glitter. Fine 
ladies were resplendent with jewels and full skirts of fine 
goods. So Rosher photographed banquet and palace scenes 

Continued on Page 1 50 



144 American Cinematographer • April 1935 




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f-Space for Film-rolls* 
False Bottom Er Screen 

1 



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Calcium Chloride £r Paper 
DESICCATOR 



Cinematography 
in the Tropics 

by 

Philip M. Chancellor, A.S.C., F.R.G.S. 

Leader, Chancellor-Stuart-Field Museum Expeditions 

As told to Wm. Stull 



THE requirements of Expeditionary Cinematography 
find no analogy in the fields of production, newsreel 
or commercial camerawork. In these fields, artistic 
and technical matters are the principal concern of the 
Cinematographer, and he needs to concern himself only 
slightly with the selection and nature of his subject-matter. 
The Expedition-Cinematographer, on the other hand, must 
usually determine the subject-matter of his scenes, as well 
as their purely cinematographic treatment. He is gener- 
ally the only person in the party who has any knowledge or 
appreciation of the factors that make a successful motion 
picture, and he must therefore bend every effort to the end 



that he may bring back a complete and useful production. 
Not only must he supervise, direct, and photograph the 
picture, but he must often cut and title the finished film 
as well, in some cases having to prepare several versions, 
for educational, reference, and general exhibition purposes. 

It is therefore distressing that the cinematographic 
records of so many expeditions have been entrusted to un- 
qualified workers. In many instances the photographic work 
has been delegated to members of the party who. while 
specialists in their own scientific fields, have but a casual 
acquaintance with cinematography; and in some instances, 
this important work has even been left in the hands of 
out-and-out amateurs. In view of the acknowledged edu- 
cational and economic value of expedition films, it should 
always be remembered that the success of the films de- 
pends entirely upon the training, skill and adaptability of 
the Cinematographer who makes them. 

The matters of equipment and photographic procedure 
are susceptible of almost infinite variation. The budget 
available for photographic expenses must naturally govern 
the matter of equipment: in general, one should always get 
the best and most dependable apparatus one can afford. 
The use of substandard I 1 6mm, 17.5mm, etc. I equipment 
may offer some economies, but to my mind, it also presents 
disadvantages which more than offset the potential savings. 
If I were equipping an expedition with a limited budget, 
I would prefer to use hand-type standard cameras, such as 
the DeVry, rather than using either substandard equipment 
or obsolescent standard cameras. 

Wherever possible, a studio-type camera such as the 
Bell and Howell or Mitchell camera should form the back- 
bone of an expedition's equipment. Such cameras are im- 
perative for scientifically precise work. For certain types 
of work, such as fast-moving wild-animal studies, the 
Akeley is, as always, supreme. But no expedition should 
start without at least two hand-type cameras such as the 
DeVry or Eyemo. These are absolutely invaluable, and will 
probably do a lion's share of work in the field. 

Fast lenses are always an advantage, though by no 
means indispensable. It is important, however, when work- 
ing in the tropics, to equip with lenses such as the Carl 
Zeiss or Cooke types, which will not be affected by the 
extreme heat and humidity. For the same reason, tripods 
(especially those for the hand-cameras), carrying-cases, 
and all accessories, should be of design and materials which 
will resist all climatic conditions. 

For the same reason, filters mounted in glass are sel- 
dom advisable. I have used some glass-mounted filters 
which withstood tropical weather very well; but the major- 
ity deteriorate very quickly. I therefore invariably carry 
several duplicate sets of gelatin filters, each in an indi- 
vidual, weatherproof container, so that I am always assured 
of perfect filters in an emergency. 

The choice of filters is always an individual matter. 
As a rule, the Expedition Cinematographer will not need 
so extensive an assortment as the studio worker requires. 
The principal uses of filters in most expeditionary work 
will be controlling extremes of light-contrast, and pene- 
trating atmospheric haze in long-shots. In some instances, 
special color-correction may be important for scientific and 
pictorial reasons, but as a rule over-correction should be 
avoided; and I personally feel it unwise to attempt to 
lighten the rendition of flesh tones in shots of dark-skinned 
natives by using filters, though this can easily be done by 
using the "G" filter. 

Continued on Page 1 50 



April 1935 



American Cinematographer 145 




TELEPHOTO 



SHOTS 



"As If It Matters" 

• JOE AUGUST of Columbia "moom pitchers" studio, has 
a phoney hobby ... he saves phoney-graph records. . . • 
Strange as it may seem, the hobby has proven quite profit- 
able to Joe, he rents out some of the older ones for dub- 
bing purposes. . . . And as long as we're on the subject 
of hobbies we might as well mention ARCHIE STOUT who 
is that way about yachts. He owns a little skiff which set 
him back just 25 Gs. . . . Where did I hear that remark 
about crank turners and bulb squeezers never getting what 
they're worth? . . . And then there's CHARLIE CLARKE 
who saves neck ties . . . what neckst . . . 

"It Might Hove Been Goble" 

• We can't figure out whether CLYDE DE VINNA has a 
hobby or an obsession. It seems that Clyde is trying to start 
another league of nations in his home. Everyone knows 
that Clyde is one of Hollywood's unsung humanitarians. 
He adopts children from every corner of the world. After 
fifteen years of traveling he has collected to date . . . 
Antonina and Leonne, two Polynesian girls . . . Clarence 
Kumalae, an Hawaiian lad . . . Ryovo Matsiu ... a 
son of the land of the Cherry Blossoms . . . and Clyde 
is again leaving for foreign ports shortly to start shooting 
the new M.G.M. flicker, TYPEE ... no telling what he 
will bring back this time . . . maybe a two-headed yak. 
. . . Clyde called his house the other mid-night to tell his 
"flutter half" that he was again on the road to Mandalay. 
One of the acquired offspring answered the phone and 
Clyde said: 

"Let me speak to Mama, this is Daddy." 
"Who?" asked the voice on the other end. 
"Daddy," Clyde again informed. 
"Who???" 

This time Clyde was utterly exasperated. 

"The man whose picture's on the piano!" he yelled. 

"Here's One For The F.R.R.C.A." 

• And while we're on the trail of the Ripleys pulled by the 
leading Cinematomakers there's the one by the Barnes- 
Blondell merger. 

It semes that the L.M.&B.B. Railroad, a brand new 
venture in electrified transportation, has been organized 
in H'wd. The entire right-of-way is located under the 
Barnes-Blondell El Rancherio. The house straddles the 
sharp ridge of the H'wd. mountains and the unfinished 
basement offers an interesting terrain for the project and 
provides many involved engineering and construction prob- 
lems for "de ole massa Barnes." 

The choo-choo's initials (with apologies to F.D.R.) if 
you haven't already guessed, my dear readers (are we be- 
ginning to sound like a Fan Mag? I, is the LOOKOUT 
MOUNTAIN & BARNES-BLONDELL RAILROAD. . . . 



A scene from "Oil for the Lamps of China." Tony 
Caudio, Director of Photography; Operative Cam- 
eraman, Carl Cuthrie; Assistant, Stuart Higgans, 
and Chief Electrician, Vic |ohnson. 



The whole affair is being built for Norman Scott Barnes, 
age 3 months and 1 1 days (tie that one Mr. Ripley). The 
first train is being constructed by a young man in the film 
capital who specializes in making such toys for devout 
and doting parents. It consists of an electric locomotive, 
four feet long, and a train of cars in proportion . . . and 
when completed it will cost 70,000 (that's cash, not but- 
tons) . 

"Oil Right Tony" 

• And when we hear of dizzy things we always think of 
TONY GAUDIOI by the way, he took the writer to lunch 
the other day, so we owe him this plug?) who is shooting 
the blinky, "OIL FOR THE LAMPS OF CHINA." Tony, it 
seems, has a bad cold, which he contracted when the com- 
pany was on location at Lone Pine, near Mt. Whitney. 
Tony, all the time the location was in the desert, was try- 
ing to cure his cold in the old-fashioned manner. When 
they arrived back at the "stoogio" the boys had erected 
a mound with a head stone reading: 

TONY GAUDIO 
ONE SHOT TOO MANY 
R.I. P. 

Which this department considers a nifty. . . . 
(I had to get that nifty line in so that I could tell 
about SOL POLITO. . . . ) 

"Gum Up an' See Me" 

• While Sol was shooting "GO INTO YOUR DANCE," the 
latest Jolson-Keeler revuesical, he was always having trouble 
with the charmings' gum-chewing activities. Finally in 
a fit of temper Sol tore his hair. 

"If you gals must chew gum," he screamed, "why the 
hell can't you chew it in time with the music?" 

"One Happy Family" 

• Then there's the nifty which Geo. Stevens pulled on 
Harold Wenstrom last " some day" over at the R.K.O. plot. 

"Wennie," quoth the director, "do you know — think- 

Continued on Page 1 53 




146 American Cinematographer • April 1935 




PHOTOGRAPHY 




"FOLIES BERGERE" (United Artists) 

Barney McGill, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 

Daily Variety (February 16, 1935': "Photography and 

production are above average." 
Hollywood Reporter (February 16, 19351: "McGill's pho- 
tography of these numbers is nothing short of stun- 
ning." 

Motion Picture Daily (Februray 18, 1935): "Photography 
fair." 

Film Daily (February 20, 1935): Photography "Best." 

"LET'S LIVE TONIGHT" (Columbia) 
Joseph Walker, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (February 16, 1935): "Lilian Harvey 
has been beautifully photographed" — . 

"NAUGHTY MARIETTA" (M-G-M) 

William Daniels, A. S C.: Directing Cinematographer 

Daily Variety (February 18, 1935) : "Photography of Wil- 
liam Daniels is superb." 

Hollywood Reporter (February 18, 1935): "William Dan- 
iels' photography does much to enhance the beauty 
of the production." 

Film Daily (February 20, 1935): Photography "A-l." 

Motion Picture Daily (February 19, 1935) : "William Dan- 
iels' photography enriches the production with consis- 
tent beauty both indoors and outdoors." 

"A DOG OF FLANDERS" (Radio) 

J. Roy Hunt, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 

Daily Variety (February 18, 1935): "Photography by J. 

Roy Hunt is very good." 
Hollywood Reporter (February 18, 1935': " — and J. Roy 
Hunt's photography is up to his customary high stan- 
dard." 

"MISSISSIPPI" (Paramount) 

Charles Lang, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (February 21, 1935): "Charles Lang's 
photography is superb with several outstanding shots." 
Daily Variety (February 21, 1935): "Photography is good." 

"WEST POINT OF THE AIR" (M-G-M) 
Clyde DeVinna, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Charles A. Marshall, A.S.C., and Elmer Dyer, A.S.C.: Aerial 
Photographers 

Hollywood Reporter (February 21, 1935): "Photography 
by Clyde DeVinna, Charles Marshall and Elmer Dyer, 
and production are first-class throughout." 

Daily Variety (February 21, 1935) : "Best part of the air 
stuff is the beautiful photography, and camera work all 
through is noteworthy. Much time undoubtedly was 
spent getting gorgeous cloud effects and backgrounds." 

"IT HAPPENED IN N. Y." (Universal) 

George Robinson, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 

Daily Variety (February 21, 1935) : "Photography is oke." 



of the MONTH 

"LOVE IN BLOOM" (Paramount) 
Leo Tover, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (February 26, 1935): "Tover's pho- 
tography is one of the better things about the picture." 

"LADDIE" (RKO) 

Harold Wenstrom, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (February 25, 1935): "Harold Wen- 

strom's photography and the production's values arc 

okay." 

Daily Variety (February 25, 1935): "Harold Wenstrom 
scores with the camera, especially in preserving the 
idyllic nature of the farm scenes." 

Motion Picture Daily (February 26, 1935: "Harold Wen- 
strom's photography is superb." 

"GREAT GOD GOLD" (Monogram) 

Milton Krasner, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 

Daily Variety (February 27, 1935) : "Milton Krasner addz 

plenty merit with his camera." 
Hollywood Reporter (February 27, 1935): "Photography 

and production values are good." 

"McFADDEN'S FLATS" I Paramount I 

Ben Reynolds, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 

Hollywood Reporter (February 27, 1935): " — and the 

photography by Reynolds is fine." 
Daily Variety (February 27, 1935): "Photography is 

good." 

"LIVING ON VELVET" (Warners) 
Sid Hiekox, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (March 2, 1935): "The Hiekox pho- 
tography is excellent with some nice air shots." 
Daily Variety (March 2, 1935): " — and nicely photo- 
graphed." 

"PRIVATE WORLDS" (Paramount) 
Leon Shamroy, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (March 5, 1935) : "Not to forget Leon 
Shamroy's photography, particularly the Arab's death- 
bed scene and Joan Bennett's mental collapse episode." 
Daily Variety (March 5, 1935) : "Leon Shamroy has pho- 
tographed exceedingly well, especially eerie effects sug- 
gesting mental disturbances of principals and patients." 

"WHILE THE PATIENT SLEPT" (Warner Bros.) 

Arthur Edeson, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 

Daily Variety (March 8, 1935' : "Camera has been we!l 
handled by Arthur Edeson." 

Hollywood Reporter (March 8, 1935): "Edeson's photog- 
raphy is by far the best thing about the picture and 
it is excellent." "PHOTOGRAPHY ALONE POSSESSES 
MERIT." 

"TRAVELING SALESLADY" (Warner Bros.) 
George Barnes, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (March 8, 1935): "George Barnes' 
photography is more important than the picture." 

Continued on Page 1 54 



April 1935 • American Cinematographer 147 

Cameramen s 

INSPIRATION 



/CAMERAMEN long ago decided 
that Eastman Super Sensitive "Pan" 
is fit company on any flight of genius. And 
results vindicate their judgment. For four 
years in succession the great bulk of the 
really inspired motion pictures have been 
photographed on this superlative film. 
Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N. Y. 
(J. L. Brulatour, Inc., Distributors, New 
York, Chicago, Hollywood.) 



EASTMAN Super Sensitive 
Panchromatic Negative 



148 American Cinematographer • April 1935 





New Sound Editing Device 



• A recent addition to the line of lab- 
oratory and sound equipment manufac- 
tured by the Hollywood Motion Picture 
Equipment Co. Ltd. is the Soundola used 
in the cutting of sound track. 

The construction of the machine is 
very simple; it consists of a pair of re- 
winds, an amplifier hung from the wall 
in the illustration on this page and the 
reproducing unit placed between the re- 
winds. It is manufactured by this com- 
pany for both 35mm and 16mm film. 

It is claimed the machine has simpli- 
fied the job of removing words or even 
stumbled syllables in the middle of sen- 
tences. Another claim made for it by 
the manufacturers is that motor noises 
on sound track such as camera noise, 
door squeaks, paper rustling, etc., are 
instantly detected. 

The amplifier is A.C. operated, even 
to the photo-cell and exciter lamp sup- 
ply and has incorporated in its circuit 
a cut-off filter to eliminate hum picked 
up from this source. Volume is con- 
trolled by the gain of the amplifier with 
an additional control to adjust the 
photo-cell voltage to local line condi- 
tions. 

The amplifier has five tubes, trans- 
former coupled. It is housed in a wood 
cabinet such as is used for the better 
grade midget radios. !t is said to have 
sufficient gain to dominate a room from 
even a dense print or weak negative. 

The reproducing block unit contains 
the exciter lamp, the optical slit, and 
the photo-cell. It is connected to the 
amplifier by a plug-in flexible shielded 
cable. This unit is made of heavy brass 
and is equipped with rubber feet so when 
it is placed in position between the re- 
winds it will not slide. The guide rollers 
are of highly polished duralumin and 
are cut away in the center so as not to 



touch the sound track or picture area. 
The slit block or shoe is also relieved to 
clear the film between the sprocket 
holes. The scanning slit is an optical 
one in glass and is so constructed that 
it is impossible to touch the film or be- 
come clogged with dirt. There is also an 
inspection part illuminating a section of 
the sound track so that marking the film 
is facilitated without removing the film 
from the block. 

National Blimp 

• By now the news of motion pictures 
being taken during the Hauptmann trial 
contrary to the judge's rulings is news 
that has been passed on to the whole 
country, but just how this feat was ac- 
complished was not exposed. 

State troopers were stationed next to 
the cameras in the court room so that 
the court might be sure pictures were 
not being taken during the progress of 
the trial. In spite of this precaution 
the Universal News secured pictures 
which were made possible by the sound- 
proof construction of the National blimp 
built especially for this occasion. 

By pre-arranged signals, the sound 
man was able to record the sound track 
while the camera was operating by re- 
mote control, the camera man having 
previously focused and set his camera. 
During the actual shooting he appeared 
to be a disinterested spectator, sitting 
approximately I 5 feet from the camera 
that he was operating. 

It is also claimed that the fast lens 
plus the new fast Eastman Special X 
film was responsible for the securing of 
the good photography in these interior 
pictures. 

This special blimp, designed and built 
by the National Cine Laboratory for 



recording the pictures and testimony 
at the Hauptmann trial for Universal 
Newsreel, was intended only for tem- 
porary use as the time allowance of ap- 
proximately 10 hours did not permit the 
standard type construction. 

It was made of 8-ply veneer paneling 
with a triple layer of acoustical felt 
lining the entire case. The clear plate 
glass window through which the lenses 
photographed was approximately 6"x8" 
in area and ground perfectly flat on 
both sides to prevent distortion. 

The camera wsa mounted on an alum- 
inum plate 1 4" thick which was cement- 
ed to a gum rubber pad. The rubber 
pad was in turn cemented to a second 
base plate secured mechanically to the 
base of the blimp. The camera was thus 
held securely although actually floating 
on the rubber pad which prevented me- 
chanical vibrations from being trans- 
mitted to the tripod and floor. 

One entire side hinged from the top 
to allow the 1000-foot film boxes to be 
interchanged and the camera threaded. 
The lower section of the rear hinged 
upward to permit the cameraman to 
accurately focus the lenses and deter- 
mine the photographic field. A small 
opening in this rear door permitted the 
extension of the motor and recorder 
cables. 

This blimp was absolutely sound proof 
and using a Standard Schneider Xenon 
4" F1.8 lens the Universal News cam- 
eramen were able to obtain these re- 
markable pictures without any lighting 
equipment and without anyone in the 
entire courtroom knowing that pictures 
were being made. 

S.M.P.E. Creates Honor Medal 

O The Society of Motion Picture Engin- 
eers has created an award known as the 
Progress Medal. It is to be presented 
this year to an individual in recognition 
of any outstanding invention, research 
or development which in the opinion of 
the Progress Award Committee shall have 
resulted in a significant advance in the 
development of motion picture technol- 
ogy. 

The Progress Award Committee has 
been appointed by the Board of Gov- 
ernors of the Society and is composed 
of Dr. A. N. Goldsmith, Chairman; M. C. 
Batsel, James Crabtree, Carl Dreher and 
W. B. Rayton. The Committee will meet 
on June 27 to select the recipient of the 
medal to be awarded at the Fall Con- 
vention of the Society. 

The design of the medal has been 
submitted and approved by the Board or 
Governors and is the work of Alexander 
Murray of Rochester, New York. 




WHITE LIGHT 

from 

"INKIES" 




"IMPRACTICAL" was what they used to say of 
white light from inkies. Too much light was lost 
when the light was filtered to blend with daylight. 

Recently white light from inkies has been made 
commercially practicable . . . through the use of 
the G-E MAZDA Movieflood lamp in conjunction 
with a newly developed glass filter. This provides 
a light having substantially equal quantities of the 
three primaries . . . red, green and blue. 

This light works perfectly with color cameras and 
enables the color cameraman to swing from outdoor 
shots to indoor scenes and back again without bother- 
ing about filters. It can also be used very satisfactorily 
to blend with daylight indoors or outdoors. 

Although this combination was developed chiefly 
for color work, it offers advantages to all cinematog- 
raphers. It provides controlled daylight for the eye 
of the camera. It is helpful in process photography. 
It is useful wherever white light is desirable. 

More important than this news is the point it brings 
out: General Electric makes lamps for every appli- 
cation. Are you benefitting fully f rom this versatility 
of General Electric Mazda lamps? General Elec- 
tric Company, Nela Park, Cleveland, Ohio. 



GENERAL fp ELECTRIC 

MAZDA LAMPS 




150 American Cinematographer • April 1935 



CINEMATOGRAPHY IN THE TROPICS 

Continued from Page 144 



In some instances, a supply of Ortho- 
chromatic stock can be advantageous, 
especially in extreme long-shots in the 
tropics where modern super-panchro- 
matic emulsions tend to reveal a blur 
due to photographing the reflected heat- 
rays. 

Whatever type of film packing may be 
used, it is wise to keep the weight of 
the individual units below fifty pounds 
(preferably about 25 pounds each), as 
much of the transport in the fields will 
probably depend on man-power. Two- 
hundred-foot rolls are the most prac- 
tical, as the shorter lengths avoid the 
necessity for exposing an undue amount 
of film to the atmosphere at any time. 

The matter of exposure is vital. In 
the tropics there is usually a tremendous 
difference between the photographic 
values of areas in direct sunlight and 
in shade: there is often almost no appre- 
ciable actinic reflection from shadowed 
areas. Unless one is thoroughly accus- 
tomed to using a dependable exposure- 
meter, the only reliable guide to expos- 
ure is absolute reliance upon frequent 
tests. My own experience is to carry a 
small developing tank — the miniature- 
camera tanks, such as the "Reelo," are 
excellent for this — and a changing-bag, 
and to make a test immediately after 
each change of set-up. 

After exposure, the film should be 
desiccated as thoroughly as possible, re- 
packed in thoroughly dry paper, and re- 
sealed in its can, which has also been 
carefully dried, and taped with fresh 
tape. 

One of the most useful accessories is 
the desiccator shown in the accompany- 
ing sketch. It is made of sheet brass, 
with friction-seal top and bottom covers, 
and will hold four or five rolls of film. 
At the lower end is a false bottom, per- 
forated and covered with a fine-mesh 
brass screen, held in place with non- 
corrosive solder. This supports the film- 
rolls, while below it is placed the cal- 
cium chloride. This desiccator naturally 
requires a dark-room for the insertion of 
the film and chemicals, which is often 
impossible in the field. A smaller des- 
iccator, excellent for field use, can be 
made by soldering two 1 , 000-foot film- 
cans together, bottom-to-bottom, pierc- 
ing holes in the bottoms, soldering in 
the protective screen, and placing the 
film in the upper section with the chem- 
icals below. This unit con be used in a 
changing-bag, and in it film can be des- 
iccated in the field after exposure and 
packed temporarily, later to be re-desic- 
cated more thoroughly in the large unit 
at the base of operations, and carefully 
re-packed. If the expedition is to be 
out long, it is often a wise safeguard to 



desiccate and re-pack all exposed film 
at regular intervals. In packing the 
film, well-dried newspaper can be used, 
though regular black photographic wrap- 
ping paper is safer, and less likely to 
contain chemical impurities. I have al- 
ways found it wise to dry the paper, 
cans, etc., in an oven until the last trace 
of moisture has been thoroughly baked 
out. The film should be rolled as tight 
as possible without "cinching," and 
wrapped tightly. After placing the film 
in the can, the core-opening, and every 
possible space should be tightly filled 
with dry paper; when the cover is ap- 
plied under pressure, it should exclude 
all possible air from the container. The 
joint should be taped with extra care. 
Always save your old tape! 

There is a further phase of Expedi- 
tionary Cinematography, about which too 
little has ever been said. This is the fact 
that in journeying to distant lands, a 
Cinematographer becomes more than an 
individual: a representative of the Cam- 
era Profession. Far too many Cinema- 
tographers — and I do not refer to cine- 
kodaking tourists, but to professionals — 
have behaved cavalierly in these outly- 
ing parts, and brought our entire craft 
into disrepute. It therefore behooves a 
Cinematographer to conduct himself "as 
a Cinematographer and a Gentleman" 
at all times, cooperating carefully with 
his own Consul and with local authori- 
ties, taking care not to infringe any reg- 
ulations or customs, Governmental or 
religious, and to uphold the honor c* 
his profession. Quite aside from military 
and police regulations concerning things 
and areas which may and may not be 
photographed, there are always some 
peculiar native "tabus" which should be 
scrupulously observed. Many races (by 
no means all primitive ones, either), 
hold that to be photographed is to yield 
a part of one's soul to the photographer, 
who may thereafter always influence 
one's life and acts; others resent having 
certain holy places, acts, or religious ob- 
servances photographed. Transgression 
of these "tabus" will not only close 
many avenues of local cooperation, but 
can often be physically perilous. The 
incident of a few years ago, when a mob 
in a small Turkish village stoned an 
American Consular representative to 
death for attempting to film a religious 
procession, should always be remem- 
bered. Make it a rule, therefore, to act 
in all ways as you would wish any Cine- 
matographer who might precede you in 
such a locality to have acted, for while 
you may not expect to return, yourself, 
you can be sure that some fellow Cine- 
matographer will one day follow in your 
footsteps, no matter where you may be! 



Speth Dies 

• Rudolph Speth, treasurer of the East- 
man Kodak Company and an important 
figure in the growth of that business 
since he joined it in 1902, died of septi- 
cemia February 22nd in Rochester. His 
age was 64. 

Mr. Speth was born in Bavaria and 
educated at the University of Wurzburg. 
He reached the United States in 1892 
and spent in Chicago most of the ten 
years until he joined Kodak. He was 
an accountant with the firm of Price, 
Waterhouse & Company when he was 
engaged by George Eastman. 



AUDIENCE MUST BELIEVE 

Continued from Page 143 

in a dazzling high key. He poured in 
the light — lifted the actors right off the 
screen. Yet they weren't flat. He still 
got his depth and shadows. These scenes 
fairly scintillate; probably the most 
sparkling and brilliant scenes of the 
year's screening. They truly reflect the 
glamorous period. 

And in these large vivid scenes he 
attained still further accentuation and 
local color by lighting costumes in still 
higher key. He brought rich costumes 
to the screen in all the full beauty of 
their exquisite detail. The audience 
could almost reach out and pick off a 
jewel or two for souvenirs. 

Yet when he pictured Cellini as the 
artist, the superlative craftsman of fine 
metals, he clothed the workshop in rich, 
warm shadows. You could feel the calm 
solitude of the cloistered worker as he 
wrought delicate beauty in silver and 
in gold. 

When he went into the prison and 
dungeon scenes, the key like the mood 
went lower. 

The palace scenes were of much in- 
terest photographically. The sets were 
all pure white on the studio stage. Every 
item of color and tone they possessed 
when they reached the screen was im- 
parted by Rosher and his palette-and- 
brush lighting. 

Do not conclude he is a spendthrift 
with his lights. He's not. Actually, he 
uses them sparingly and with rare dis- 
crimination. Indeed, he uses much less 
total light than most of his fellow cine- 
matographers during the course of a pro- 
duction. He's a bit partial to arc lights. 
He always has them available. 

He believes in close working alliance 
with the Art Director. The cinematog- 
rapher has much to offer the co-operat- 
ing set designer that contributes im- 
portantly to the scene's effectiveness 
when photographed and, more, in many 
instances points the way to simpler and 
lower construction costs. In turn, the 



April 1935 • American Cinematographer 151 



Art Director can simplify many of the 
cinematogrpaher's problems. 

A comprehensive vocabulary of pho- 
tographic values, all the artistry which 
the cinematographer can command, all 
the tricks of the trade, so to speak, 
have come to Rosher's camera through 
his many years' devotion to the screen's 



ever-developing needs. All come into 
play in his pictures. 

The first gold statuette of the Acad- 
emy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences 
came to him in 1928. It is not surpris- 
ing that his depiction of "The Affairs 
of Cellini" should again bring outstand- 
ing acclaim to his door. 



Interpretative Photography Wins Folsey Nomination 



Continued from Page 142 



By this, he does not mean that a situa- 
tion the same as the one being photo- 
graphed should necessarily have hap- 
pened directly through the cinematog- 
rapher, but a situation relative to the 
one being photographed should nave 
been experienced, read about, or heard, 
so that the cinematographer would have 
been able previously to form some opin- 
ion on how such a situation should be 
handled photographically. 

This acquaintance with the situation 
is vital because, before a cinematog- 
rapher can expect to interpret the mood 
of the subject convincingly, he must 
have been able to have interpreted that 
mood himself at seme time or other. 
Folsey points out that he believes th:s 
experience of situation and understand- 
ing of moods is a factor that is too gen- 



erally overlooked in all phases of pro- 
duction. The aim in making muvng pic- 
tures is to present stories and scenes, 
which not only give an illusion of actu- 
ality, but are so vivid in their true in- 
ierpretation of life that they, instead of 
remaining inanimate pieces of celluloid, 
become products that live and breathe 
and throb with the actual brilliance, 
vitality and personality with which oil 
phases of life are endowed. 

Folsey assures us he is convinced, that 
although the cinematographer under- 
stands fully all of the manifest possi- 
bilities which he can obtain, through the 
blending of lights and shadows, he must 
also have an equal understanding of the 
machine with which he is working; be- 
cause the lens of the camera is an exten- 
sion of the eye. By means of it, the cine- 



matographer has been given new ways to 
see new angles on old familiars, and new 
penetration into things indefinitely small. 
The camera, with the aid of its master, 
the cinematographer, and his ability to 
soften or dramatize the subject through 
his knowledge of correct settings and 
backgrounds, can give the subject and 
story a magnificence, dignity, beauty, 
and brilliance that makes the present- 
day motion picture a thing of perfection. 



RHYTHMIC FLOW 

Continued from Page 139 

So we see, in the light of the two 
complementary cinematic flows of par- 
ticipative-camera and cutting (which 
ultimately are one and the same rhythm, 
and only partially realize cinematic 
movement), how inextricably co-mingled 
are the words, facial expressions, ges- 
tures and movements of the actors, and 
the director's handling of these, togeth- 
er with the psychology of expression and 
interpretation of the motion picture 
camera. 

And it will be understood how very 
closely together the cinematographer 
and director and writer must work, hav- 
ing almost the same intellectual experi- 
ences as they concsive and watch a 
scene played. These men feeling the in- 
tensity and stress of the scene in their 




NEW! 



Special Eyemo Tripod 

Extra Rigid — Light Weight 

This new tripod was designed especially for use with the 
motor- and magazine-equipped B & H Eyemo Camera, for 
news, scientific, and exploration work. Smooth working pam 
and tilt mechanism. Up tilt 45° with 400-foot magazine, 60° 
without magazine. Tilts straight down. No weaving in a 
strong wind or when hand cranking. Legs have single-geared, 
quick-action clamp and steel spurs. They are 36 inches 
closed, 72 inches extended. Write for complete specifica- 
tions and literature. 

BELL & HOWELL COMPANY 

1848 Larchmont Ave, Chicago; I I \\ <•>! 12nd St., New York; 716 North LaBrea 
Ave., Hollywood; 320 Regent St., London (B& II Co., Ltd.) Established 1907. 



152 American Cinematographer e April 1935 



DUFAY COLOR FILM 

Now Available for Leica & Contax. 
Come in and see the tests. 

MORGAN CAMERA SHOP 

6305 Sunset Blvd. Hollywood, Calif. 




We Want Immediately 
Mitchell Bell & Howell 

Akeley De Brie 

Eyemo Contax 
Leica, and similar used Cameras. 



— Also — 
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What Have You to Offer? 

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Phone: GLadstone 2404 



exact proportions and durations — the 
scene's starting instant and ending mo- 
ment, and seeing these two points as 
they melt into the foregoing and suc- 
ceeding shots — visualizing the scene as 
but a small longitudinal section of the 
whole picture's composite rhythm. Which 



air from a special nozzle, instead; this 
not only gives a support which allows 
control of the mean depth of the cutting- 
tool's groove, but also serves — due to 
the vacuum created by the exhausting 
air — to clamp the recorder tightly upon 
the disc. A vital phase of recording 
practice, also, is rigid control of the at- 
mosphere in the recorder- room, etc. The 
waxes are kept in a special cabinet, in 
which the temperature is thermostat- 
ically maintained at 80° F., and during 
recording operations, the recorder-room 
is supplied only with completely dust- 
free, conditioned air at the same tem- 
perature, and the blanks are transported 
to and from the pressing-plant in air- 
tight, individual containers. For quality 
recording, it is as essential to keep the 
waxes free from even the most micro- 
scopic dust as it is to keep undeveloped 
film from any trace of light. 

The common practice in preparing a 
stamping matrix from a wax record is 
to graphite the disc, or to brush it with 
a fine, electrically conducting powder, 
so that the wax may be electroplated 
to provide the matrix. This, however, is 
unsatisfactory for such high-quality re- 
cording, since the granular texture of 
the graphite or powder is naturally re- 
produced in the plated matrix and hence 
in the pressed record, and produces "sur- 
race scratch." Therefore these waxes 
are cathode-sputtered with a thin, uni- 
form and extremely smooth surface of 
gold, after which electroplating may 
proceed in the usual manner. 

In making the final pressing, instead 
of using a somewhat abrasive-textured 
plastic, as in conventional practice, 
where it is necessary to use a material 
which will tend to shape the needle to 
conform to the groove, a smooth, un- 
abrasive cellulose acetate composition is 
used. By these methods, the surface 
noise of these records, when leproduced 
with a 10,000-cycle band of frequencies, 
is about 1 5db less than the surface 



means that cuts and camera movements 
must be decided upon and integrated 
long before photographing. Which again 
means that the cinematographer will 
work from the roots of the picture, all 
the way up through the growing to the 
finished product. 



noise of the quietest commercial fi'm 
The re - recording operation is, of 
course, the most critical of all, for the 
record must be transcribed to the film 
so as to take full advantage of its wide 
volume-range, yet without exceeding tne 
capacity of the film, and of the theatre- 
reproducers. It requires the utmost 
finesse on the part of the re-recording 
staff to do this so as to just reach — 
but never exceed — the upper volume - 
limit of the release film. Perhaps more 
than anything else about the production, 
I am proud of the skill evidenced in 
"One Night of Love" by our re-record- 
ing personnel. 

A further experiment undertaken, 
though with trepidation, in this film, 
was in lowering the volume-level of the 
dialog sequences of the production by 
the equivalent of two fader-steps, not 
only in order to provide greater inherent 
contrast with the musical numbers, but 
to cajole projectionists to play the pic- 
ture with higher fader-settings, and thus 
be able to have a yet greater volume- 
range than normal for the latter. 

The same general procedure is being 
followed in recording Miss Moore's cur- 
rent picture. In preparing for this pro- 
duction, incidentally, we have developed 
a modification tc the standard Western 
Electric light-valve which eliminates 
ribbon-clashing, and has proven of con- 
siderable value. In addition to slightly 
modifying the standard valve to permit 
the utilization of a greater portion of 
the ribbon's loop, we insert a tiny square 
of cellophane between the filaments at 
the supporting bridges: this swings one 
ribbon slightly out of the plane of the 
other, and eliminates clashing, mini- 
mizes the effects of over-modulation, 
and effectively somewhat broadens the 
recordable volume-range and quality. We 
are working toward further improve- 
ments in thhs respect and hope to realize 
more volume-range and quality in Miss 
Moore's coming picture. 



RECORDING "ONE NIGHT OF LOVE'' 

Continued from Page 140 



April 1935 • American Cinematographer 153 



TELEPHOTO SHOTS 



Continued from Page 145 



ing it over — I am convinced that your 
best picture was 'The Big House.' " 

"So, why?" quired Wennie. 

"Well, after doing a little research, 
I find that you knew the subject from 
inside out." 

"We Only Heard" 

• And here's what the studio publicity 
dept. considers humor . . . 

Jackson Rose, while shooting some 
scenes for "Mutiny on the Bounty," was 
backing up to get a focus on the next 
scene. The railing around the camera 
platform broke, when Jackson pushed 
against it, and Rose plunged down to- 
ward the shark-infested waters below. 
Rose managed to catch hold of part 
of the platform and hang there while 
Syd Wagner and Frank Loyd took pot 
shots at the fish in case Rose's fingers 
slipped. Finally several grips managed 
to tie a rope around Jackson's waist and 
drag him back up. . . . Some fun, eh? 

"Ploying With Dollies" 

• Some kind of a record was rolled off 
at Paramount the other day when KARL 
STRUSS made a fifty-yard dolly shot of 
Mae West in her new Hays headache. 

With the camera trucking along in 
front of her, Mae strolled from a bar at 
one end of the stage, through a dining 
room, along a hallway, up two short 
flights of stairs into a gaming room. 
(Now I know what they mean when 
they say an actor walked through the 
scene.) KARL told this department that 
when a cinematographer is shooting 
Mae, he never uses angles . . . All 
curves. . . . 

"Good Hunting" 

O GEORGE FOLSEY took John Arnold, 
Bud Lawton, and John Nickolaus for a 
very fancy sleigh ride over on the Bel 
Air Country Club, "smack 'em and chase 
'em" field last Sunday. George bounced 
the little white pill over the greensward 
for a mere 80, and the other devotees 
of the turf choppers league did very good 
imitations of a slot machine. George said 
he was only practising for the forthcom- 
ing studio tournament. . . . (They tell 
me this guy Jones is good too.) 

"Asleep On the Deep" 

• GEORGE SCHNEIDERMAN, ace but- 
ton pusher on the Fox Foundation for 
Funnier Flickers, has a unique way of 
getting away from it all. For the past 
five months George has been working 
almost night and day. So right after the 
dancey, the "SCANDALS," was tied with 
pink ribbons, George pushed his canoe, 
"SCHNEIDERMAN CRUISER," far out 
on the cradle of the deep and intends to 
sleep until sometime later. . . . 



"Picked Up From the Dailies" 

• Jimmy Starr, one of H'wd.'s "charac- 
ter tearer downers," broke the huge 
scoop last after-noon that ERNIE 
HALLER, who has been grinding Max 
Reinhardt's "MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S 
DREAM," had his hands burned when 
his camera caught fire . . . maybe It 
was one of the tripod legs we wooden 
know. . . . The big conflagration con- 
sisted of three yards of cellophane Vs 
inch wide used to decorate the set. . . . 
Al Alborn was the hero ... he extin- 
guished the fire with his handkerchief. 



ROY DAVIDGE 

FILM 
LABORATORIES 

Negative Developing 
and Daily Print 
Exclusively 

6701 SANTA MONICA BLVD. 
GRonite 3108 




Everything Photographic 

for Professional and Amateur 

New and Used, bought, sold, rented and 
repaired. Designers and manufac- 
turers of H. C. E. Combination 
lens shade and filter-holder 
for any size lens. 



Hollywood Camera Exchange 

1600 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood 
Tel: HO 3651 
Cable Address: HOcamex 
Send for Bargain Catalog 




m. 



FRANK C. ZUCKER 



J. BURGI CONTNER 



MOTION PICTURE 

CAMERA SUPPLY, inc. 



NEW MITCHELL SOUND 
CAMERA NOW ON DISPLAY 



We sell Simplex Portable 35mm Sound Projectors, 
Moviolas — also new and used Mitchell, B. & H., 
Akeley, DeBrie Cameras and Equipment. 



LARGEST STOCK OF NEW AND USED 
PROFESSIONAL EQUIPMENT IN THE EAST. 



We only sell 
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for quota- 
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Eastern Representatives 
MITCHELL CAMERA CORPORATION 
HARRISON FILTERS 
FEARLESS PRODUCTS 



723 SEVENTH AVENUE 

NEW YOltK CITY 



Telephone BRyant 9-7755 



Cable Address: Cinecamera 



i 



154 American Cinematographer • April 1935 




ANNOUNCING THE 

Soundola 

FOR — CUTTING — EDITING — AND — 
REPAIRING SOUND TRACK 



Art Reeves 



Will Handle Negative Without Scratching. 
Price Complete $150. 



]-(oll\^voocJ 

Motion PioTure/EojjipmenT (o Hp 

6*5 NORTH MARTEL AVE- ( ) CABLE ADDRESS ARTREEVES 

HOLLYWOOD, CALIFORNIA, US A 




TRUEBALL 

TRIPOD HEADS 

OF SPECIAL ALLOY 
LIGHTER WEIGHT 
The Same Efficient Head 

For follow shots, known for 
their smoothness of opera- 
tion and equal tension on 
all movements. 
Unaffected by temper- 
ature. 



Model B Professional $300.00 

For Bell Cr Howell and Mitchell 
Cameras and their respective 
T-ipod. With the ORIGINAL 
instant release telescopic 
handle. 

FRED HOEFNER 

GLadstone 0243 
5319 Santa Monica Boulevard 
LOS ANGELES, CALIF. 




Model A for Ama- 
teur motion picture 
cameras. Attaches 
any standard STILL 
Tripod. $12.00. 



Trueball tripod 
heads are unexcelled 
for simplicity, ac- 
curacy and speed of 
operation. 



The Hoefner four- 
inch Iris and Sun- 
shade combination 
is also a superior 
product. 



Photography of the Month 

Continued from Page 146 

"GO INTO YOUR DANCE" (Warner 
Bros. 1 

Sol Polito, A.S.C.: Directing Cinema- 
tographer 

"Polito's photography land a tough 
Hollywood Reporter (March 13, 19351: 
job, too) helps a lot" — . 

"HOLD 'EM YALE" (Paramount) 
Milton Krosner, A.S.C.: Directing Cine 

matographer 
Hollywood Reporter (March 13, 1935) 

"Milton Krasner's photography 

first rate throughout." 

S.E.R.A. RELIEF PROJECT 

The S.E.R.A. Relief Project for motion 
picture technicians, originally sponsored 
by the American Society of Cinematog- 
raphers, is in full operation under the 
supervision of Arthur Campbell, A. SC. 

With the active help and cooperation 
of the Producers Association of Holly- 
wood, the A.S.C. secured donations of 
the necessary raw-stock from the lead- 
ing raw film manufacturers and the fa- 
cilities extended by the Roy Davidge 
Laboratories of Hollywood. 

The purpose of the project is to give 
employment to the most needy and de- 
serving cases of unemployed Motion Pic- 
ture Technicians. They are to produce 
a monthly newsreel, covering the high- 
lights of the relief projects within Los 
Angeles County. 

An initial appropriation of $10,449 
was granted by the S.E.R.A. for the pay- 
roll of the Motion Picture Project. Of- 
fice and studio space was donated by 
the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios, in 
their old scenario building at Romaine 
and Cahuenga Blvds. The loan of cam- 
era equipment was arranged by the 
Paramount, R.K.D., Universal and War- 
ner Bros. Studios. The General Service 
Studios, through the courtesy of their 
Vice-President, Keith Glennan, provided 
the cutting and projection facilities. 
The Roy Davidge Laboratories donated 
the development and printing and East- 
man Kodak, Dupont and Agfa, through 
their respective agents, donated suffi- 
cient negative and positive stock. 




MAX FACTOR'S 

N EW 

Safaris <S7hoo£A 

LIQUID FOUNDATION 

A REVELATION IN FACIAL MAKE-UP 



Eastman 
Super X 
Panchromatic 
Negative Film 

Announced recently 
and given instantaneous response by 
Directors of Photography 
Photographic technicians 
Production Executives 

and rigidly tested in practically all major studios 

for projected transparency backgrounds 

special effects photography 

and straight production work 

has unanimously disclosed such startling results 

that immediate demands have completely exhausted 

the available supply — 

Regular floor-stocks of this 

Splendid new negative film 

will be available for uninterrupted delivery 

to the trade in Hollywood 

on or before 

April 10 



J. E. BRULATOUR, INC. 




FILMO 

AUDITORIUM 
I» It .1 EC TO It 

Model 130 — 16 mm. 
1000-Watt Lamp 
1600-Ft. Capacity 



Tomorrow's 

Projector 

Today 



Used to peering into the future for the earliest 
possible glimpse of anything to give bigger, 
better, and more convenient projection, Bell 
& Howell presents tomorrow's projector today 
— the new 16 mm. Filmo Auditorium Pro- 
jector, Model 130. 

I sing a specially created 1000-watt lamp — 
the most powerful light source ever used in a 
16 mm. projector — this projector's new opti- 
cal system gives new projection brilliance. 
1600-foot film capacity permits uninterrupted 
projection of a one-hour program. Low cen- 
ter of gravity lends great stability. 



Filmo 121 Camera 

SIMPLE TO USE . . . 16 M M. 
MAGAZINE LOADING . . . SMALL 
. . . LIGHT . . . EASY TO CARRY 

Loaded in an instant — just insert the film cartridge. 
Change from one type of film to another at any time, 
anj where. Takes any Filmo 75 Camera lens, and with 
adapter ($2.50), any Filmo 70 Camera lens. Oscillating 
shutter gives absolutely uniform exposure over entire 
frame. Two speeds: 16 and 2 1. Single-frame exposures. 
Two viewfinders: spy-glass and waist-level. Built-in 
exposure chart. \\ rile for detailed literature. Pricks: 
Willi Cooke 20 mm. or 1-inch F 3.5 universal focus 
lens, $67.50; with Cooke I -inch F 1.8 Icn^. *<><>. "><>; 

Leather carrying Sia.se, $.7.50. 



^JNot for many years has 16 mm. motion 
picture projection taken such a stride for- 
ward. If you are looking for the latest and 
finest thing in projection machinery, it lies in 
(his new Filmo. Price, $385. Case, $27.50. 



BELL A HOWELL 

FILMO 

Personal Movie Cameras anil Projectors 

L848 Larchmont We., Chicago; New York; Holly- 
wood; London (B & II Co., Ltd.) Establislied 1907 




wAmateu 






his issue 



APRIL 

1935 

PRICE 25c 



Home Made Titler 
Dabbling in Makeup 
Home Projection 
April Showers 
. . . and other features 




SPRING SUNSHINE CALLS FOR 

PLENACHROME 








rpHE daylight shooting days ahead 
J- are Plenachrome days . . . for 
Agfa Fine-Grain Plenachrome is the 
ideal outdoor film. In daylight its 
speed is approximately that of Pan- 
chromatic and its sensitivity in- 
cludes all colors except spectral red. 
A whole army of enthusiastic users 
will tell you it gives splendid results. 

It s easy to understand why this 
16 MM. Fine-grain Plenachrome 
gives these results, too. It combines, 
in a remarkable reversible film, the 
qualities that have made Plena- 
chrome famous as film, cut film, and 
film packs. Complete orthochroma- 
tism, high speed, exceptionally wide 
latitude, and a truly effective anti- 
halation coating. 

Try a couple of rolls. Notice how 
crisp and clear your pictures are. 
See how the extremely fine grain 
makes possible large size projection 
without loss of detail. And you'll 
be won over to Plenachrome for 
keeps. Made by Agfa Ansco Corp. 
in Binghamton. N. ^ . 



AGFA 16 MM. FILMS 

Agfa Fine-Grain Plenachrome 
Reversible: 

100-foot rolls $4.50 

50- foot rolls 2.75 

Including processing and return postage. 

Agfa Panchromatic Reversible: 

100-foot rolls -36.00 

50- foot rolls 3.25 

Including processing and return postage. 

Agfa Fine-Grain Superpan 
Reversibles: 

100-foot rolls $7.50 

50-foot rolls 4.00 

Including processing and return postage. 

Agfa Fine-Grain Panchromatic 
Negative: 

100-foot rolls $3.50 

Developing not included. 

200-foot and 400-foot rolls (laboratory 
packing) available. 

Apia Processing Laboratories are located in New York, 
Chirago. Kansas City, Los AngHf- ami Montreal. 




I 



60 American Cinematographer • April 1935 



Start Planning for 

the 1935 Contest 

Now is the time to start planning for the American 
Cinematographer 1935 Amateur Movie Contest. 

There will be a number of outstanding prizes. All 
worth while competing for. 

THE GRAND PRIZE WILL BE $250 in cash. 

EASTMAN KODAK CO. OFFERS $150 in equipment. 
BELL & HOWELL OFFERS $150 in equipment. 

Start preparing now for entry . . . plan your pic- 
ture. You can make it on either 16mm or 8mm. 

Last year the grand prize winner was an 8mm user. 
The year before it was also an 8mm user. The size of your 
equipment is no bar to your winning. 

The entries must be in the offices of the American 
Cinematographer by midnight, November 30, 1935. 

If you wish further information address 

Contest Editor 

American Cinematographer 

6331 Hollywood Blvd. Hollywood, Calif. 



April 1935 • American Cinematographer 161 




PROFESSIONAL Criticism of the Amateur 
picture is a part of the service offered by the 
AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER. Many are 
not aware of this. Hundreds of pictures have 
been reviewed this past year by members of 
the American Society of Cinematographers for 
the Amateur. 



AMATEUR 
MOVIE 

SECTION 



Contents . . . 



DABBLING in Makeup 

by Wm. J. Grace 162 

HOW to Build a Universal Titler 

by Lindsley Reed 164 

USE Your Library 

by Clyde DeVinna, A.S.C 167 

A CONTINUITY for Rainy-Day Movies 

by William Stall, A.S.C 168 

PERFECTING Home Projection 

by Wm. J. Grace 169 

WHEELS of Industry 170 

HERE'S How 172 

SANTA Claus Gave Me a "Minnie" 

by Walter Blanchard 173 



Next Month . . . 

O There will be a very good continuity con- 
tributed by one of our interested amateur 
readers. This bit of picture story telling can 
be made by two people, a cat and a bird. You'll 
want to try it. 

• Wm. J. Grace will have a further install- 
ment in his series of articles on makeup. 

Grace will also give us a description of what 
he calls "The Camera I Should Like to Own." 

• There will be other tempting morsels to read. 



*62 American Cinematographer • April 1935 






Squeeze about a quarter of an inch ot foundation 
cream into the palm of one hand, and, using this 
as a palette, apply little dabs of the foundation 
all over the skin area to be made up. Then, with 
clean hands, spread the cream evenly, dipping the 
fingers frequently into water to thin the cream 
and smooth it out. 



NOW that we have provided ourselves with the 
requisite materials for motion picture makeup and 
have made convenient means for using and storing 
them in a case which can be put away between experi- 
ments, suppose we get down to serious business. 

Few people possess skins which will photograph creamy 
smooth, and even some of these photographic oddities 
find need for at least some smoothing makeup. The pores 
and wrinkles of the average person seem to be enlarged 
and magnified by the camera, a trick which is probably 
due to the fact that the lens discriminates between black 
and white and dark and light quite impersonally. 

To fill up these tiny fissures and pits, then, it is neces- 
sary to apply some material which will photograph the 
same in color as the skin itself would photograph, but 
which will smoothly overlay the tiny blemishes and give 
the appearance of fine texture. That material is grease 
paint to the stage or screen artist. 

However, this new material which Max Factor puts 
out is much different from the old sticks of sticky, thick, 
gooey stuff which used to be standard. The foundation 
cream (a term more appropriate than "paint") is smooth 
as toothpaste and about the same consistency. It is ap- 
plied in dabs all over the desired skin area, and spread 
evenly and thinly with water. It seems peculiar that a 
"grease" which is usually an immiscible substance can be 
thinned with water, but it is the actual truth here. 



Dabbling 



For the average use on the face, about a quarter of 
an inch of the foundation cream is squeezed out into the 
palm of one hand. Being right-handed, we used the left 
palm, applying the cream in small dabs with a finger of 
the right hand all over the face. Then, the hands must 
be wiped clean of paint and the spreading is begun. 

Frequently dipping the fingers in a bowl of water, 
each little dab of cream is then worked out and evened 
over the entire surface of the skin, blending the cream 
clear up into the hair, down deep on the throat, and even 
the ears if they are to show. If the spreading has been 
properly done, the cream will feel as smooth as silk and 
have no apparent thickness. Too much water will perhaps 
make the foundation too thin, but enough must be used 
to make the cream "flow" smoothly and evenly into an 
almost invisible coating. 

The use of wetted fingertips seems to be very impor- 
tant with this foundation. We tried spreading it dry, but 
it left the skin feeling "pulled" and uneven, and the ap- 
pearance was rather blotched. A bit of water, tho, made 
all the difference in the world, so don't forget to have a 
bowl of water handy while spreading the foundation. 

Now as to the right shade to use. These pancro colors, 
you know, are graded shades of a flesh color, ranging from 
very light to a deep sun-tan. I can't tell you the exact 
shade to use for any one person, any more than I can 
tell you "how long is a piece of string." We found, tho, 
that for straight makeup the shade which most nearly 
looked the same as the skin itself was pretty close to 
right. My wife has a rather fair skin and used No. 22, 
while the other fair lady in the pictures was darker-skinned 
and used No. 23 or No. 24. In another article will be 
shown the effects of using darker shades, but they will 
come under the head of character work and will be dis- 
cussed there. 

Now comes what feminine experimenters will enjoy a 
lot — eye shadow. What woman hasn't yearned, albeit 
silently, for the alluring beauty of well set-off eyes such 
as her favorite screen star possesses? Of the three shad- 



April 1935 • American Cinematographer 163 




Using the No. 6 grey shadow, accentuate and 
frame the eyes by setting them in a subtly con- 
trasting area. Since light normally falls from 
above, eye shadow is quite necessary in motion 
picture work, because the natural shadows may 
disappear under studio lights. 



in Makeup 
Materials 

Part Two 



by 

Wm. J. Grace 



ows in our makeup kit, we found the No. 6 grey was the 
best for eye shadows. The Nos. 21 and 22 shadows prob- 
ably are best for character work in making sunken cheeks 
and the like. May this caution be given in eye shadow ap- 
plication, however: don't put it on too heavy or the result 
will probably be burlesque. Put on a little more than you 
would like if you were to appear on the street, tho, for 
the camera requires slight exaggeration in shade differ- 
ential. 

Eye shadow will in most cases add considerably to the 
depth of eye beauty, for it frames the eyes becomingly. 
It is applied and worked out in such a way as to blena 



into the rest of the color, with the depeest color at the 
nose corner of the eyes. 

Lips provide still more thrill to the ladies, but there is 
a slight difference in principle between street and movie 
lip rouging. Perhaps you've noticed that most movies are 
made with the camera slightly above the actors' faces. 
This means that the upper lip will appear thinner than is 
natural, and I've noticed that the upper lips of actresses in 
the latest photoplays seem to be thicker than normal to 
offset this camera angle. 

We found that our lip rouges could best be applied 
without disturbing the rest of the makeup by using the 
paper liner sticks. I understand professionals use liquid 
rouge and apply it with a camel's hair brush, but our lip 
rouge is in cake form so we used liners. Cupid's bows 
aren't the rage any more, so we steered clear of that type 
of lip. 

Application of black masque to the lashes is something 
the ladies know more about than this writer, so we leave 
that to you. It is quite necessary for feminine screen 
beauty, of course, to use this masque. Also, the brows may 
be accentuated slightly by using the eyebrow pencil. 

Now for the finishing. Gently pat powder of the same 
pancro number as the foundation cream you used, and 
brush the whole face with a soft face brush. This will 
even up the whole makeup and blend every color softly 
and smoothly, leaving no trace of a shine. 

That's all for this month, but practice straight makeup 
until you get the "feel" of it. We'll go a little deeper next 
month. 



Powdering over the whole makeup is done the 
last thing. The sole purpose or the powder, which 
is the same shade as the foundation cream, is to 
blend smoothly every shade and tone and to pre- 
vent shiny reflections from brilliant lighting. 



How to 



TITLES should do two things. They should briefly de- 
scribe or explain the sequences, tying them together 
if necessary. And, second, they should add zest and 
pep to the picture story. This can be done by proper "key- 
noting" or "stage setting" — using appropriate backgrounds 
for the lettering and using letter types that may in them- 
selves help to build atmosphere. 

For example, appropriate material for a "lead" title 
of the "Century of Progress" might be selected from the 
following: A railroad folder of the line you traveled on, 
the cover of the official program, an enlargement of one 
of your still pictures of the entrance to the grounds or of 
some dominating building or scene that typifies the Fair 
to you and which will strike the "key-note" for your series 
of shots. Subtitles may be somewhat simpler without back- 
grounds if you prefer. 

Now, here are some examples of how various styles of 
lettering may be used as stage settings. For a vacation 
trip, your title letters may be formed from twigs or pine 
cones, or sea shells, or other objects typical of the trip. 
A picture post card or a souvenir trinket will perhaps give 
just the right note. A four-leaf clover, a child's toy, a 
slate with inscription in chalk, a snapshot, a calling card, 
a newspaper headline, a magazine cover or "ad" would 
lend variety and "variety is the spice of movie titles." 

"But," you may ask, "how can I put these various 
things onto a movie film so it can be spliced into its proper 
place ahead of the scene? Most of them would be so 
small that they wouldn't show up properly with my regular 
equipment." 

True enough, if you have no titling device. But the 
"universal titler" permits making titles of various sizes, 
under ordinary light conditions, and with "copy" arranged 
either horizontally or vertically, as the occasion demands. 

This "universal titler" makes titling easy for the person 
who is not an expert at lettering or art work. It gets away 
from the monotony of typewritten titles. With its help 
white letters on dark backgrounds become a simple matter, 
even for reversible film. In short, it seems to answer every 
long-felt need, even to the matter of low cost. 

The "universal titler" consists of four main parts — 
base, title - holder, camera - mount and lens - mount. By 
merely adapting the camera-mount and working it at 
proper settings, this titler is suitable for use with any 8mm 
or 16mm camera. The list of materials in Table I will 
cover various types of machines, though for the sake of 
clearness, we have chosen to illustrate only one, a fixed- 
focus Cine-Kodak Eight (Model 20). 

Top: Universal Titler in vertical position using 2- 
inch movable letters and 1.00 diopter lens, 31 
inches away. Cross lines on track show what lens 
is to be used at each setting. 

Bottom: Camera-mount and lens-mount complete. 



April 1935 • American Cinematographer 165 



Build a 
Universal 
M ovie Titler 

by 

Lindsley W. Ross 



Rigidity is a prime factor in building a titler for vibra- 
tion while filming will spoil even the best of title subjects. 

The base acts as a track for the camera-mount to slide 
on. It also supports the title-holder. It consists of a 3- 
foot board (6 inches wide, 1 inch thick ) screwed onto an 
18-inch two-by-two placed crosswise at each end. Two 
one-by-two strips are also screwed onto these two-by-twos, 
flush with their ends, to act as braces. The 6-inch board 
is provided with two Vz" by Vz" strips of molding which 
are later nailed on top, along the edges, so as to form a 
"track" within which the camera-mount will slide without 
any side play. 

The title-holder is simply a large, flat board with its 



bottom placed at right angles to the base. It should be 
made of 3 4-inch plywood, 18 inches wide and 20 inches 
high. Screw it against one end of the base. It is held 
rigidly at right angles by means of two wooden strips ( Vz" 
by 1 Vz") attached respectively to each side, half way up, 
having their other ends screwed to the ends of the two- 
by-two crosspiece at the far end of the base. 

The camera-mount must also be rigid at whatever set- 
ting it is to be used. It is built on a sliding block, 4Vz 
inches wide, 8 inches long and % inches thick, preferably 
of plywood to prevent warping. As it slides farther away 
from the title-board, a larger area is included in the field 
of the camera, very much like the operation of an enlarging 
camera. 

Now build up a solid "cradle" for your movie camera 
on this sliding block, adjusting it so the camera lens will 
be opposite the middle of the title-holder, about 9 inches 
above the base. For the cine-eight, screw a 5 '/4 -inch 
length of two-by-four vertically on the sliding block near 
the rear end, on which to rest the camera. Screw an up- 
right U-shaped piece of plywood on the block crossways 
directly behind the upright two-by-four to act as a "cradle" 
for holding the rear of the camera in alignment. It should 
be %"x4"x9" with an opening l 5 /s" wide and 3%" deep. 
A strap with a snap button over the top of the machine 
will hold the camera tightly in place. Tack the two strips 
of molding lightly into place, to make a straight, snugly 
fitting track for the camera-mount. 

To line up the camera so it will always point directly 
ahead, move camera-mount to one end of the base, lay a 
yard-stick or other straight-edge along side of the camera 
and take a "sight" on the title-holder. Place a dot on the 
title-holder where "sight" is located for that particular 
distance. Check by moving the camera-mount to the other 
end of the base. Sight again. If both "sights" hit the 
same spot, fasten the front end of the camera in place 
by means of short strips of wood. Check likewise for "up 
and down" accuracy. Keep all keys, release buttons, etc., 
of the camera in the clear. Shim up one end or other of 
the camera with cardboard if necessary and glue or tack 




166 American Cinematographer • April 1935 



1 I^T 


OF MATERIALS 






1 board 




l"x 6' 


X 


36" 


2 pieces 




2"x 2' 


X 


18" 






1 "x 2' 


X 


36" 






Vz"x V2' 


X 


36" 


1 piece plywood 




3/, "x 18' 


X 


20" 


2 pieces 




'/2"xl W 


X 


40" 


1 piece plywood 




3 /4"x4'/ 2 ' 


X 


8" 


1 piece 




2"x 4' 


X 


5Va" 


1 piece plywood ... 




3 /4"x 4' 


X 


9" 


1 piece plywood ... 




-78 X Z 


X 


10" 


1 strap ( 1 2 inches 1 


and button 


snap 






2 1 V2" metal clamps 








Flat black paint, if 


desired. 








Auxiliary lenses as desired. 








Screws, brads and htumb tacks. 









it into place. It might be necessary to readjust the strips 
of molding. 

The last item is the lens-mount. Any device is all right 
if it will hold any one of a series of auxiliary lenses di- 
rectly in front of the camera lens, very much like a portrait 
attachment. The problem is somewhat simplified if all the 
extra lenses are similar in size. A wooden mount can be 
made out of a two-inch strip of 3 /s-inch plywood about 
10 inches long, placed vertically in front of the camera. 
Before screwing it into position, mark a point opposite the 
center of the camera lens. Start to bore a 1 V?. -inch hole, 
carrying it only '/s inch deep. Finish with a 3 /j-inch bit. 
Thumb tacks or adhesive tape will hold anv of the auxiliary 
lenses in place. 

Several lenses will be reouired. one for each size of 
field to he covered 'see Tnh'e II). Three is enouah to 
beain with. viz. 1. 2 V2 nnd 5 diooters resoertivelv. Anv 
type of lens with these "powers" will do and there may 
be some in vour own camera eouioment. An ou v i'iorv l°ns 
lets vou work with wide ooen ston thus reducinn the n°r»s- 
sitv for intense lioht. Two nhoto^ood Inm^ (with refe*-- 
tors) 18 inches from the title "'ill ordinarily normit work 
with f5.6 onenina at niaht. This is the eouivalent of 
"cloudy" davliaht. 

Accomoanyina photoaraphs show the universal titler in 
use in both horizontal and vertical oositions. In the latter 
case two small clomDs ore used to hold the comera-mount 
in place. The title-holder is then horizontol. oermittinq 
the use of loose letters like those shown. Alphabet souo 
letters (drv. of course) ore irrenular enouah to be some- 
what artistic and are light in color. Try them with a 2 1 2 
diopter lens. 

Don't trv trick backward titles with the cine-eiqht. os 
the finished film is non-svmmetrical and the titles would 
be reversed (right to left), even if taken upside down. 
For "flutter-in" effects you can place a letter or two, run 
the camera a second, stop it, slip another letter or two 
into position, run the camera again, and so on. 

Cut a mask for each area to be filmed, making them 
the full size of the title-holder, to facilitate proper center- 
ing and proportioning. When usinq scrolls, actual stage 
sets, toys or anything having much thickness, slide the 
comera-mount back from the title-holder by an amount 
equal to half the thickness of the obiect. If very thick, 
stop the camera down and use more light. 

The entire cost for lumber and clamps should not ex- 
ceed $1.00. Auxiliary lenses are extra, of course. But 



irrespective of cost, this universal titler will out-perform 
any fixed-focus titler ever built. 

There is a great deal of satisfaction in being able to 
properly title a picture. There are times when a certain 
picture calls for a certain dressing of titles. This cannot 
be done with a type of titler that is rigid. It was for this 
reason that I designed this titler for myself. While it is 
not a piece of craftsmanship that wiil win a lot of gold 
medals for me, still it performs for all of the things I wish 
to do and that to me is most important. 

I want to pass it on to others as I feel there are some 
who also would get a great deal of satisfaction out of 
creating titles that would possibly more fit the theme of 
their pictures. I have attempted to keep the construction 
simple because I myself could only do it in a simple way 
as I am not too mechanically inclined. 

For instance, if you have the various auxiliary lenses 
listed you can make what is commonly called a zoom title 
in the professional film. You start it out small at first 
in the center of a big field. You move the camera up to 
the next position for the auxiliary lens and shoot a few 
frames, and so on you keep moving the camera forward, 
adding a few frames at a time. The result is that the 
letters will get bigger and bigger as you proceed and seem 
to want to pop right off of the screen and out into the 
audience. 

This is especially effective when you have such titles 
as the word "help" when someone is calling for assistance. 
It gives the psychological effect of the voice getting louder 
and louder and also makes it more dramatic. 

Titles as you know will frequently save otherwise med- 
iocre pictures. Some will tell you to be sparing with your 
titles, but there are times when many titles will save the 
production. 

It is claimed that many of the professional pictures 
in the days of silent movies were saved with good titles. 
Why shouldn't that be true of the amateur's work? If 
they make the film more interesting then let us have more 
titles . . . and let them be more interesting as to makeup. 



TABLE II 



CINE-KODAK EIGHT (MODEL 20) 



Diopter 


Distance of Title from 




Power of 


Auxiliary 


Lens 


Size of Area of 


Auxiliary Le 


ns ( Focal Le 


ngth ) 


Title Covered 


1.00 


31" 




8" xl0 3 / 4 " 


1.25 


25%' 




6 3 / 4 "x 9" 


1.50 


22 Va' 




5 3 / 4 "x 73/4" 


1.75 


191/2' 




5" x 6 3 / 4 " 


2.00 






4'/ 2 "x 6" 


2.25 


\5Vz' 




4" x 5W 


2.50 


14!/ 4 ' 




3 3/ 4 "x 5" 


2.75 


13" 




3 3 / 8 "x 41/2" 


3.00 


12" 




3!/ 8 "x4-3/l6" 


3.25 


1 1 'A' 




2%"x 3 7 /s" 


3.50 


IO1/2' 




23/ 4 "x 35/s" 


3.75 


9%' 




2'/ 2 "x 3 3/ 8 " 


4.00 


91/4' 




23/ 8 " x 31/4" 


4.25 


83/ 4 ' 




2'/ 4 "x 3" 


4.50 


8 1/4" 




2'/s"x 2%" 


4.75 


7%" 




2" x 23/ 4 " 


5.00 


71/2" 




1-15/I6"x2%" 



Place auxiliary lens against front of camera lens 
mount. 



April 1935 • American Cinematographer 167 




Use Your 
Library 



says 

Clyde De Vinna, A.S.C. 



EVERY now and then an amateur movie-maker asks 
me what books he ought to read to improve his 
knowledge of Cinematography. There aren't many 
available — and only a few of them are recent enough to 
be up-to-date in every respect; but believe me, they can 
save you a lot of time, effort and film if you'll only take 
the trouble to use them. 

Undoubtedly the best and most recent books are the 
two "Cinematographic Annuals," which have a great deal 
to offer the amateur in articles written especially for him, 
as well as in articles dealing primarily with professional 
subjects, but which contain many things useful to the non- 
professional, as well. 

Then there are two excellent books by Herbert C. Mc- 
Kay, F.R.P.S., "Amateur Movies" (19281 and "Motion 
Picture Photography for the Amateur" (19241. These 
deal specifically with the earlier amateur problems, and 
though they appeared years too soon to tell you much 



about the latest developments, such as Kodacolor, 8mm, 
Supersensitive film and Photofloods, they have a great 
fund of valuable information. 

Still earlier, though still useful, is Austin Lescarboura's 
little "Cinema Handbook" (19211, which is written from 
the viewpoint of the 35mm amateur (16mm hadn't been 
born in those days), and Carl L. Gregory's "Condensed 
Course in Motion Picture Photography" (1920), which 
was written as an instruction-book for would-be profes- 
sionals of a decade-and-a-half ago. The earliest book I 
know of is "Cyclopedia of Motion Picture Work" (in two 
volumes), written by David S. Hulfish in 1911, and later 
revised as a single fat volume called "Motography." 

Most of these books, if not all of them, are available 
in the public libraries of most of the larger cities. In spite 
of the fact that all but a few of them appeared years 
before the amateur movie-maker of today came into being, 
they are still surprisingly helpful if you take the trouble 
of adapting what they say to fit modern conditions. The 
basic principles governing good camerawork don't change, 
even though technical progress may make some of the 
minor details seem outmoded. When Lescarboura, writing 
about the importance of using a tripod and rehearsing 
action, and especially panoraming or tilting shots, while 
watching through the finder, says, "Perhaps these precau- 
tions are too fussy — perhaps; but film costs money; sub- 
jects cost money in many cases; and failures might as well 
be avoided whenever possible," he was voicing something 
that the amateurs of today, and ten years from today, 
would do mighty well to remember. So, too, when he goes 
on, " — have the head of the tripod perfectly level, so 
that the tilt or panoram will be straight in its entirety." 

I could quote a dozen similar things from each of these 
books — but you'll profit more if you dig them out yourself. 
However, in the earlier books — all of them, in fact, except 
the "Annuals" and McKay's later work — you will have to 
modify the parts dealing with exposure and interior light- 
ing. It's a curious thing, but in the old days, with slower 
film and lenses than we have on even the cheaper cameras 
now, cameramen used much smaller exposures. For in- 
stance, in Hulfish's book there is an exposure-table in 
which we find a recommendation to use, in circumstances 
where a modern amateur, with Supersensitive film, would 
probably give f:22 — an opening of f:45. (I hope the 
printer doesn't make that four point five, for I really mean 
f: forty-five!) The reason for this tremendous difference 
is the fact that now-a-days we develop our film much dif- 
ferently. Twenty years ago, the movies hadn't outgrown 
the still-camera technique of the late 90's: short exposures, 
stopped 'way down for super-critical definition, and a tre- 
mendously strong development which gave you a negative 
that was almost solid black. This in turn resulted in an 
absolutely horrible degree of contrast (remember those 
early soot-and-whitewash movies?) and huge grain-size. 
In comparison, we merely wave our film over a weak de- 
veloper — but our results are infinitely more pleasing. More 
natural, and they will stand projection on much larger 
screens. The matter of interior lighting, of course, was 
based on arc and mercury-vapor lights, which are now 
obsolete in the studios, and totally unknown in amateur- 
movie work. For practical purposes, incandescent lighting 
(which includes photofloods) wasn't practical for movie 
work until Panchromatic film came along, while home- 
movie interiors weren't practical until Supersensitive ar- 
rived. 

Aside from these two points, however, much of what 
you'll find in these books about the basic foundations of 

Continued on Page 176 



168 American Cmematographer • April 1935 




A Continuity 
for 

Rainy-Day Movies 

by 

William Stull, A.S.C. 

NOT so many years ago, people used to jack the 
family car up in the garage as soon as the first 
snowflake appeared, and forget about motoring 
until it was time for the springtime sulphur-and-molasses. 
Now they drive all the year 'round, and are especially 
thankful for the gas-buggy in the slushy, showery spring 
months. But I still know quite a few folks who tuck the 
family film-burner away on the shelf from Thanksgiving 
to Decoration Day. I'll admit that a few years ago this 
was a pretty smart thing to do, as the film and lenses 
then available weren't fast enough to guarantee satisfac- 
tory pictures in any but the most poetic spring weather. 
But now that we have lenses and film that will let us make 
pictures in any weather, why not take advantage of the 
season's cine subiects? Here, for instance, is a simple con- 



tinuity which will at least suggest some of the things you 
can find to shoot at this time of the year. 

"APRIL SHOWERS" 

Scene 1 . Long-shot of a house, blanketed in snow. 
FADE or LAP-DISSOLVE to 

Scene 2. Same, but on a sunshiny day when the snow 
is old, dirty, and beginning to melt. 

Scene 3. Medium-shot, from outside, of Junior, sit- 
ting at a window, looking intently out. 

Scene 4. Closeup of Junior's head: he looks upward, 
at something just outside the pane. Then his eyes travel 
quickly down, as if following something, then up — then 
down. 

Scene 5. Closeup of an icicle, melting. At regular 
intervals a drop forms at its tip, grows, and drops off. 
(Get a cross-light on this, preferably against a dark back- 
ground. ) 

Scene 6. Medium-shot, inside the room. Junior is 
at the window, then turns and comes toward the camera. 

Scene 7. Medium long-shot, looking toward a fire- 
place. A big chair is drawn in front of the fire. 

Scene 8. Close shot of a pair of slippered feet on a 
footstool close to the fire. 

Scene 9. Medium - shot, reverse angle. Father is 
seated in the chair, his face covered by a newspaper, which 
rises and falls regularly. 

Scene 10. Medium-shot, from moderately low angle, 
across the chair; Junior appears on the other side of the 
chair, and speaks. The paper suddenly jerks down, reveal- 
ing Father, just awakening. 

TITLE: "Dad — let's go for a walk!" 

Scene 1 1. Same as Scene 10; a short flash as Junior 
finishes speaking. 

Scene 12. Closeup of Father, shaking his head. 

Scene 13. Big-head closeup of Junior, speaking eag- 
erly. 

TITLE: "Aw — puleeze!" 

Scene 14. FADE IN: Close shot of a boy's hands 
hurriedly putting rubbers on his feet. Pan right to show 
Father's feet slipping into galoshes. 

Scene 15. Close shot as the two pairs of feet come 
down the steps and exit. 

Scene 16. Long-shot: a pretty composition of melt- 
ing snow, trees, and filtered sky. If possible, make with 
the camera pointed up toward the crest of a knoll. Father 
and Junior cross the picture along the horizon line, wnich 
is close enough so that the figures are of good size. 

Scene 17. Close-up of the tiny shoots of early grass, 
or a spring flower, just starting up from the muddy ground; 
if possible, by a patch of melting snow. 

Scene 18. Closeup of a robin. 

Scene 19. Closeup of budding leaves on a tree. 

Scene 20. Long-shot, similar to Scene 16. 

Scene 21. Close shot of a small patch of melting 
snow, with a little trickle of water running from it. 

Scene 22. Long-shot of a brook, raised by the melted 
snow, gurgling along in the same direction as the flow in 
Scene 2 1 . 

Scene 23. Long - shot of a large river, filled with 
broken ice. If possible, a sequence of short shots, from 
varied angles, showing an ice-jam, would be highly effec- 
tive here. 

Scene 24. Long-shot of Father and Junior, walking 
through another pictorial scene. 

Continued on Page 177 



April 1935 • American Cinematographer 169 



Perfecting 

Home 

Projection 



by 

Wm. J. orace 

The accompanying illustration is the private property of the 
author, and must not be reproduced elsewhere without the 
consent of the author. 



I SHOULD like to advance the idea now that home mov- 
ies have long enough been treated as a stepchild in 
the field of home entertainment. 

Ten or twelve years ago, the radio was something to 
be fiddled with in the back bedroom, to be regarded as a 
playtoy entirely unworthy of the dignity and respect of a 
designated place in the living room. Rightly so, of course, 
for what tidy housewife would tolerate breadboard wiring, 
horn speakers, and messy batteries in her "company" room? 
Along came smart radio manufacturers with the idea that 
the radio might just as well be properly cabineted for ac- 
ceptance in company, and radio outgrew its relegation to 
the place of all gadgets, the workshop. 

Don't you think it is about time for hofrie movies to 
grow up into a permanent position in the household, and 
take its place beside the radio and the phonograph and 
the piano? 

This isn't the first time the idea of housing home pro- 
jection equipment in respectable furniture has been ad- 
vanced, as witness the several attempts by various firms 
to interest the cinephotographer in projection cabinets. The 
attempts, to be sure, have all died deaths from natural 
causes — chief among the causes being an almost utter lack 
of the designers to understand the reasons for such cabinets. 

First, a cabinet offers, or should offer, convenience. It 
should permanently house all equipment in such a manner 
as to invite home movie shows. Portable screens, projec- 
tors, and associated equipment are all very well from the 
traveller's standpoint, but nowadays cinephotographers 
don't indulge in the pastime of traipsing over to the homes 
of friends to give shows — they give their shows in their 
own homes. Therefore, why go to such extremes in port- 
ability in projection apparatus when it isn't necessary? 

Second, the cabinet, to warrant o permanent niche in 
the scheme of home furnishings, must be attractive, wheth- 
er in use or not. As to the actual designs, there will be as 
many opinions as there are personalities involved. Some 
want every piece of furniture to match in period. Some 
don't care whether it matches other living room furnishings 
or not, so long as it is presentable. Personally, I have al- 
ways believed it incongruous in the extreme to house a 
modern bit of apparatus, be it radio, home movies, or a 
phonograph, in period furniture. Such apparatus did not 



MOVIE P QQ JLCTOQ C^Bt^tT 




exist in those periods, so why try to hide the modern in- 
dividuality in out-of-date dress? 

Third, any cabinet designed for permanent location in 
any one room should be as useful as possible, regardless of 
the equipment it houses. I don't mean that a radio would 
need built-in book shelves or reading lamps to make it 
more useful, for a radio is useful several hours every day. 
The idea, however, of combining with home movie projec- 
tion apparatus other equipment of related nature, such as 
the radio, would be considered quite acceptable. 

The other night I became involved in a discussion of 
how I would design a cabinet for my home projection 
equipment, and after some comparison of thoughts as to 
convenience, size of picture, general dimensions, and so 
on, I sketched the design accompanying this article. It 
appealed to me in its rough form so much that I began 
to wonder how many readers of AMERICAN CINEMATOG- 
RAPHER would agree with me in its principles, if not in 
the complete design. 

Home movies and radio are both modern developments, 
so the decision to fit the cabinet to the contents was the 
basic idea in the general design. And, since it will be only 
a short step from our present silent equipment to prac- 
tically universal sound equipment, it seemed only natural 
to combine radio and home movies in the same cabinet. 
A single control panel for radio and movies was logical, 
and for the sake of refinement and convenience, this panel 
should be made removable, with a connecting cord connect- 
ing it to the set wound on a spring-return drum like a 
cigar lighter. Then, remote control for both radio and 
movies would add the finishing touch to complete conven- 
ience and showmanship. 

The design shown is modern in its simplicity of lines, 
yet pleasingly soft in contour because of the rounded cor- 
ners. The finish of the cabinet should be dull black, and 
the chromium trim around the bottom and chromium bars 
across the speaker grille break up the flatness by adding a 
flash of contrast. The matte chromium finish of the con- 
trol panel also serves to break up the flatness of surface. 

All projection equipment, cans of film, and radio are 
housed in the cabinet. When not in use, a flat strip cur- 
tain somewhat like a roll top desk covers the ground glass 

Continued on Page 174 



170 American Cinematographer 



April 1935 




WHEELS 



Tripod Base 

• Surgical-Mechanical-Research Com- 
pany of Los Angeles announce a Tripod 
base for use on slippery surfaces or ir- 
regular surfaces like stairways or slop- 
ing platforms. It is claimed that with 
this device it is possible to adjust each 
leg separately or to slide the three legs 
as one unit into any position without 
altering their relative position. 

High-Low Switch Lights 

• A recent announcement of the Mo- 
tion Picture Screen and Accessories Com- 
pany of New York City tells of a light 
they are marketing which has three un- 
usual features. It is usable both as a 
hand light and with a stand and in addi- 
tion this light has a special switch which 
enables the user to dim the lights dur- 
ing the focusing period. This gives long 
life to photo flood lamps. 

This is true of the horizontal lights 
of their bank of three lights, two mount- 
ed horizontally and one vertically. 

Leica Exhibit 

• E. Leitz, Inc., announces a display of 
salon Leica prints. The actual photo- 
graphs of outstanding Leica cameraists 
such as Dr. Paul Wolff and other Euro- 
pean experts are a feature of the show. 
Supplementing the European pictures 
will be a number of examples of work 
by recognized workers in the United 
States such as Rudolf Hoffman, Harold 
Harvey, Clarence Slifer, A.S.C.; John 
Moss, Thomas McAvoy, Henry Lester, 
Ivan Dimitri, and others. There will be 
three hundred photographs in the collec- 
tion, the first time such an impressive 
gathering has been made available at 
one time. 

At the exhibit will also be shown the 
latest accessories for the Leica camera. 
Following are cities and dates of exhibit: 
New York — Tuesday, April 23rd, to Fri- 
day, April 26th. 
Philadelphia — Tuesday, April 30th, to 

Thursday, May 2nd. 
Washington, D.C. — Monday, May 6th, 

to Tuesday, May 7th. 
Pittsburgh — Friday, May 10th, to Satur- 
day, May 1 1 th. 



OF INDUSTRY 



Detroit — Wednesday, May 15th, to 
Thursday, May 16th. 

Chicago — Tuesday, May 21st, to Satur- 
day, May 25th. 

Boston — Tuesday, June 4th, to Thurs- 
day, June 6th. 



Rolleiflex Salon 

• On May 15 there will be shown an 
exhibition of photographic prints made 
by Rolleiflex photographers at the new, 
enlarged display and show rooms of 
Burleigh Brooks, 127 W. 42 St., New 
York. 

Colonel Edward Steichen, internation- 
ally recognized as one of the world's 
leading photographers will constitute a 
one-man jury to judge the prints sub- 
mitted to the 1935 Rolleiflex Salon. 

A number of awards will be made to 
contestants whose work is ad|udged out- 
standing by Colonel Steichen. These 
awards will be composed of cameras and 
other photographic materials and suc- 
cessful participants may select any type 
or make of camera or photographic ac- 
cessory which they desire. 

The first prize will be a first-class 
eighteen-day Caribbean cruise, fully paid 
on the ship Pastores. There will be 
other awards amounting to approxi- 
mately $500 in value. 

Contestants will be limited to 4 prints 
each. Sizes of mounts must not exceed 
16x20 inches. Prints need not neces- 
sarily be enlarged. 

The Exhibition is open to everybody. 

Enlorger 

• The Derby Enlarger is now available 
with several added features, according 
to Burleigh Brooks. Its enlarging power 
is said to be limited only by the quality 
of the negative, up to a maximum of 
more than 40 diameters. 

This enlarger comes complete with 
double condensers and a glass negative 



holder, as well as a sliding combination 
mask, which gives four different popular 
sizes in one mask and eliminates the 
use of glass. 

Protesting Legislation 

• There is a piece of legislation pend- 
ing in Pennsylvania according to Klein 
& Goodman that will mean much harm 
to the amateur photographer. 

It would seem that the bill proposed 
would prohibit any amateur from selling 
pictures or prints in the state unless he 
was established in business in that state. 

Klein and Goodman are circulating 
petitions and protestations against this 
bill for presentation to the legislature. 

Flood Reflector 

• Fotoshop Inc. of New York City an- 
nounce a Mogul base flood reflector for 
the super size photo flood lamps. The 
reflector has a doubly adaptable base 
for either table or tripod use. 

Mortensen Book 

• Camera Craft Publishing Company 
announce a new work by William Mor- 
tensen, Projection Control. Mortensen's 
fame as a photographer is recommenda- 
tion enough for this work. 

In addition to the valuable informa- 
tion on this subject the book contains 
many beautiful illustrations from Mor- 
tensen's camera. 

Photo Optical Bench 

• According to R. Fuess Inc. of New 
York, it is possible to get magnifications 
up to 200 times without the use of a 
microscope with miniature cameras with 
the use of their Universal Photo-Optical 
Bench. 

They also mention the possibilities of 
this device in table - top photography 
with any type of camera as it is a com- 
plete photographic studio in itself. 





INE-KODAK 



SPECIAL 





The 16 mm. 
Camera for 
the Serious 
Worker 



Expert cinamateurs, doctors, edu- 
cators, laboratory workers, engineers 
— members of these and other groups 
will find in the Special a 16 mm. 
motion picture camera of complete 
versatility, yet one reasonably eco- 
nomical to buy and to operate. 

Fades, double and multiple expo- 
sures, dissolves, slow motion, masked 
pictures, speeded action, animation 
— these are but a few of the many 
unusual effects within the scope of 
the basic model of this outstanding 
camera. Yet so varied are the uses to 
which motion pictures can be put 
that adaptations of this basic model 
may be desired to fit the Special to 
your particular needs. The instru- 
ment shop in which the Special is 
fabricated will undertake to alter 
the camera to meet such individual 
specifications. 

Write for free booklet 

A copy of "Presenting Cine-Kodak 
Special" — a handsomely illustrated, 
generous-sized booklet, detailing the 
many advantages of this finest of 16 
mm. cameras — is available upon re- 
quest. Write to Eastman Kodak 
Company, Rochester, N. Y. 



Only Eastman makt>s thv Kodak 



o As supplied, the basic motlel of the Spe- 
cial is fitted tvith a 100-foot film cham- 
ber — easily interchangeable with the 
200-foot chamber (extra) shown above. 




172 American (_inema:ograpner • April 1935 




HERE'S HOW 



by A. S. C. Members 



How is the folloiving animated 
work accomplished : "A pen is in 
the inkwell on a desk, all of a 
sudden the pen leaves the ink- 
well and writes the desired title 
on paper or a blackboard seem- 
ingly unaided"? 

L.C.V., Chicago, 111. 

First an 8x10 still picture is taken of 
the drawing board and inkwell. Then a 
picture is taken of the pen to be used, 
this pen is cut out. The still drawing is 
now placed under the cartoon stop mo- 
tion camera, which shoots downward so 
that the drawing lies flat on camera 
stand. A slit is cut thru the still in the 
top of the inkwell so that the cut out 
pen can be placed in the inkwell. 

The stop motion camera then takes 
one picture of this, the pen is then 
moved a quarter of an inch out of the 
bottle, then another picture is taken. 
This is repeated until the pen has trav- 
eled to the desired position on the draw- 
ing board. A white background then 
is substituted for the photographic back- 
ground so that it appears to be a closer 
shot of the drawing board. Now a line 
corresponding to the picture or lettering 
that is to be used is drawn, this line is 
about a half-an-inch long, depending 
on how fast the lettering or drawing is 
to be executed. 

The cutout pen is now moved to the 
end of this line and another shot is 
taken. The line is now extended another 
half inch and the cutout again moved 
to the end of the line where another 
shot is taken, this gives the illusion that 
the pen is actually drawing the line. 
After the design is completed in this 
manner the pen is moved in quarter- 
inch movements back to the edge of the 
camera field. The original background 
with the same design is substituted for 
the one under the camera, which makes 
a longer shot showing the inkwell again 
and the pen continues to travel into the 
bottle. 

WALTER LANTZ, 
Head of Universal Cartoon Dept. 



/ have recently dropped 16mm 
and changed to 8mm. Now I 
have a bunch of 16mm film that 
I would like reduced to S//im. 1 
would like to do the reducing 
myself, or at least try it. Can 
you tell me how? 

My idea is to use a 16mm pro- 
jector and throw the film on a 
translucent screen, then having 
my 8mm camera set up similar 
to a title-making set-up, I would 
take the projected images similar 
to a process background. Would 
such a method be O.K.? 

B.C.F., Penn. 

Reductions can be made by method 
you suggest of using a ground glass sim- 
ilar to background projection, however, 
you will undoubtedly lose considerable 
quality. You are also photographing the 
glass itself which will add grain to your 
pictures and tend to flatten them out. 

The other method would be by the 
optical printer process which makes use 
of your 1 6mm projector and your 8mm 
camera. The manner in which this is 
done in the studios is to remove the lens 
from the projector, placing a ground 
glass between the light and the film. 
Your 8mm camera must be lined up with 
the 16mm projector so that you will 
photograph the aperture only in the pro- 
jector. Next it is absolutely necessary 
that both camera and projector shutters 
are synchronized . . . that is that they 
both open and close at the same time. 
This is usually accomplished by coupling 
the camera and projector together and 
running both from the same motor. This 
would undoubtedly be very difficult to 
do in view of the fact that your 8mm 
camera is now run by a spring motor 
and there is no arrangement for hand 
crank or in any other way of driving 
your 8mm camera. You would have to 
devise some method of running the cam- 
era independently of the spring. This 
whole set-up would possibly involve so 
much machine work and run into so 
much money that it would be more eco- 
nomical for you to have the reductions 
made by some professional laboratory 
already equipped for such work. 

LYNN DUNN, A. S C. 



Please give me a good positive 
title developer. Also negative de- 
veloper. 

J. A., McCloud, Calif. 

A positive title developer which we 
have found gives you very good blocks 
was printed some time ago by us. It is 
from a formula sent us by Mr. Schon, an 
engraver who made this formula up from 
a modification of engraver's developer. 
Here's the formula: 

Solution I 

Sodium Bisulphite 3 A oz. 

Hydroquinone % oz. 

Potassium Bromiae 3 A oz. 

Water to 32 oz. 

Solution II 

Caustic Soda 1 Vz oz. 

Water to 12- oz. 

The developing solution is compound- 
ed ot equal parrs ot solutions I and 1 1. 
In warm weather, this may be diluted 
somewhat, if desired. With this solution, 
development may be prolonged almost 
indefinitely without greying the whites; 
and it gives exceedingly rich blacks. 

A negative developer being used a 
great deal today by ifimm users tor tine 
grain results is the Paraphenylene-Dia- 
mine-Giycin. Following is the formula: 

Paraphenyiene-Diamine 10 grams 

Sodium Sulphite 90 grams 

Glycin I gram 

Water to make 1 liter 

Developing time: 2Z minutes at bt>" F. 

The Paraphenylene - Diamine is dis- 
solved in hot water i icU-iau" F.) and 
when thorougniy aissoived, me suipnite 

is added. The remainder of the water 
should be made up with cold water or ice. 

This solution is normally of purplish- 
brown color, and has a certain mild-dye- 
toning effect upon the image, giving it 
a cloudy yellowish appearance by reflect- 
ed light. This does not, however, impair 
its printing quality, except perhaps to 
give a desirable increased density and 
contrast. One cannot recommend this 
developer for badly underexposed nega- 
tives, however. It is advisable to wear 
rubber gloves when working with this 
developer. 

FRANK B. GOOD, A. S C. 



Apr. I 1935 o American Cinemalographcr 173 




Photo by B. H. Casebolt 
An enlargement made by Bland H. Casebolt from 
a 16mm Dupont Panchromatic Negative develop- 
er in Phenylene Diamine Clycine. 



Santa Claus 
Gave Me 
a 'Minnie* 

by 

Walter Blanchard 

A FEW years ago I pulled a miniature camera out of 
my Christmas stocking. I couldn't help wonder- 
ing, "Now I've got it, what in the world am I go- 
ing to do with it?" This year on amazing number of bud- 
ding minnecamerists are probably asking the same thing. 
After all, they've learned to make good pictures with big 
cameras; and they know the little "Minnies" can do 
amazing things: but now the camera is actually theirs, 
they can't help wondering if they can do as well them- 
selves. 

Used intelligently, there is no limit to what one can 
do with the modern miniature camera. Used with the 
same amount of common-sense you'd apply to making 
pictures with a Graflex or Kodak, the Minnie is the near- 
est approach to a fool-proof, mistake-proof high-grade 
camera yet made. Forgetting size, trimmings, and such- 
like non-essentials, a miniature camera isn't basically 
different from a big camera, It is smaller and more con- 
venient; it has a relatively shcrt-focus lens which, even 
in the larger apertures, gives a much greater depth of 
focus, and allows room for more error in focusing; it has 
a fine shutter, and uses inexpensive film so that you can 



make a dozen exposures for the cost of a single big- 
camera picture. Most of them have an accurate, Dunt-m 
range-finder, so that focusing is quick and easy. Once you 
get on to the basic tricks of minnecamensm, you il tina 
yourself getting better — and cheaper — pictures than ever. 

The instruction-books say that the first thing to do is 
to master the technique of loading the camera; but this 
is so utterly elementary that we'll assume you mastered it 
before sitting down to the Christmas turkey. The really 
important thing, as a first step, is to get accustomed to 
working the range-finder quickly: if you get into the habit 
of jiggling the thing around, to be sure you're right, 
you'll tind it hard to work fast when you really have to. 

After these purely rudimentary points, the thing to 
do is to standardize on your film, developers and papers. 
It's lots of tun to play around with different emulsions 
and different "soups" — but that can come later, after 
you've learned to turn out really good pictures nine times 
out of ten with your standard materials. Standardize first 
on one certain type of film: then, it you want to save 
money, buy it in bulk — fifty or hundred-toot rolls — rather 
than in the individual daylight-loading cartons. The av- 
erage daylight-loading cartridge for "Leica," "Contax" or 
"Super-Nettel" costs $1.00, whereas you can buy a hun- 
dred feet of the same kind of film for $4.50 — and get 
twenty loadings for the price of four of the prepared ones! 
It is really very easy to load mmnecam magazines, any- 
way: a little practice in daylight, using a strip of old film, 
will make the operation second nature to you. When you 
load, of course, you must work in total darkness if you 
use Pan or Superpan film; so it is a good thing to form 
the habit of laying out your reel, magazine, magazine- 
cap, raw film, and scissors in a regular, unvarying arrange- 
ment, so that when you reach for a thing in the dark you 
don't have to hunt for it. Incidentally, if you are short of 
magazines ("Contax" magazines, for instance, have been 
almost unobtainable this last year), or if you don't feel 
prosperous enough to invest immediately in half-a-dozen 
or more $2 magazines, the Agfa cartridges come in mighty 
handy. After using the original roll of film, if you open 
them carefully, without tearing the cardboard or injuring 
the plush lining, you'll find you can re-load them many 
times. Incidentally, if you decide to standardize on the 
Eastman "Pan-Atomic" film, which is one of the best 
fine-grain panchromatic films available, though a trifle 
slower than SuperPan, you can get it in bulk under its 
professional name, "Eastman Background Panchromatic." 

When you are actually making pictures, the same gen- 
eral technique that gave you good pictures with your big 
box will give you good ones with your minnie. Of course, 
an exposure-meter (preferably photoelectric I will help out 
tremendously. But if you haven't one, or can't afford one 
at the moment, chart your exposures for a few rolls, and 
study the results carefully: from this you can work out a 
basic exposure that will be a good guide under all condi- 
tions. For instance, using Supersensitive film, the basic 
exposure for normal pictures, on an average, sunny sum- 
mer day is 1/60 at f:16, while with Pan-Atomic the stop 
would be f :1 1 . Since you are working for pictures that will 
eventually be enlarged, rather than contact-printed, work 
for a somewhat thinner negative than you'd usually make 
with your big camera. It is surprising how well a good 
minnecam negative, slightly on the thin side, but with good 
gradation, will enlarge. 

A sunshade is a really important accessory when us- 
ing fast lenses — so get one, and use it. The best type 
is that which will also take o 1 'V round filter. And 

Continued on Page 175 



174 American Cinematographer • April 1935 



The New 16mm 

PANCHROMATIC NEGATIVES 

(Eastman, Agfa, Dupont) 

will surprise you with their fine qual- 
ity, their beautiful tones and grainless 
reproductions, if you have them devel- 
oped by the 

DUNNINC GRAINLESS METHOD 

DUNNING PROCESS COMPANY 

932 N. La Brea Avenue 
Hollywood, Calif. 

(35mm reduced to 16mm) 



WE WANT TO BUY 

Sound-On-Film, Silent and Sound : On- 
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Submit your list. State lowest price 
acceptable, or let us quote our bid. 

Visual Instruction Supply Corp. 

1757 Broadway Brooklyn, N. Y. 



ECONOMY . . . 

The user of Kin-O-Lux 16mm Reversal 
Film appreciates the advantages of its 
low cost. Without in the least detract- 
ing from the quality of his work, he is 
able to "shoot" more frequently or to 
reduce the running expenses of his 
camera. 

No. 1, Green Box, 100 ft $3.00 

50 ft 2.00 

No. 2, Red Box, 100 ft 3.50 

50 ft 2.50 

Prices include 
Processing, 

Scratch- 
Proofing and 
return postage. 

KIN-0-LUX,lnc. 

107 W. 40th St. N.Y. 




COLOR 

As the indeterminate grayness of 
this transitional season gives way 
before the pastel tones of warm 
spring days, the movie maker is 
tempted to capture the colorful 
beauty of a world reborn. He will 
best attain this end with the Kino- 
Plasmat, a lens which has achieved 
an ultimate present-day perfection 
in its correction for the primary 
colors of the spectrum. 

HUGO MEYER & CO. 
245 W. 55th St. New York 




PERFECTING HOME PROJECTION 



Continued from Page 167 



with 
Koda- 
color 
Filter 

$98.00 



projection screen, this screen being op- 
erated by a small electric motor con- 
trolled by a switch on the control panel. 

In the sketch a sliding panel is shown 
on the left side of the cabinet. Lowering 
this panel, the projector is rolled out on 
a track to facilitate threading. When 
threaded and adjustments made, the 
projector is rolled back into the cabinet 
and the sliding panel closed, making a 
sound-tight cabinet from which issue 
none of the clatter-clack of the projec- 
tor in action. On the right side of the 
cabinet is a similar sliding panel, thru 
which stored film cans may be reached 
and selected for use. The film compart- 
ment, incidentally, could be easily made 
entirely humidifying, and no cans would 
be necessary. 

On the control panel of the cabinet 
would be control switches and knobs for 
radio tuning, volume, and tone, movie 
projector speed and light controls, sound 
control, and controls for the operation of 
the curtain, room lights, and a master 
on-and-off switch. The cable between 
the removed control panel and the cab- 
inet would be about fifteen feet long, 
about the size of a lead pencil, and 
wound up automatically when the con- 
trol panel was to be used at the cab- 
inet. 

The cabinet would be on casters so 
mounted that the bottom edge of the 
cabinet was not more than half an inch 
from the floor. Altho the radio would 
not necessarily have to be directed to- 
ward the listener, a movie audience must 
view the screen as nearly head-on as 
possible to prevent distortion. Hence, 
the casters. 

Naturally, the transmission of pro- 
jector noise to the audience would be 
much diminished by virtue of having the 
projector entirely enclosed, but if neces- 
sary to prevent any drumming effect, 
the cabinet might be lined with Celotex 
half an inch thick. Or, the projector 
could simply be mounted on a sheet of 
this material to deaden transmission of 
the clatter-clack of the mechanism. To 
me, killing the noise of the projector is 
one of the strongest arguments for hav- 
ing a cabinet at all. Such noise detracts 
considerably from the pleasure of home 
movie presentation. 

Let's pretend now that we are at 
home some evening, listening to the ra- 
dio, just home folks relaxing with the 
remote control panel in our laps to ob- 
viate getting up to retune the set. Some 
friends pay us an unexpected visit and 
ask to see the latest movies we took, 
if "we're sure it will be no trouble." 

No trouble at all — just get out the 
desired reel from the storage space, 
thread it in the projector and push the 



projector back into place, roll the cab- 
inet to the right viewing angle, and, 
with remote control panel in our lap, 
start the show by flipping the curtain- 
raising switch and turning on the pro- 
jector. Furniture is undisturbed, the set- 
up is over sooner than it took to write 
it, and projection proceeds smoothly and 
effortlessly. 

Sounds like the millenium for the 
cinephotographer, doesn't it? Takes all 
the fuss and bother out of home movie 
shows and makes it altogether more en- 
joyable entertainment, doesn't it? And 
would it bring out our favorite reels 
more often than when so much trouble 
is required with present "portable" 



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April 1935 • American Cinematographer 175 



equipment? I think so, and I believe it 
would have a healthy reaction in the 
way of convincing the family exchequer 
that home movies aren't so messy after 
all, and future filming sprees would be 
welcomed because of the pleasure of 
fine projection. 

May I humbly offer this prediction — 
within the span of a few short years, 
the mania for portability in projection 
equipment of today will have almost 
completely given way for permanency 
and built-in convenience. Portable 
equipment will perhaps always be of- 



fered, for the field will remain even tho 
to a small extent, but the bulk of home 
projectors will be housed in suitable fur- 
niture, ready for instant use. Whether 
the combination with radio will be uni- 
versally acceptable remains to be seen, 
altho most certainly sound reproduction 
facilities will be demanded. 

In the meantime, and until manufac- 
turers and cinephotographers alike be- 
come educated to the idea, we'll sit back 
and do some more dreaming of the day 
when our home movies will reach "pro- 
jection perfection." 



SANTA CLAUS GAVE ME A "MINNIE 



i Continued from Page 173) 



speaking of filters, don't bother with 
them until you are turning out about 
eight perfect negatives out of ten 
negatives without filtering; then hold 
yourself dowr to two or three filters, 
such as the Aero 2, the "G," and the 
23-A. They'll give you all the correc- 
tion you'll want for normal work — and 
won't load you down with extras. Fil- 
ters should always be used sparingly, 
anyhow. 

The extra lenses — speed, wide-angle, 
tel'ephoto, and the like, look mighty al- 
luring in the catalogues. They are 
handy, of course; but the best policy 
is to stick to a single lens for the first 
few months, at least, and master it. 
After all, your pictures will be enlarged, 
and you can mask out whatever por- 
tions you don't want. It's much cheap- 
er than buying extra lenses! 

If you try any speed work, you'll find 
several important differences from big- 
camera procedure. For instance, if you 
have been using a Graflex, you know 
that, in order to get the mirror up and 
out of the way in time, you have to 
snap the shutter a measurable fraction 
of a moment before you really intend 
to picture. The minnecam, having no 
mirror, and c very quick-acting shutter 
mechanism, is different: you can wait 
until the exact instant you want to re- 
cord — then shoot. Likewise, you'll find 
that with yc-ur small picture-area, you 
won't need nearly such high shutter- 
speeds: 1/500 is fast enough for almost 
anything with a minnie — and the faster 
lens will give you a better-exposed neg- 
ative. 

When it comes to the darkroom end 
of the picture-making, you're missing a 
great bet if you don't do your own. 
If you have to send your work out, be 
sure and send it to a really good minne- 
cam specialist, otherwise your film will 
get ordinary treatment, and you'll be 
disappointed with the results. Minne- 
cam developing is simple — and it needs 
only a dark closet and a bathroom. By 
all means use a tank — "Correx," 



"Reelo," or the like. You can load the 
tank in any closet, and then do the rest 
in the light. Stick to one certain 
negative-developer for the best results. 
There are a number of excellent, fine- 
grain developers sold in bottled form, 
from which you can choose, if you are- 
n't in a position to mix your own. My 
own preference is for the Parapheny- 




extension 
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List Price, $50.00 

MODEL B. Same as Model A, without 
the geared rewind. 

List Price, $25.00 



G. A. Busch &Company 

33 WEST 60TH ST. NEW YORK 

Phone Cir 7-2408 



Fotoshop Declares Dividend 

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NAME. 



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Offer Cood for Limited Time Only 



176 American Cin^matographer e April 19^3 



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lene-Diamine type, which is a marvel- 
lous, fine-grain developer. There are 
plenty of prepared P-D "soups": my 
own experience, incidentally, leads me 
to advise doubling the developing-time 
given on most of these bottles — 34 
min., instead of 17, and so on. It gives 
a stronger, better negative. 

When you have developed, rinsed 
and fixed your negative, you can easily 
wash it in the ordinary bathroom wash- 
bowl. A good way to ensure thorough 
washing is lo double the film back upon 
itself — emulsion-side out, of course — 
and fasten it at the ends with an ordi- 
nary wooden spring clothes-pin. When 
you are ready to dry the film, hang it 
up wherever is convenient, preferably 
weighting rhe lower end with a film-clip 
or clothes-Din, and carefully swab the 
film off with damp cotton or chamois, 
to minimize the formation of water- 
spots. 

Your enlarging can be done equally 
well in the bathroom, too. Again, stick 
to one type ot paper, and one developer. 
Personally, I like to use a fairly high- 
contrast developer, and work from a 
soft negative. Of course, you will find 
it necessary to use several grades of 
paper — soft, normal, contrast, etc., for 
different negatives: but keep them all 
of the same brand of paper. There are 



a number of fixed-focus minnecam en- 
largers, which automatically give you a 
good 4x6-inch print from a "Leica" or 
"Contax" size negative; but there is 
much more fun in using a regular min- 
iature-camera enlarger, and masking 
down your pictures individually, exclud- 
ing whatever you don't want in the 
print. These enlargers aren't so very 
expensive — especially if you use the 
lens from ycur camera for enlarging; 
and don't fry to use ordinary enlargers 
for miniature negative work. It requires 
a far more perfected optical system 
than most older enlargers boast — really 
good condensers, a fine lens, etc., and 
a film-carrier that is specially designed 
for the small negatives, and will not 
scratch the film. 

The secret of getting the fullest en- 
joyment out of any miniature camera is, 
in a word, keep things simple till you 
have gotten c thorough grasp of minne- 
cam capabilities. Keep your outfit sim- 
ple: camera, sunshade, two or three fil- 
ters, and n light, walking-stick tripod 
will enable you to meet any situation. 
Standardize on one film, one negative 
developer, one brand of paper, one print 
developer; do your own darkroom work 
• it is both better and cheaper!) — and 
Minnie will show you how much fun 
there really i: in making pictures! 



USE YOUR LIBRARY 



I Continued from Page 167) 



cinemalography — and all you'll find 
about the theory of light, photo-chem- 
istry, and the history of moving pictures 
— will still apply, and be helpful. 

Believe it or not, though, the most 
valuable and practically helpful little 
book I could mention isn't about cine- 
matography at all! It is Eastman's lit- 
tle book "How to Make Good Pictures," 
which sells for fifty cents — and is well 
worth owning. It is written primarily for 
still photographers: but it is almost the 
only readily available book which brings 
things right down to date, telling how 
to use Supersensitive film, the inter- 
mediate semichromatic films (Plena- 
chrome, etc.) and Photofloods. Not 
only that, but it gives you the practical 
details you need. The subject of expos- 
ure, for instance, is covered in such a 
way that you can easily follow the same 
methods with your cine-camera. Mos' 
16mm cameras give an exposure roughly 
equivalent to 1/25 of a second in a still 
camera: so if you will follow Table No. 
1, on Page 52, you will find that your 
exposures are approximately right. Th 5 
table divides exterior subjects into four 
simple groups — and the illustrations 
give excellent examples of each group. 

The section (Pages 40-43) on pho- 
tographing moving objects is just as ap- 



plicable to movies as to still work, and 
so is the chapter on Landscape photog- 
raphy, which gives the basic principles 
of composition, exterior lighting, and so 
on. In the same way, what is said about 
using color filters, and the filter-factor 
tables for Pan., SuperPan and Veri- 
chrome films are just as accurate with 
movies as with still pictures. 

The chapter on Home Portraiture by 
Daylight will give you a lot of useful 
information which can easily be adapted 
to cine work. In it, on Page 70, is c 
section on "Posing": for cine work, just 
change that heading to "Direction'' — 
and you'll find your pictures growing 
more natural. A couple of pages farther 
on (P. 72) is a lot of information on 
how to pose people with relation to the 
light, so that you can subdue or ac- 
centuate any feature — such as big ears, 
a weak chin, deep-set eyes, or a bald 
head. Try those ideas out in your cine 
close-ups, either by natural or artificial 
light: both you and your victims will 
like the results. 

The chapter on "Snapshots Indoors 
at Night with SuperPan and Photo- 
floods" is made-to-order for home- 
movie work. Not only are there a lot 
of mighty helpful suggestions, but pic- 
tures such as you'd want to make — 



April 1935 • American Cinematographer 177 



with diagrams of the lighting, and the 
details of the lens-opening and shutter- 
speed. Those made at 1/25 second can 
be absolutely duplicated with any cine 
camera; those where the exposure was 
longer can usually be duplicated by 
opening up the lens, for cine-cameras 
have, as a rule, faster lenses than the 
still cameras considered in this book. 

Last — but not least — don't, in study- 
ing any of these books, overlook the 
chapters on the theory of photography. 
They may seem dry and unimportant, 
but they'll give you an understanding 
of what is happening when you make a 
picture — and why it happens. The re- 
sult, of course, is that you'll ask your 
camera to do fewer impossible things, 
and have fewer failures. In fact, as one 
of my friends recently remarked, if an 
amateur will carefully read, digest, and 
apply the information that is available 
to him in such books (even the oldest 
or most elementary) his pictures will be 
10096 better — and he'll enjoy his hobby 
more fully. 



A Co ntinuity for Rainy-Day 
Movie 

• Continued from Page 168) 

Scene 25. Long-shot — if possible 
with background of effectively-filtered 
clouds — of a farmer, plowing. 

Scene 26. Closeup of the plowshare 
starting a furrow. 

Scene 27. Medium-shot of a very 
young calf or lamb, tottering about on 
unsteady legs. 

Scene 28. Closeup of the calf (or 
lamb) . 

Scene 29. Medium-shot of the ani- 
mal and its mother, with the baby tak- 
ing its meal. (If the shot is of a lamb, 
an effective angle will be from behind, 
showing the amusing tail-action while 
feeding. ) 

Scene 30. Long-shot, made in stop- 
motion, showing the sun, low in the sky 
and partly obscured by rapidly-moving 
clouds. 

Scene 31. Close-shot of Father and 
Junior, made from a low angle, with 
heavily-filtered sky background. Father 
points, obviously to the threatening 
clouds, and they turn about. 

Scene 32. Long-shot of Father and 
Junior, running in opposite direction to 
that shown in previous scenes, and with 
their collars turned up. 

Scene 33. (If possible) long-shot of 
the lamb, apparently hastening to shel- 
ter. 

Scene 34. Long-shot: a short flash 
of a pile of dark, ominous - looking 



A 

COMPLETE 
1 6mm 

Recording 
System 

of 

HIGH QUALITY 

$595.00 



brings to the substandard field the possibilities of professional sound recording practice 
and includes among its uses — 

Double System Studio Production. In conjunction with Dresent cameras, it enables the 
user to make synchronized or non-synchronized sound films. 

Addition of Sound to Silent Films. The high quality sound track, on which speech or 
music is recorded, may be transferred to existing silent films. 

Post Synchronization. Picture or title may be photographed on single-perforation reversal 
film, after which direct sound, radio or disc accompaniment may be added to the same 
film. 

Re-Recording From Radio or Phonograph. Transfer your favorite disc selections or radio 
programs to 16mm sound-on-f ilm. 




Special Purpose Recording. Adapted to scientific, 
industrial and all other special work. 



research, aducational, institutional. 



EQUIPMENT INCLUDES 

Recorder, complete with galvanometer and optical system, for variable area, synchronous 
motor drive, and 400-ft. magazines. 

High Cain Amplifier, equipped with inputs for microphone, phonograph pickup, or radio 
receiver. All necessary controls, including output meter; complete with tubes, cables, 
monitor headphones, and "B" batteries, ready to operate. 

Crystal Microphone, with stand and cable. Frequency range 50-6000 cycles. Sensitive 
microphone provides wide pickup range. 

THE BERNDT-MAURER CORP. 



1 12 E. 73rd STREET 



NEW YORK 



/// 



MOVIETONEWS, INC 

PRODUCERS OF NEWSREELS 
THROUGHOUT THE WORLD 




HEAD OFFICE 
460 WEST 34rM 8T 
NEW YORK CITY 



WE| 

can! 



iliiiiiiiiniiiiiill 



February 8, 1935 



National Cine Laboratories 
20 West 22nd Street 
New Tork, N.T 



Attn.: Mr. Thomas Walsh 



Centlemen : 



We believe you may be Interested to 
know that the Movietone sound camera which you 
modified for us this past week-end has already 
recorded plenty of action and with the special 
fast lenses you mounted has helped account for 
pictures under difficult conditions. 

We appreciate the oooperation your 
laboratories afforded in making the required 
modifications and additions for this camera, 
especially In view of the fact that an entire 
Saturday night and most of Sunday had to be 
devoted to the Job in order to make delivery 
as promised. 

Tour splendid spirit of cooperation 
and your exoellent workmanship Is appreciated. 

Very truly yours, 



E.I.lSponabiy 
ChleV Engineer 

NATIONAL CINE LABORATORIES 



Engineers — Manufacturers — Motion Picture Equipment 



20 WEST 22nd ST. 



NEW YORK CITY 



178 American Cinematographer • April 1935 



clouds. If possible, moke in stop-motion, 
to suggest a rapidly approaching storm. 

Scene 35. Close shot of the surface 
of a brook or pond, with raindrops pelt- 
ing the surface. 

Scene 36. Long - shot (day) of a 
highway or city street, made on a wet 
day. A car passes, and leaves a strongly- 
marked track on the wet pavement. 

Scene 37. Medium long-shot of a 
group of cars, stopped at a signal, on 
a wet day. 

Scenes 38 a, b, c, etc. Closeups, 
from varied angles, of windshield-wipers 
starting to work. I Be sure and use at 
least two diffreent cars for this, one 
with the wiper at the top of the glass, 
the other with it mounted below.) 

Scene 39. Same as Scene 38: the 
signal changes and the cars start. 

Scene 40. Long-shot of the traffic 
on a crowded city street in the rain. 
Make this with the camera at 8-frame 
speed. 

Scene 4 1 . Series of city - s t r e e t 
night-shots, made on a wet night, with 
the wet pavement reflecting the auto- 
headlights, signs, etc. 

Scene 42. Medium long-shot on the 
porch of the house shown in Scene 1. 
(Night effect), Father and Junior enter 
quickly, very wet, and go into the house. 

Scene 43. Close shot of the rubbers 
and galoshes, wet and muddy. Above 
them will be seen the bottoms of two 
raincoats, dripping. 

Scene 44. Close shot by the fire- 
place. Father's slippered feet extend 
themselves toward the fender. 

Scene 45. Closeup of Father, in his 
chair. He looks rather cross, and speaks. 

TITLE: "Nothing to see — all we got 
was wet!" 

Scene 46. Closeup, similar to Scene 
44. Father raises the newspaper before 
his face again. 

Scene 47. Medium-shot, similar to 
Scene 6. Junior goes back by the win- 
dow. 

Scene 48. Close shot of Junior, 
from outside the window. He is happy, 
smiling as though he had had a much 
better afternoon than Father did. Then 
a fresh burst of rain obscures the pane. 

TITLE: THE END. 

The rain fade-out in the last scene 
can be made at any time, with the aid 
of a garden-hose and an ordinary 
sprinkling nozzle. The majority of the 
scenes, it will be noticed, can be made 
at any time, as the opportunity arises; 
their connection with the story rests en- 
tirely upon the way they are joined to- 
gether. Therefore, this sort of a film 



CLASSI FIED 

Rates: Seven cents a word. Minimum 
charge, one dollar per insertion. 



FOR SALE— MISCELLANEOUS 



DUPLEX PRINTER, Mitchell 400-ft. magazines. 
Mitchell tripod legs, No. 5 Strand 60/^flex- 
ible shaft(f4!4" Cooke Kinic lensjfc" F2 
Cooke Hmae lensY3" F2:5 Cooke Vmmk lens 
in mounts for B u H or Mitchell cameras 
and other miscellaneous equipment. Ed Esta- 
brook, 430 N. Flores St., Hollywood, Calif. 
ORegon 5003. 



35mm Universal Camera and carrying case. Six 
2(J0-tt. magazines — 2" F3.1 Cooke Lens, 6" 
F4.5 Cooke Aviar Lens. 5 Masks. Univer- 
sal Tripod and case. Hardly ever used. Costs 
$822.25 new. Our price $235.00. Eastman 
Kodak Stores, Inc., 91 E. 6th St., St. Paul. 
Minn. A 



Professional Wilart Studio Camera 2" F3.5 
Kraus Lens, 2 Lens Adapters, Set of inside 
masks, sunshade, iris, 6 magazines, 2 carry- 
ing cases. Price $145.00. Station E, Box 
9, Brooklyn, New York. A 



CINE KODAK, new model B Fi 9 black, wuh 
Kodacolor. Cost $162.00. Wou'd consider 
Leica or Contax in trade. Watson IvIcAlex- 
ander, 616 S. 85th St., Birmingham, Ala. A 



SPECIAL OFFER — "Passion Play," four 200-ft. 
reels 8mm, $25.00 complete. Also wice 
variety 50-ft. 8mm subjects, $1.50 each. 
16mm sound and silent films for sale, rent 
and exchange. Reducing 16mm to 8mm our 
specialty. Harry Mendelwager, 317 West 
50th St., New York, New York. A 



EDUCATIONAL Camera Blimp and Dolly for 
Mitchell Camera. Follow Focus Device, gear- 
ed tree head, three wheels, pneumatic tires, 
cost $1250, special $500. Hollywood Camera 
Exchange, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, 
Calif. Cable HOCAMEX. 



GENUINE Bell & Howell, 1000- ft. magazines 
in excellent condition, $50.00 each. Four 
hundred foot magazines, $25.00 each. Four 
hundred foot Mitchell magazines, $25.00 
each. Cases for above, $10.00 each. Holly- 
wood Camera Exchange, 1600 Cahuenga 
Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. Cable HOCAMEX 



ARTREEVES latest 1935 portable double sound 
recording unit with double sprocket recorder, 
automatic speed control motor, twin fidelity 
optical unit. Latest type camera motor. 
New type microphone. Complete factory 
guaranteed, $2,400. This is the only au- 
thentic ArtReeves equipment for sale in 
Hollywood outside factory. Camera Supply 
Co., Ltd., 1515 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood. 
Calif. 



BELL & Howell and Eyemo Cameras, lenses, 
magazines, tripods, moviolas, splicers, re- 
winds, measuring and synchronizing ma- 
chines. All kinds sound and laboratory 
equipment. Process, optical reduction and 
step printers. Eastman & Dupont spliced 
negatives tested and guaranteed 2%c per 
foot, 100-ft. rolls, black leader each end on 
spools, $2.75. Inquiries invited. CONTI- 
NENTAL FILMCRAFT, 1611 Cosmo St., Hol- 
lywood, Calif. 



MITCHELL CAMERA, very quiet steel gear , 
3 Pan Tachar lenses, Free head, complete 
studio equipment, excellent condition. 
$1300. Camera Supply Co., Ltd., 1515 N. 
Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 



may be made slowly, as you find the 
chance to get the shots — or even as- 
sembled from bits of film you already 
have on hand. Almost the only scenes 
that must specifically be made for the 
purpose are the two sequences of Fath- 
er and Junior in the house, and the few 
shots of the two walking across the 
country. 



ADVERTISING 



BELL & HOWELL CAMERA HEAD, 170 de 
grees three lenses, B & H tripod legs and 
head, beautiful condition, $750.00. Camera 
Supply Co., Ltd., 1515 Cahuenga Blvd., Hoi 
lywood, Calif. 



VERY POWERFUL FLOODLIGHTS of new de- 
sign. Will burn through a 1000-W. Rifle 
with Cable, $5.00. With 12-foot collapsible 
Stand, $20.00. Camera Supply Co., Ltd., 
1515 N. Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 



SOUND Moviola Model UC, price $450.00. 
Also new HOE. free-head and legs for Bell 
& Howell, Eyemo or DeVry portable cameras, 
$75.00 complete. Hollywood Camera Ex- 
change, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, 
Calif. 



LIKE NEW — Mitchell Camera, silenced Acad- 
emy aperture, Pan Tachar lenses, free head 
tripod, 1000-ft. magazines, complete — 
$2000. Hollywood Camera Exchange, 1600 
N. Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 



LIKE NEW — Artreeves portable double sound 
recording outfit with Bell & Howell Silenced 
camera, complete in every detail. A real 
bargain, price $3500. Price without camera, 
$2500. Hollywood Camera Exchange, 1600 
N. Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. Cable 
address: HOCAMEX. 



EASTMAN and Dupont short end negative, 
spliced, tested and guaranteed or money re- 
funded, 2%c per foot, Eyemo rolls on spools, 
$2.75. Inquiries invited. CONTINENTAL 
FILMCRAFT, 1611 Cosmo St., Hollywood. 
Calif. 



WANTED 



1,000-ft. Mitchell magazines and 400-ft. B 
& H magazines, 25 and 40mm Pan-Astro 
lenses. Box 247, c/o American Cinematog- 
rapher. 



Professional Bell & Howell camera, silenced or 
regular, must be cheap, for spot cash. Irving 
Braun, 5125 N. Lotus Ave., Chicago, III. A 



WILL pay cash for professional or 16mm cam- 
era, projectors, lenses, motors, enlargers. Ev- 
erything in the photographic line. Hollywood 
Camera Exchange, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd., 
Hollywood, Calif. Hollywood 3651. 



WANTED — Number 1 Eastman Stereopticon 
camera. Harry Perry, OXford 1908. 



WANTED — Daylight Developing tank for 3%- 
x4' 4 cut film. Box 246, American Cinema- 
tographer, 6331 Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood, 
Calif. 



WILL PAY CASH FOR: Bell & Howell, Mitch- 
ell, Akeley or De Brie Cameras, lenses, mo- 
tors, parts and accessories. Motion Picture 
Camera Supply, Inc., 723 7th Ave., New 
York, New York. T 



MISCELLANEOUS 



WE BUY, sell or rent everything necessary for 
the making, taking, or showing of motion 
pictures. Sound or Silent — 35mm and 16- 
mm. We specialize in equipping expeditions. 
Ruby Camera Exchange, 729 7th Ave., New. 
York City. T 



In your cutting, you will improve the 
result if the scenes from 31 to 42 are 
cut quite short. If you are interested in 
rhythmic cutting, you can build quite 
an effective climax by making these 
shots progressively shorter, and possibly 
adding odd-angled "flashes" of some of 
the rainy-doy traffic shots, to give va- 
riety and "punch." 



MEMBERS 



Directors of 
Photography / 

Abel, David V / 
Andersen, Milfoid A V 
Andriot, Lucien 



H.v/, 



Arnold, John 
Ash, Jerome n. v 
August, Joseph / 
Barlatler, Andre V 
Barnes, George S. 
tBell, Chas. E. 
tBenoit, Georges 
Boyle, Chas. P.i/ 
Boyle, John W. 
Brodine, Norbert F. 
Brown, Jas. S., Jr. ^ 
Chancellor, Philip 
Clark, Dan 
Clarke, Charles G. 
Corby, Francis 
Cronjager, Edward 
Crosby, Floyd D. 
Daniels, William H. 
tDavis, Charles J. / 
dc Grasse, Robert v 
Depew, Ernest S. ^/ 
DeVinna, Clyde 
Dierz, Wm. H. 
tDored, John 
*Dubray, Joseph A 
tDuPar, E. B. \/ 
Dyer, Edwin L. 
Dyer, Elr ler G. 
Eagler, Paul \S 
Edeson, Arthur v 
Fernstrom, Ray \, 
Fischbeck, Harry 
Folsey, George J., U., 
Forbes. Harry WyV/ 
Freulich, Henry \s 
*Freund, Karl 
Tryer, Richard 
(jaudio, Gaetano 
Gerstad, Merritt B. 
Gilks, Alfred 
Glennon, Bert 
Good, Frank B. 
Haller, Ernest 
Halperin, Sol 
jHarten. Charles 
JHaylhorne, Reed N. 
tHerbert, Charles W. 
Hickox, Sid 
Hickson, John T. V 
riowe, James Wong 
Hunt, Roy 
Jackson, Harry 
Jennings, J. D. 
June, Ray 
Kershner, Glenn 
Kline, Ben 
tKnechtel, Lloyd 
Kohler, Henry N. 
Krasner, Milton 
Kull. Adolph E. 
Landers, Sam 
Lang, Charles B., Jr. 
Lloyd, Art 
Lundin, Walter 
Lyons, Chet 
McCord, Ted 
McGill, Barney 
Mackenzie, Jack \/ 
tMacWilliams, Glenn 
iMalkames. Don 
Marley, J. Peverell 
Marsh, Oliver 
Marshall, Chas. A. 
Marshall, William C 
Martinelli, Arthur 
Marzorati, Harold J. 
Mate, Rudolph 
Meehan, Geo. B., Jr. *S 
Mellor, William C. 
Miller, Arthur 
Miller, Virgil E. 
Milner, Victor 
Morgan, Ira H. 
Musuraca, Nick 
Neuman, Harry C 
O'Connell, L. William 
Overbaugh, Roy F. 
Palmer, Ernest 
tPaul, Dr. Edward F. 
Peach, Kenneth 
Perry, Harry 
1 Perry, Paul P. V/ 
Planck, Robert H. 
Polito, Sol ✓ 
Rees, William A. 
Reynolds, Ben F. 
Robinson, George 
Rose, Jackson J. 
Rosher, Charles 
Rosson, Harold 
tRuttenberg, Joseph 
Srhneiderman. George 
Schoenbaum, Charles v 
Seitz, John F. / 
Shamroy, Leon v 
Sharp, Henry 



: Shearer, Douglas 
Sickner, Wm. A. y 
Siegler, Ailen 
tSilver, John 
tSmith, Jack 
Smith, Leonard 
Snyder, Edward J. \/ 
Sparkuhl, Theodor 
tSteiner, William, Jr. 
Stengler, Mack 
Stout, Archie J. / 
Strenge, Walter \/ 
Struss, Karl 
Stumor, Charles 
Stumar, John 
Taylor, J. O. \/ 
Tetzlaff, Ted 
Thompson, William C.v 
Tobey, Robert \/ 
Todd, Arthur 
Toland, Gregg 
Tover, Leo 
Towers, Richard 
1 utwiler, Tom 
Valentine, Joseph A.^ 
*Van Buren, Ned 
Van Enger, Willard 
Van Trees, James 
tVarges, Ariel 
von Sternberg, Josef ^ 
Wagner, Sidney C. 
Walker, Joseph 
Warren, Dwight \S 
Wenstrom, Harold 
Wetzel, Al. 
Wheeler, William \y 
White, Lester / 
Wvckoff, Alvin \y . 
iZucker, Frank C\S 

Special Process 

bmger, Ray v , 
Cuiiy, Russell A. V 
Edouart, Farciot 
Fabian, Maxmillian 
Finger, John ^ 
Griggs, Loyal y 
Haskin, Byron 
JacKman, Fred 
Jackman, Fred, Jr. 
Kelley, W. Wallace 
Koenekamp, In. h. 
Lipstein, Harola 
Pollock, Goraon \y 
Ries. Irvina C. . 
Smith, Arthur \/ 
Walker, Vernon L. . 
Williams, William N.v 
Wrigley, Dewey V 
Wimpy, Rex 
Zcch, Harry \f 

Operative 
Cinematographers 

Albert, C. L. 
Anderson, Don 
Anderson, Wesley 
Arling, Arthur E. \S 
Badaracco, Jacob 
Bader, Walter y/ 
Ballard, Lucien \/ 
Bell, Jack C. 
Bennett, Guy M. 
Bennett, Monroe 
Bentley, Fred 
Biroc, Joe \_/ 
Blackstone, Cliff </ 
Bradley, Wilbur H. 
Browne, Fayte M. 
Burks, Robert 
Campbell, Arthur 
Castle, Walter H. V 
Chewning, Wallace 
Clark, Roy 
Clemens, Geo. T. .y 
Cline, Wilfrid M 
Cohen, Edward J. 
Collings, Russell D. 
Cortez, Stanley 
Davis, Harry 
Davis, Leland E. v' 
Dean, Faxon ^ - 
Diamond, Jas. R. <s 
Drought, James B.v/" 
Dunn, Linwood G. \s 
Eslick, LeRoy 
Estabrook, Edw. T. \/~ 
Fapp, Daniel L. sy 
Felndel, Jockey y/ 
Fetters, C. Curtis 
Finger, Frank y/ 
Fitzgerald, Edward w 
Galezio, Len 
Garnett, Paul \y 
Gertsman, Maury 
Gibbons, Jeff T. s/ 
Glassberg, Irving v 
Gordon, James 
Gray, King D. t/ 
Green, Kenneth 
Greene, Al M. \S 
Guffey, Burnett \S 
Guthrie, Carl 



Hallenberger, Harry 
Harper, James B. 
Harris, Emii 
Henderson, Edward \/ 
Hoag, Robert 
Huggins, L. Owens 
Jennings, Lewis E. 
, Kelly, Wm. J. 
Knott, James «/ 
Landon, Theodore 
Lane, Al L. ^ 
Lanning, Reggie \y* 
LaShelle, Joseph 
Laszlo, Ernest y/ 
Lawton, Charles C. 
Lerpae. Paul K. 1/ 
'iLevitt, Sam 
Lindon, Lionel A. 
Love, Cecil \y 
Lynch, Warren 
Lyons, Edgar H. v 
MacDonald, Joe 
Mayer, Fred 
Meade, Kyme . 
Merland, Harry l/ 
Metty, R. L. »/ 
Mols, Pierre M. 
Newhard, Guy J . 
Newhard, Robert S. 
Nogle, Geo. G. - 
Novak, Joe v 
Palmer, Robert t< 
Pierce, Otto y/ 
Pittack, Robert \/ 
Pyle, Edward \y 
Ragin, David / 
Ramsey, H. Clarke/ 
Ramsey, Ray L. 
Rand, William i ^ y 
Redman, Frank 
Ries, Ray 

Roberts, Albert C.\y 
Roberts, Irmin \y 
Roberts, Josiah \y 
Robinson, Walter C. 
Roe, Guy 

Rosenberg, Irving \y 
Salerno, Charles, jr. 
Scheurich, Victor \y 
Schmitz, John j. 
Schurr, William F. ^ 
Schoeasack, G. I-. 
Smith, Harold I. 
Smith, William Cooper 
Shipham, Bert 
Snyder, Wm. O-" 
Stine, Clifford R. ^ 
Sullivan, Wm. F. 
Tappenbeck, Hatto 
Thompson, Stuart \s 
Titus, Frank 
Ulm, William R. 
Unholz, George \S 
Vaughan, Roy V. 
Vogel, Paul Charles 
Vogel, Willard I. 
Wester, Carl \y 
White, Ben 
Wild, Harrv \y 
Wilky, Guy L.</ 
Williams, Al 
Williamson, James 

Assistant 
Cinematographers 

Abbott, L. B. 
Abramson, Melvin 
Adams, Eddie 
Adams, Ralph G. 
Ahern, Lloyd 
Andersen, Jack 
Anderson, Eddie 
Babbitt, Royal F. 
Baldwin, Herold 
Barber, E. C. 
Barth, Willard 1/ 
Beckner, Neal 
Bergholz, Emmett 1 
Bessette, Raoul 
Boggs, Haskell 
Bohny, Chas. R. 
Bourne, George 
Bradford, William 
Bridenbecker, Milton 
Brigham, Donald H. 
Bronner, Robert 
Burgess, Frank 
Burke, Charles 
Cairns, Lawrence 
Caldwell, John C. 
Carter, Ellis W/, 
Citron, Joseph A. 
Clothier, William H 
Cohan, Ben 
Cohen, Sam 
Collins, Edward C. 
Crawford, Lee 
Crockett, Ernest J.^ 
Cronjager, Henry, Jr. 
Crouse, John 
Curtiss, Judd 
Daly, James 



Dalzell, Arch R. 
Davenport, Jean L. 
Davis, Mark 
Davis, Robt. D., Jr. 
Davol, Richard S. 
Dawe, Harry y 
Dawson, Fred y 
DeAngelis, Louis v 
Tde Cazstellaine, Paul 
Deverman, Dale 
Diskant, George 
Dodds, Wm. L/ 
Dowling, Thomas L. 
Uugas, Frank 
Dye, Geo., Jr. 
Eagan, J. P. ^ 
Eckert, John 
Elliott, August J. 
tEtra, Jack 
Evans, Frank D. \y 
Farley, Joseph L. 
Fischer, Herbert J. 
Foxall, William x_/ 
Fredricks, Ellsworth 
Garvin, Edward 
Gaudio, Frank, Jr. 
Geissler, Charles R. 
Gerstle, Arthur 
Goss, James M., Jr. 1/ 
Cough, Robt. ). 
Graham, Harold W.i/ 
Grand, Marcel \^/~ 
Green, Don 
Greer, John 
Hackett, James C. 
Haddow, Ledger y 
Harlan, Russell 
Hayes, Towne D.' 
Higgins, James Colman - 
Higgs, Stuart P. \y 
Hoffman, Roswell 
tHolcombe, Walter B. 

Hunter, Kenneth 

Kauffman, R. King, Jr. 

Kearns, Edward 

Keller, Alfred S. . 

Kelley, George F. 

Klein, Irving 

Kluznik, Mart 
Lackey, Walter K. 

Lane. Art 

Laraby, Nelson 

Lathrop, Philip 
Leahy, Chas. P. 

Lebovitz, Alfred 

Lerpee, Carl I ' 

Lewis, C. L. 

Liggett, Eugene \/ 
Lockwood, Paul 
Lykins, Vollie Joe 

Mack, Robt. J. 

McDonald, Frank 

McEdward, Nelson C 

MacDonneil, Stanley 

Mac Intyre, Andy 

Marble, Harry 

Martinelli. Enzo 

Mautino, Bud 

Meade, Kenneth 

Mchl, John 

Mchn, Paul 

Molina, Luis 1/ 

Moreno, Robert C. 

Morris, Thomas C. 

Myers, Albert 

Norton, Kay 

Orsatti, Alfred 

Parkins, Harry y/ 

Rankin, Walter ■ 

Rcinhold, Wm. G. 

Rhea, Robert 

Riley, William 

Russell, John L., Jr. 

Sanford, S. A. 

Sargent, Don 

Scheving, Albert 

Schuch, William 

Seawright, Byron 

Shearman, Roger C. U 

Shirpser, C. 

Shorr, Lester 

Slifer, Clarence 

Sloane, James 

Smalley. Alfred E. 

Smith, H. C. 

Soderberg, Edward F. 

Southcott, Fleet 

Straumer, E. Charles 

Strong, Glenn 

Strong, William M. 

Terzo, Fred 

Thomas, Jack 

Tolmie, Rod 

Tripp, Roy 

Van Trees, James, Jr. 
Van Wormer, John Pierce 
Walsh, Mike 
Ward, Lloyd - 
Webb, Harry 
Weddell, Paul K. 
Wei ler.. John 
Wcisbarth, Ted t 



Weissman, Leonard s 
Wellman, Harold 
Wendall, Jack E. 
White, Edward L»/ 
Whitley, William 
Worth, Lothrop y 

Still Photographers 

Allan, Ted 

Alsop, George 

Anderson, Bert \S 

Bachrach, Ernie 

Bierring, Frank 

Blanc, Harry y 

Breau, Joseph F. \S 

Bredell, Elwood ^/ 

Brown, Milton 

Clark, Sherman L. ^ 

Coburn, Robert ^ 

Cooper, John 

Cronenweth, W. E. ^ 

Crosby, Warner N. v/ 

Crowley, tarl ^ 

Ell.ott, Mack v 

Ellis, John 

English, Donald A. 

Estep, Junius D. 

Evans, Thomas 

Evansmith, Henry 

Farrell, David H. 1/ 

Fraker, W. A. 

Freulich, Roman \s 

Fryer, Elmer » 

Graves, Clarence "Stax" 1/ 

Grimes, William H. 

Head, Gordon G. \y 

Hendrickson, Fred S. is 

Hester, Jerome E. 

Hopcratt, N. John,^- 

Johnson, Roy L. 

Julian, Mac 

Kahle, Alexander 

Kling, Clifton 

Kornmann, Gene • 

Lacy, Madison S 

Lippman, Irving ■ 

Lobben, C. Kenneth 

Longet, Gaston 

Longworth, Bert 

Lynch, Bert »y 

MacLean, Roy D. 

Manart, S. C. 

Marigold, Mickey \y" 

Martin, Shirley Vance 

McAlpin, Hal A. 

Miehle, John J. 

Morrison, Talmage H. 

Paul, M. B. 

Richardson, G. E. 

Richee, Eugene R. 

Robbins, Leroy S. 

Rowley, Les 

Schater, Aaolph L. 

Sibbald, Merritt J. 

Sigurdson, Oliver i 

Six, Bert 

Stone, Ed 

Tanner, Frank 

Thomas, Wm. E. 

Van Pelt, Homer 

Walling, Will, J. 

Welbourne, Chas. Scott 

Wyckoff, Harold M. \S 

Portrait 

Photographers 

MacDonald, Melvin A. 

Honorary Members 

Mr. E. O. Blackburn, 

Los Angeles, Calif. 
JMr. George Eastman, 

Rochester, N. Y. 
{Mr. Thomas A. Edison, 

Orange, N. J. 
Mr. Albert S. Howell, 

Chicago, III. 
Mitchell, George A. 

Los Angeles, Calif. 

Associate Members 

Mr. Louis A. Bonn 
Mr. George Cave 
Dr. L. M. Dietench 
Mr. Fred Gage 
Mr. Emery Huse 
Dr. Lloyd A. Jones 
Dr. C. E. K. Mees 
Dr. Herbert Meyer 
Mr. Hollis Moyse 
Dr. W. B. Rayton 
Dr. V. B. Sease 
Dr. J. S. Watson, Jr. 
Inactive Members 
Dunning, Dodge 
DuPont, Max B. 
Fildew, William 
Glouner, Martin G. 
Graham, Stanley 
Jackman, Dr. Floyd 
Lockwood, J. R. 
Roos, Len H. 
Stull, William 



^Membership by Invitation only. 



Directors of Photography in Executive Positions. 



t Non-Resident Members. 



{Deceased. 



Mitchell Camera Corporation 

wishes to congratulate 

Victor Milner, A.S.C. 

on winning the 

1934 Academy Award 

for 

PHOTOGRAPHY 

in the production 

"Cleopatra' 

Victor Milner used Mitchell Cameras 
on this production 

Mitchell Camera Corporation 

665 N. ROBERTSON BOULEVARD 
WEST HOLLYWOOD, CALIF. 



FOREIGN AGENCIES 



Cable Address "MITCAMCO" 

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rice 



25c 



May, 1935 

Published in Hollywood, 
by 

American Society of 
Cinematographers 



The Motion Picture CAMERA Magazine 






DUPONT NEGATIVE 

IS STILL THE FASTEST 
NEGATIVE FILM ON 
THE MARKET . . . . 

WE INVITE COMPARATIVE TESTS 
UNDER ANY CONDITIONS 



1 



PU PONT 



R t6. U.S.PAT. Off 



Du Pont Film Manufacturing Corporation 



35 WEST 45™ STREET 
NEW YORK CITY 



PLANT 



PARLIN, N. J. 



SMITH & ALLER LTD. 
6656 -SANTA MONICA BLVD. 
HOLLYWOOD, CAL. 



TRADE MARK HAS NEVER BEEN PLACED ON AN INFERIOR PRODUCT 



May 1935 • American Cinematographer 183 



AMERICAN 
CINEMATOGRAPHER 

A Technical and Educational publication 
of motion picture photography. 

Published monthly by the 
AMERICAN SOCIETY 
OF CINEMATOGRAPHERS, INC. 
6331 Hollywood Boulevard 
Hollywood, California 

Telephone GRanite 2135 

JOHN ARNOLD, President, A.S.C. 
FRED JACKMAN, Treasurer, A.S.C. 



Volume 16 MAY 1935 Number 5 

What to Read 

EASTMAN Super X Negative 
by Emery Huse, A.S.C, 

and Gordon A. Chambers. 186 

CORRECTIVE Makeup 

by Perc Westmore 188 

JOHN Arnold Starts Fifth Term as 

A.S.C. Head 189 

MOOD Must Predominate 

by James L. Fritz 190 

DON'T Show Them Everything 

by Harry Burdick 191 

GLOW Lamp Sensitometry 

by Glenn H. Dorsey 192 

SOME Fast "Pans" 193 

PHOTOGRAPHY of the Month ..194 



Next Month 

• The men who went with Byrd to the South 
Pole will tell you of their experiences . . 
tell you of their technical difficulties and other 
interesting phases of this unusual assignment. 

• Color is the talk of Hollywood. We will tell 
you what a cinematographer thinks of Techni- 
color: Ray Rennahan, who is responsible for the 
photography in practically all current Techni- 
color productions. 



ESTABLISHED 1918. Advertising Rates on application. 
Subscription: U.S. $2.50 a year; Canada $3.50 a year; 
Foreign $3.50 a year. Single copies 25c. Foreign 
single copies 35c. COPYRIGHT 1935 by American 
Society of Cinematographers, Inc. 




The Staff 

EDITOR 

Charles J. VerHalen 

TECHNICAL EDITOR 

Emery Huse, A. S. C. 

ASSOCIATES 

Walter Blanchard 
Karl Hale 
CIRCULATION MANAGER 

M. Miller 

ADVISORY 
EDITORIAL BOARD 

Victor Milner, A. S. C. 
James Van Trees, A. S. C. 
Fred Jackman, A. S. C. 
Farciot Edouart, A. S. C. 
Fred Gage, A. S. C. 
Dr. J. S. Watson, Jr., A. S. C. 
Dr. L. M. Dieterich, A. S. C. 
Dr. L. A. Jones, A. S. C. 
Dr. C. E. K. Mees, A. S. C. 
Dr. W. B. Rayton, A. S. C. 
Dr. Herbert Meyer, A. S. C. 
Dr. V. B. Sease, A. S. C. 



FOREIGN REPRESENTATIVES 

Georges Benoit, 1 00, Allee Franklin, 
Pavillions-sous-Bois. France. Seine. Tele- 
phone LeRaincy 13-19. 

NEW YORK REPRESENTATIVE 

S. R. Cowan, 19 East 47th St., New York 
City. Phone Plaza 3-0483. 



Neither rhe American Cinematographer nor 
the American Society of Cinematographers 
is responsible for statements made by au- 
thors. This magazine will not be responsible 
for unsolicited manuscripts. 



184 American Cinematographer • May 1935 



THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CINEMA- 
TOGRAPHERS was founded in 1918 for 
the purpose of bringing into closer con- 
federation and cooperation all those leaders in 
the cinematographic art and science whose 
aim is and ever will be to strive for pre-emi- 
nence in artistic perfection and technical mas- 
tery of this art and science. Its purpose is to 
further the artistic and scientific advancement 
of the cinema and its allied crafts through un- 
ceasing research and experimentation as well 
as through bringing the artists and the scien- 
tists of cinematography into more intimate 
fellowship. To this end its membership is com- 
posed of the outstanding cinematographers of 
the world with Associate and Honorary mem- 
berships bestowed upon those who, though not 
active cinematographers, are engaged none 
the less in kindred pursuits, and who have, by 
their achievements, contributed outstandingly 
to the progress of cinematography as an Art 
or as a Science. To further these lofty aims 
and to fittingly chronicle the progress of cine- 
matography, the Society's publication, The 
American Cinematographer, is dedicated. 



AMERICAN 
SOCIETY OF 
CINEMATOGRAPHERS 



OFFICERS 

JOHN ARNOLD 
VICTOR MILNER 
JAMES VAN TREES 
CHARLES LANG 
FRED JACKMAN 
FRANK B. GOOD 



President 
First Vice-President 
Second Vice-President 
Third Vice-President 
Treasurer 
Secretary 



BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

John Arnold Frank Good 

John W. Boyle Fred Jackman 

Dan Clark R ay j une 

Elmer Dyer Charles B. Lang, Jr. 

Arthur Edeson Victor Milner 

George Folsey Joseph Walker 

Alfred Gilks James Van Trees 
Vernon L. Walker 

Frederick L. Kiev, Executive Business Manager 



Hal Mohr 
Homer Scott 
John F. Seitz 
Daniel B. Clark 



PAST PRESIDENTS 

Philip E. Rosen 
Gaetano Gaudio 
James Van Trees 
John W. Boyle 

Fred W. Jackman 

HONORARY MEMBERS 

Mr. Albert S. Howell 
Mr. Edward O. Blackburn 
Mr. George A. Mitchell 



PUBLIC RELATIONS COMMITTEE 

John Arnold 

Joseph Ruttenberg, New York City 
Charles Bell. St. Paul, Minn. 
Charles J. Davis, Washington, D. C. 
Georges Benoit, Paris, France 
Alvin Wyckoff, Mexico City 
John W. Boyle, London, England 
Ariel Varges, Tokyo, Japan 
Edwin L. Dyer, Detroit, Mich. 
Charles W. Herbert, New York City 
Lloyd Knechtel, London, England 
John Dored, Paris, France 
Paul Perry, Manila, P. I. 
Max B. DuPont, Papeete, Tahiti 
Philip M. Chancellor 



MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE 

George Folsey 
Alfred Gilks 
Bert Longworth 



Dan Clark 
Wm. C. Mellor 
Fred Terzo 



ENTERTAINMENT COMMITTEE 

Elmer Dyer 
Charles B. Lang, Jr. 

Arthur Edeson 



Frank B. Good 
Vernon Walker 



RESEARCH COMMITTEF 

Victor Milner, George A. Mitchell, Dr. Herbert 
Meyer, John Arnold, Farciot Edouart, 
Emery Huse, Dr. L. M. Dietrich 



WELFARE COMMITTEt 

Ray June 



James Van Trees 



Fred W. Jackman 



CENERAL COUNSEL 

Arthur C. Webb 









**%>. ... .. . 

Actual Enlargement From a 35MM. Movie Frt 

JJDIENCES don't know much about 
fine-grain negative — but it's one of the 
things that make them say," What splendid pho- 
tography!" Agfa's new, improved SUPERPAN 
possesses fineness of grain that is an outstand- 
ing achievement in film manufacture. Made by 
Agfa Anseo Corporation in Binghamton, N. Y. 

C. KING CHARNEY, Distributor 

HOLLYWOOD NEW YORK 

6372 Santa Monica Blvd. 245 West 55th Street 

Tel. Hollywood 2918-2919 Tel. Circle 7-4635 



3 5 mm. NEGA 71 VE A ND 



186 American Cinematographer • May 1935 



Oc*elop*n D-7t 

1. Sup«r-»nalUT* 8.8 olnut- 

2. Super 1 12.7 nlnut 




r.87 T.17 J.*7 2.77 T.07~ T.37 T.67 T.97 



Developert D-76 



2. Super X 




o 1 






> 2 


—J V 

/ 1 






P / 1 
.ff 1 
✓ I 
1 

Development Tl 

L ... 1 II .1 


' In Minutes 
I I 


1 



Fig. 1 



Fig. 2 



Eastman Super X Panchromatic 

Negative M otion 



by 

Emery Huse, A.S.C. and Gordon A. Chambers 

West Coast Division 

Motion Picture Film Deportment 

Eastman Kodak Company. 



Picture Fi 



m 



PHOTOGRAPHY is the very foundation upon which 
the motion picture industry is built. Undoubtedly the 
most important product in photography is the nega- 
tive film with which the various scenes are photographed. 
In accordance with the general policy of improving its 
products, the Eastman Kodak Company very recently placed 
on the market a new panchromatic motion picture negative 
ilm under the trade name "Eastman Super X Panchromatic 
Negative." 

This new film upon laboratory tests shows a definite 
speed increase over other types of negative products with- 
out showing an increase in graininess. Actual camera tests 
have borne out these facts. Probably the first practical use 
to which this film was put was at the recent Hauptman 
trial at Flemington, New Jersey, where most of the court- 
room action was photographed with this film. The speed of 
this emulsion was of material assistance to the news cam- 
eramen in obtaining adequate exposure under adverse 
lighting conditions. From the standpoint of general motion 
picture production it is felt this film will be extremely use- 
ful, particularly in background projection and miniature 
work where high speed emulsions are required. It should 
also prove its worth in normal production photography. 

Samples of this film have been generally distributed lo- 
cally and a summary of all reports received to date from 
those testing it substantiates the superior qualities of this 
film. It is the purpose of this short article to outline some- 
what statistically the technical features concerning this 
new Eastman Super X Panchromatic Negative motion pic- 
ture film. 

A complete analytical study of the characteristics of 
this film was made sensitometrically in comparison with all 
types of motion picture negative films, including hyper- 
sensitized film. In the direct comparison this paper will 
contain data only for Eastman Super X and Super-Sensi- 
tive negatives and it must not be construed that the latter 
is in any sense of the word an inferior negative. It is our 
belief, however, that the characteristics of the Super X 
negative indicate some definitely superior photographic 



qualities. The two main features of this new film which 
readily distisnguish it from all other motion picture nega- 
tive emulsions now on the market are its speed and devel- 
opment factors. These two factors when properly balanced 
in exposure and development make for very excellent 
photographic screen quality. 

The sensitometric analyses on these emulsions were 
made following the orthodox procedure. All sensitometric 
exposures were made on the Eastman Type 1 lb sensitometer 
using both the normal negative setup, in which instance the 
quality of the light source is that of daylight, and also a 
special negative setup in which the quality is that of high 
efficiency tungsten. For each emulsion several strips were 
exposed under each condition. Likewise for each emulsion 
strips were developed for a series of times ranging from 4 
to 20 minutes, using a borax (D-76) type of developer. 
From a series of tests thus exposed and developed a family 
of H and D curves was constructed from which it was then 
possible to determine the time-gamma curve. From this 
curve the necessary development data were deduced. 

In any comparison of negative type emulsions it is log- 
ical to consider as important those tests developed to equal 
and normal negative control gammas. This by no means 
implies that the development time is constant or the same 
because each type of negative film usually differs in its 
development characteristics. In Figure 1 are shown two 
sensitometric curves, one each for Super-sensitive and Su- 
per X negatives. These curves are shown for the same 
gamma, that is, .68, and represent actual experimental 
data. While an analysis of the tests made with the day- 
light and tungsten setups shows some difference, it is not 
necessary here to make any distinction between these two 
modes of exposure. The curves in Figure \, therefore, are 
quite representative of the speed at equal gamrros between 
these two emulsions when developed in a borax type de- 
veloper. As these curves are plotted on the same axes, the 
displacement of one curve from the other gives a definite 
indication of the speed ratio between them. In this in- 
stance there is approximately a 90% speed increase shown 



May 1935 • American Cinematographer 187 




for the Super X negative over the Super-sensitive. Before 
leaving this point we should like to reiterate that inasmuch 
as the Super X negative is of an inherently lower contrast 
than Super-sensitive, it stands to reason that the develop- 
ment time on the new film should be longer than that on 
the Super-sensitive. A fair comparison of speed between 
any two emulsions can only be made when both emulsions 
are developed to the same gamma. If the Super X nega- 
tive is developed for the same time as Super-sensitive it 
will be relatively under developed and sensitomtrically it 
would show an appreciably lower gamma. It is not to be 
expected, therefore, that the speed differential quoted 
above would hold for a condition of equal development 
times but it will be found to hold provided each emulsion 
is developed to the same gamma irrespective of the times 
of development required to do this. This is definitely proven 
by the data contained in Figure 1 . 

The times of development necessary to produce curves 
of equal gamma on each type of film are indicated in Fig- 
ure 2. It will be observed that in general the development 
characteristic of the Super X negative is quite different 
from that of Super-sensitive. Although by the mode of 
development employed in these tests a difference of ap- 
proximately 4 minutes was found necessary, it does not 
imply that this same time ratio would hold in different 
types of developing machines or with different negative 
formulas. Practically every motion picture laboratory 
makes use of a borax type formula but the standard D-76 
formula is somewhat modified to satisfy the requirements 
of the different types of developing machines. Tests made 
at various laboratories show that the Super X negative re- 
quires from 1 '/2 to 3 minutes more development time than 
the Super-sensitive to obtain the same gamma. It is quite 
well known that any pair of negative emulsions will show 
slight differences in both speed and development ratios, 
dependent upon the actual developer formula and develop- 
ing machine employed. 

Another point which is very necessary to establish is 
that of graininess. One normally has the right to expect 
that with higher speed emulsions, larger grain size occurs. 
In the case of Super X film, however, this is not the case. 
In Figure 3 are shown photomicrograms of the two types 
of film, the originals of which were made at 435X 



magnification from areas of equal densities on the two 
films each developed to the same gamma. A careful analy- 
sis of the two photomicrograms shows the Super X negative 
quite similar to Super-sensitive, although many observers 
have picked the Super X negative as showing slightly finer 
grain than the Super-sensitive. The difference between 
them, however, is quite small and probably is discernible 
on the screen only upon careful examination. The main 
point to establish, however, is the fact that the Super X 
negative, although approximately twice the speed of Super- 
sensitive at the same gamma, does not show any increase 
in grain size. This is one feature in which the Super X film 
is an outstanding product. 

(Continued on Page 196) 



Fig. 4 



Wedge Spectrograms 




















Super-sensitive 














Super X 



188 American Cinematographer • May 1935 




Corrective Makeup 
As an Aid to 
Cinematography 



by 

Perc Westmore 

President, Motion Picture Makeup Artists' Association, 
Director of Makeup, Warner Brothers'-First 

National Studios 



EVER since the first crank turned, cinematographers 
and Makeup Artists have been comparing makeup 
to retouching in 'still' portraiture. The comparison 
is a good one, but we've made it inaccurate: in retouching, 
both the contour and the texture of the facial areas are 
rendered more pleasing; in conventional makeup, we deal 
almost exclusively with complexion and texture, leaving the 
modelling of objectionable contours almost entirely to the 
cinematographer and his lights. That is all well enough, 
for cinematographers can, by painting with light and shade, 
modify facial contours, accentuating good features and 
concealing or minimizing bad ones, to a remarkable ex- 
tent. But since makeup can, as has been proven, aid the 
cinematographer in modifying facial textures, would it not 
be even better for the makeup artist to aid him even more 
by correcting objectionable contours? 

We have answered the question with a vigorous af- 



firmative. Within the past year, we have put into practice 
at the Warner Brothers' studios a new system of makeup 
which we call "Corrective Makeup." With it, we have 
been able to simplify the work of the cinematographer, and 
to greatly enhance the facial attractiveness of our stars. 
In some instances, we have virtually remodelled famous 
faces; in others, we have, so to speak, salvaged budding 
starlets from the obscurity which often waits for players 
— however promising — who "don't photograph well." 

We simply apply to makeup the same basic principles 
by which cinematograhers model faces with lighting: high- 
lighting places that are undesirably recessed or concave, 
shadowing unpleasant protuberances. This is not done with 
liners or obvious tricks of coloration, but by carefully- 
planned use of different shades of regular grease-paint. 

Perhaps the best illustration of the method would be 
to follow the course of treatment given to a new playei 
before she starts her first production on our lot. First of 
all, we study the player's face, as well as her portraits, in 
order to get a preliminary idea of the corrections we are 
to make. Next, we find out what type of makeup she 
has previously worn, and determine what is to be the basic 
shade of her new makeup. 

At this point, the creative part of corrective makeup 
begins. Let us say that the lady has a face that is too 
round and full for our purpose, especially around the cheeks 
and chin; her nose is rather broad and flat; her lips are 
larger than we care for; her chin shows a pronounced dim- 
ple, and there are little hollows at the corner of her mouth 
which detract from the youthful effect. In addition, her 
eyes are so blue that they will appear 'washed out' on the 
screen. 

Point No. 1 is, of course, to slenderize her face. This 
is done by using grease-paint several shades darker than 
the base makeup, and applying it at the hair-line, and 
under the chin — exactly as a good cinematographer would 
strive to maintain shadows in these same areas. Suppose 
the basic shade is a No. 25 grease-paint: these shadows 
might be painted with No. 29. The broad nose would be 
thinned by highlighting the ridge with a lighter paint — 
say No. 22 — and shadowing the walls of the nose with a 
darker shade — perhaps No. 27. 

The lips, of course, would be remolded by applying 
lip-rouge to the desired shape and size, and extending the 
ground color to meet the new lip-line. 

The dimple, and the hollows at the corners of the 
mouth, would be lightened by using a grease-paint lighter 
than the basic ground shade — let us say No. 23. 

The eyes, in addition to being accentuated in much the 
usual manner, would be darkened by placing a spot of red 
in the corners, where it would cause little dark catch- 
lights in the iris. In this connection, it may be interesting 
to note that natural eyebrows are the rule at our studio; 
plucked eyebrows are strictly taboo, not only because of 
their unnatural appearance, but because of their effect 
on the lines and contours of the face. 

Once this makeup has been evolved, a detailed sketch 
of the player's face is made, indicating exactly the areas 
treated correctively, and specifying the exact shades used 
in each place, as well as the basic makeup shade. This is 
given a "Case Number," exactly as a doctor might enu- 
merate his patients, and filed, together with a photograph 
of the corrective makeup, in the Makeup Department's 
files. 

It should be understood, of course, that these correc- 
tive makeups are rigidly adhered to, and that they are ap- 
plied, not by the player herself, but by the studio's makeup 

(Continued on Page 198) 



May 1935 



• American Cinematographer 189 



John Arnold 
Starts Fifth Term 
As A.S.C. Head 



I N AN unparalleled tribute to the leadership which for 

four years guided the organization through its most 
I trying and change-filled period, John Arnold was unani- 
mously re-elected President of the American Society of 
Cinematographers at the Society's annual election, and 
launched upon his fifth successive term as the organiza- 
tion's Chief Executive. 

Victor Milner was re-elected First Vice - President; 
James C. Van Trees became Second Vice-President, and 
Charles B. Lang, Jr., Third Vice-President. Fred W. Jack- 
man was elected Treasurer of the Society, and Frank B. 
Good retained the office of Secretary. Of these, both Van 
Trees and Jackman are former Presidents of the Organ- 
ization. John W. Boyle, Elmer G. Dyer, A. L. Gi Iks, Charles 
Lang and Joseph Walker were elected to serve three-year 
terms as members of the Board of Governors. 

Commenting upon his re-election, President Arnold 
said, "I hardly need to say that I feel highly honored 
by this expression of confidence in my administration: 
such a tribute is not lightly to be forgotten. But it is far 
too impressive to be taken in a purely personal sense; 
rather, it is an expression of confidence in the sincerity 
and integrity of the Administration as a whole. What we 
have thus far been able to accomplish has not been due 
to the efforts of any one man, or of two or three, but to 
the concerted and unwavering loyalty and unstinted labor 
of the entire board. Due to this spirit of unity, we have 
been able to accomplish much in the past, and with it, 
we are sure to achieve even more in the future. 

"The year just past has been a period of reorganiza- 
tion, of cementing the foundations previously laid. A year 
ago, we were just completing an unparalleled expansion 
of the Society's membership and activities. Since then, 
we have striven to consolidate our gains — to mould our 
organization into the form best suited to its purpose of 
serving cameramen, individually and collectively. In this, 
we have exceeded our fondest hopes, for the A.S.C. now 
stands as a monument to the ideal that the relations be- 
tween Cinematographers and Producers can be maintained 
on a basis of harmony and fair-play. We have made this 
ideal an actual fact whose existence has directly benefited 
every member of the camera profession. Viewed collectively, 
the working conditions of Cinematographers are better 
today than they have ever before been; employment is 
attaining higher peaks, with more work for more men more 



John 
Arnold, 

A.S.C. 




consistently. Fewer restrictions hedge the members of 
our craft, and many detailed improvements are noticeable, 
affecting every group and classification. 

"Moreover, innumerable individual benefits have ac- 
crued. These have not been proclaimed with a fanfare 
of publicity, but the concrete results of the cooperation 
now existing between the Society and the Producers have 
been manifested repeatedly. 

"My platform for the future remains exactly as it was 
five years ago: I pledge myself and my associates to bend 
every effort for the betterment of Cameramen. We dedi- 
cate ourselves to advancing the interests of our craft, ad- 
hering always to the ideals of loyalty, sincerity and justice 
which have thus far crowned our labors with such success. 
No member of the administration receives any remunera- 
tion for his services; and we refuse to tolerate the use of 
any office in the Society for personal gain or advancement. 

"The period of expansion and reorganization is largely 
over. The future holds steadily increasing promise for the 
A.S.C. and its members. The work of the Board, the Offi- 
cers and the Executive Committee for the economic benefit 
of the members is now thoroughly understood, and pro- 
ceeding with perfect precision. The cultural and social 
activities of the Society are being resumed with increased 
energy, for we have no intention of losing sight of the 
importance of keeping our members abreast of the pro- 
fessional and technical advances of the day. The Ameri- 
can Society of Cinematographers has always been first to 
investigate every new development, and to afford to its 
members the latest and most authentic information on 
all such advances, and it will continue to do so. 

"It has never been my way, however, to otfer words 
where actions are more eloquent: therefore, I say, as I 
said when I first took office, that my administration will 
speak with results — not promises. Results are the criterion 

(Continued on Page 199) 



190 American Cinematographer • May 1935 




Ray June, A.S.C. 

Mood Must 
Be Predominating 
Effect Says June 

by 

James L. Fritz 

Formerly Dramatic Editor St. Louis Post-Dispatch 
and New York Daily News 



WHEN trying to discover the one quality which Ray 
June strives to inject into his work, we must take 
into consideration that June does not look to any 
one effect, but to all of the vitalic qualities which go to 
making the product of the present day cinematographer 
a thing of beauty and perfection. On the other hand, 
June tells us that although he constantly strives for all of 
these qualities, it is the mood to which he gives particular 
attention. Because, when the cinematographer succeeds in 
transplanting his feelira of the mood of the subject, he 
then automatically sucrspds in nrjiecting these other qual- 
ities onto that thin strip of celluloid, which becomes a re- 
production of life in the theater. 

To obtain the proper mood of any story or subject, the 
cinematographer must first understand and obtain the co- 
incidence of lighting and the blending of shadows with the 
true perspective of the story and subject. It is for this 
reason that Ray June prefers to work on musical comedies 



and light melodramas. In these types of productions, 
the cinematographer is allowed a greater scope in his in- 
terpretations of moods. The undercurrent and mood of 
the subjects are ever-changing, and the fast moving trend 
of the story told in these pictures, never allows the subject 
to lapse into a dull, drab monotone. 

When striving constantly for the proper mood, June 
believes that the cinematographer cannot escape humanism 
in his work. The bleakness of loneliness is not to be en- 
dured in motion pictures. If man is absent in the subject, 
then consciousness and life are there, somehow. If the 
idiom of today has been utilized, we may all read in our 
common language, an unblurred message in every cinemat- 
ographic interpretation. There is no reason why this should 
not appeal to the masses. In the tastes of the many, is 
a fund of detail, suitable for expression as any subject 
which could be conjured in the mind. Detail, it is true, 
is valuable to remind us that we walk upon the soil; but 
the real true greatness resides in unrelated detail. Here, 
the cinematographer shows his greatest ability in creating 
originality. 

Originality in a cinematographic product is not only 
necessary and vital, but it is stimulating to the minds of 
the audience. It is because of originality in the interpreta- 
tion of the moods of the story and subject, that the cine- 
matographer and motion pictures have risen to the category 
of masters who create masterpieces of beauty, entertain- 
ment, and vitality. Oriainality should not seem impossible. 
It is a basic need to the furtherance of motion pictures. 
Only the creative mind with suoerlative technioue. can 
make an ordinary idea seem vivid and fresh. A mass of 
buttons or a few areasv coa-wheels could scarcely be 
termed as subiects which afford a great amount of oria- 
inality. yet. oriainality in the treatment of these subjects 
cannot only make them interesting, but a vital thina to 
the endurance of the sub'ect. Originality obtained throuah 
the DroDer interpretation of the mood, may be enaendered 
by dissiDatinq the fantasms of imaginativeness, criticism 
and comDosition to a vitalic interest. 

Another point in the obtainance of originality and the 
interpretation of the mood, is the understanding of rhythm. 
Rhythm in cinematography is as necessary as rhythm in 
music. After the cinematographer has developed a sense 
of it, he feels the sway, the movement and the pulsations 
that run as an undercurrent in the story. It may be the 
honey-sweet swayina of a Chooin waltz, or it may have 
the stirring auality of a Mendelssohn composition and then 
there may be the hard sophisticated crash of jazz, but 
whatever the rhythm contained in the story and subject, 
the understanding and feel of it, on the part of the cinema- 
tographer, is vital to the true interpretation of the mood. 

Even the weak and trivial subjects have interests and 
values that the traditional arts leave untouched. Music 
alone, has heretofore represented movement through time, 
but the motion picture synthesizes movement through both 
time and space and the very fact that it can co-ordinate 
visual images, with sound, and releases both of these ele- 
ments from the boundaries of apparent space and a fixed 
location, it contributes something to our picture of the 
world, not given completely in direct experience. June tells 
us that the cinematographer, by utilizing his daily exper- 
ience of motion, can re-create a symbolic form, a world 
that is otherwise beyond the direct perception or grasp. 
Without any conscious notion of its destination, the product 
of the cinematographer presents us with a world of inter- 
penetrating, counter-influencing organisms; and it enables 

(Continued on Page 198) 



Don't Show 
Them Everything 

. . . Is Arthur Miller's 
Policy 

by 

Harry Burdick 

WHILE Arthur Miller was lensing his current cine- 
matographic work "Black Sheep," a singular cir- 
cumstance interrupted the smooth, rapid flow of 
scenes from stage to film. The immediate and ingenious 
solution is an illuminating instance of the cinematographer's 
far-extending contribution to contemporary motion pic- 
ture production, based on his deep-seated knowledge of 
the mechanics of his profession. 

Most of the footage comprising this screen offering 
depicts action aboard an ocean liner at sea. Studio sets 
were used, of course. One scene called for an extreme 
long shot embracing the ship's promenade deck, two hun- 
dred and twenty feet in length. 

The lighting demands were interesting. All light must 
enter from one side, simulating the brilliance of reflections 
from the water. With the camera ready to grind, it was 
abruptly realized that a ship plowing through sea has a 
natural roll. How to achieve this effect? The set was 
built on the solid studio floor. Rocking the camera didn't 
answer. 

So Miller dug down in his bag of light legerdemain. 
He had no top lighting; it was all side lighting. He mounted 
his lights on hastily constructed see-saw devices. A small 
army of electricians was recruited. They pushed down in 
unison. The lights were elevated. Releasing their pres- 
sure, the lights descended. Against the scene's entire two 
hundred and twenty feet the light rose and fell with 
rhythmic regularity — and for all the world, that ship was 
gently rolling against the sea's mirrored glitter. 

Further display of Miller's resourcefulness emanating 
from his thorough comprehension of cinematographic tech- 
nicalities was manifest during the shooting of his "White 
Parade," one of last year's outstanding photographic suc- 
cesses. A scene included the hospital nursery containing 
fourteen practically brand-new babies, each but forty-eight 
hours of age. Strong light is not for eyes of so brief ex- 
istence. 

Miller went into a close huddle with his laboratory chief. 
Then he lighted the scene in a very low key, the labora- 
tory forced development of the negative and on the screen 
it appeared bathed in light. Nary an infant blinked or 
squinted. 

Out of Miller's quarter-century experience with motion 
picture cameras, he has evolved a definite philosophy of 



May 1935 • American Cinematographer 191 




Arthur Milter, A S C 



cinematography. The advent of sound strengthened it. 
Voltaire wrote, "The secret of wearying your reader is to 
tell him everything." Miller paraphrases it, "The secret 
of wearying your audience is to show him everything." 

He is ever acutely aware that audiences have imagina- 
tion. He plays to that mass imagination. Never is his 
screen crammed with vivid detailed depiction. He reveals 
just enough, not a fraction more — and makes the audience 
put its imagination into play. 

Nowadays, he feels, the audience sees and hears every- 
thing that a projectionist can toss into the theater. It be- 
comes satiated with the fullness of the fare. Nothing re- 
mains but for the audience to sit there and take it. 

Miller might be termed a repressionist, for he has mas- 
tered that most difficult of all arts — the beauty, dignity 
and cultured charm of leaving things untold and of know- 
ing what things to leave untold. It takes courage to stop, 
just in time. It requires utter confidence in the adequacy of 
one's vehicle of expression to avoid the so-common trait of 
redundance. 

Besides, Miller believes the audience enjoys exercising 
its imagination — of attributing to characters on the screen 
qualities of its own preference. 

Miller subscribes to the creed that men and women, and 
children, too, go into motion picture exhibition halls to 
escape from themselves. They seek entertainment in the 
land of make-believe for an hour or two. So he strives, de- 
liberately and with malice aforethought, to cause them 
imaginatively to participate in the actions screened before 
their vision. 

He wants them to imagine themselves in the hero's or 
the heroine's position and to experience within themselves 
the drama that unfolds. He fails of this purpose, he avers, 
if he engraves on the screen a cold-cut, sharp-edged scene 
so ample in detail that nothing remains for the audience 
but to gaze with stifled imagination. Remembering always 
there is a sound track bearing dialogue that fills every 
crevice not already covered. 

He believes that despite the pushed-back horizons 
which sound has introduced in picture production it is pri- 

( Continued on Page 200) 



192 American Cinematographer • May 1935 




Glow-Lamp 
Sensitometry 



by 

Glenn H. Dorsey 

Engineer, Hollywood Motion Picture Equipment Co., Ltd. 



IN SEARCHING for some way to make it easier for the 
small laboratories to process glow-lamp recording, we 
have settled on the expedient of using the glow-lamp 
itself to print the sensitometric strip. The method is ex- 
tremely simple and requires no extra equipment other than 
the densitometer which is part of every laboratory. We 
will even show how that over-all gamma may be checked 
by those laboratories whose equipment does not even in- 
clude a densitometer. 

Countless measurements and experiments extending over 
a period of several months have proved to us conclusively 
that the high voltage glow-lamps which we use and supply 
with our sound recording equipment have a iight intensity 
versus current curve which is absolutely linear. That is to 
say doubling the milliamperes of current thru the glow- 
lamp will exactly double the light intensity emitted by it. 
Now that this important fact has been established ana 
proved, we will show how it can be used to make the sen- 
sitometric strip. 

A short review of the sensitometer as built by Eastman 
Kodak Company is now in order. This is a machine con- 
taining a light source and revolving drum type shutter. 
When the shutter is tripped it makes one revolution, expos- 
ing the film thru this drum shutter which has graduated 
steps cut in it. Each step printed is exposed 1.41 (or \/2) 
times as long as the preceding lighter one. Every other 
step is therefore exposed twice as long as the second one 
preceding it. When this strip is developed and the density 
of each step plotted on graduated paper, the gamma of 
that batch of emulsion in that particular developer soup at 
the same time, temperature, and agitation is availab'e. 
Please note — only that emulsion in that same developer 
or strength developer with the same time, temperature, 
and agitation. In the Hollywood laboratories it is the usual 



practice to print a sensitometric strip on the end of each 
roll of sound track negative. 

Now we take our glow-lamp recorder and make short 
pieces of unmodulated film. One at 5 mils, one at 7 mils 
(7.05 mils is 1.41x5), 10 mils, 14.1 mils, and 20 mils. 
The next steps would be 28.2 and 40 mils, but they are 
beyond the range of the usual 25 MA meter used on re- 
cording amplifiers. This film you develop at the standard 
time, temperature, and etc. used at your laboratory for 
developing sound track negative. The density of each 
piece of track is then measured on a densitometer. It is 
best to make several readings on each test piece and to 
strike an average for that piece. 

In the absence of regular sensitometric printed paper 
any square ruled paper may be used. Say the paper you 
have is ruled in '/2-inch squares. Starting from the bottom 
of the paper each square will be .10 points of density, 
running from to 1 .00 at 5 inches from the bottom. Along 
the bottom of the paper mark off every 1 Vz squares or 
every % inch. 

The measured densities of the test film are next plotted 
against the log of the exposure. And since each step of 
our exposure is a/ 2 times the preceding one, eliminating 
the necessity of using log tables, our exposure steps will 
each fall the same distance apart along the base, at the 
%-inch intervals. Our series of points should fall like 
those in the illustration marked "B." Note that the lower 
two points are flattening out, showing the "toe," or region 
of underexposure of the film. Notice how this toe corres- 
ponds to that on curve "A," made from a regular sensi- 
tometric strip printed on the same piece of film. If a 
straight line is drawn thru the upper part of the series, 
we get a curve representing the gamma or contrast of this 
film and developer. Continue this line across the paper 
and count the squares height of the triangle for a base 
length of 10 squares, or 5 inches. The height of this 
triangle is the direct value gamma of this test. 

Gamma is defined as the resultant density range di- 
vided by the log of the exposure range. It could also be 
expressed as the tangent of the angle the straight line 
portion forms with the base line. Reduced to simple gram- 
mar, it is the mathematical expression for the film contrast 
obtained from a scale of given exposures in a given devel- 
oper. 

If short pieces of these tests are spliced together, 
printed at a constant printer light, and then developed at 
your standard print time and temperature, the transmission 
percentages of the print should match the original expos- 
ures. That is to say, every other step should pass twice 
as much light as the second one preceding it for an over- 
all gamma of 1.00. The standard Hollywood practice is 
to have an over-all gamma of from 1.05 to 1.10, to allow 
for printer and projector losses. 

Normally in glow-lamp recording the 5 mil unmod- 
ulated track is developed to 50% transmission, or .30 
density. If gamma tests show that the negative must be 
developed to a gamma higher than .70 to reach this dens- 
ity, one of two things is at fault. The glow tube may be 
losing its actinic light emission. When viewed in subdued 
light its color should be pure blue, a pink or reddish cast 
denotes old age or abuse. Examination of the end of the 
tube in sunlight may show a yellow tinge on the tip, this 
shows that the tube has been used at current densities of 
20 mils or over, sputtering the electrodes onto the glass. 
This yellow tinge acts as a yellow filter in front of the 
blue glow-light, cutting its output of actinic light as much 
as 80% in some cases. Or, if the glow-lamp appears in 

(Continued on Page 196) 



May 1935 • American Cinematographer 193 




SOME 

FAST "PANS 



"Weep No More!" 

• M.G.M. furnishes its camera crankers with a very charm- 
ing wailing wall in the person of Miss H. Gosson, secretary 
to Johnny Arnold. Since she took over the duty of lending 
her shapely shoulders to woeful winders of de ole black 
box, she has listened to over 500 confidential tales of woe. 
She gets an average of three a day. Len Smith has the best 
score to date. He has seen her every day for the past 9 
months. (Mayb it's heart trouble.) 

"The Lemon King" 

• The best time to plant lemon trees is in a very hard 
rain. We can be sure of it, because Art Todd is an author- 
ity on lemons. (For those who don't know what a lemon 
is . . . It is the citrus fruit with that yellow peel you find 
in high-balls) . . . We met Art on the set and asked him 
how he liked the rainy spell. 

"Just fine," he sniveled, "I spedt da whole timb out on 
by ranch blanting lebon trees," he grinned at us and nodded 
happily. "Yes, sir, I had da bes' timb ... I blanted biles 
ad biles ad biles of lebon trees" . . . We left Art before 
he could get enough wind to go on (the old adage that 
camera men don't have to be crazy . . . but it helps, 
seems to be proving out.) 

"Won't- You Sit Down, Tony?" 

• AS SOON as Tony Gaudio finishes the last shot on his 
current picture for Warner Bros., he is going to visit friends 
in Texas where he will do a little plain and fancy bronco 
bustin' . . . well, at least he is going to learn to ride a 
horse. 

"Maybe It's News" 

• Flash . . . Stockholm, Sweden . . . Aktb., Svenek Fil- 
industri (you pronounce it ... I wonder how the proof 
reader is going to know if this is spelled right) has just 
erected its thirteenth cinema house. The gigantic struc- 
ture will accommodate 800 people . . . (imagine that) 
and it is the largest theater in Stockholm, (so you see, not 
that it matters, but they have press agents in Sweden.).... 

"Local Boy Makes Good" 

• FRANK BURGESS proved to those who would be inter- 
ested that he has the makin's of a 'tops' film feeder, when 
he received an honorary membership to the 8mm Club on 
the merit of a super colossal 8mm (Mammoth Movie) he 
recently ground out . . . The Tiny Tintype is veddy veddy 
original in its composition, and Frankie deserves lotsa Con- 
grats ... A tip to the 'ole' Acd'y Moom Pitcher Arts 
Etc . . . Better brush off 'dat ole Award' for little Frankie 
in 1935 . . . 

"Don't Tell Mrs. Cinematographer" 

• OLLIE MARSH looks just too, too sweet in his pink bung- 
alow apron. His wife, who has been very ill for the past 
several days (we're really sorry, Ollie) has been unable to 
leave her bed, so our hero has been playing nurse-maid to 
the *wo children, learned to cook, and tells us that if his 



flutter half is incapacitated much longer, he will have be- 
come a proficient seamstress and will develop house-maid's 
knee. 

"Hair, Hair!" 

• HAROLD MARZORATI is hairing all sorts of ribs these 
beautiful days . . . (the Chamber of Commerce gave me 
five bucks to say that) . It seems that Harold purchased 
a new brand of hair tonic which had directions advising use 
every three hours . . . well, Harold, who is a stickler for 
directions, forgot where he was and pulled the bottle out 
while on the set and began dousing his slightly bald head 
. . . now he's losing more hair worrying about how he's 
ever going to live it down. 

"The Van Trees Are a Bit Puffed Up" 

• JIM VAN TREES, the elder, caught the one that didn't 
get away ... he is proudly showing friends a snap-shot 
of a 28 Vz -inch steel head trout which he caught last week 
end in the Sespe ... (we have the picture . . . Ha, 
Ha) and Jim, Jr., is showing the same friends a picture of 
a male bundle from heaven with which his income tax ex- 
emption presented him. You can't tell which of the Jims is 

(Continued on Page 201 ) 



lames L. Van Trees, Director of Photography, 
member of the American Society of Cinematog- 
raphers and fisherman extraordinary. 




194 American Cinematographer • May 1935 




7M 



PHOTOGRAPHY 



"CHASING YESTERDAY" (Radio) 

Lucien Andriot, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 

Hollywood Reporter (March 21, 19351: "For its good 
points the picture has unusually fine photography by 
Lucien Andriot ." 

Daily Variety (March 21, 1935): "Meritorious contribu- 
tions are also made by Lucien Andriot's appropriate 
photography ." 

"A NIGHT AT THE RITZ" (Warners) 
James Van Trees, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (March 22, 1935): "Photography is 
okay." 

Daily Variety (March 22, 1935): "Picture has been well 
photographed ." 

"DEATH FLIES EAST" (Columbia) 

Al Siegler, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 

Hollywood Reporter (March 22, 1935): " and Sieg- 

ler's photography is good." 

"STAR OF MIDNIGHT" (RKO) 

J. Roy Hunt, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 

Daily Variety (March 25, 1935) : "Photography of J. Roy 

Hunt is excellent." 
Hollywood Reporter (March 25, 1935): "Photography is 

first class." 

"IT'S A SMALL WORLD" (Fox) 
Arthur Miller, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Daily Variety (March 25, 1935) : "Arthur Miller's photog- 
raphy is especially well adapted to the type of ma- 
terial." 

Hollywood Reporter (March 25, 1935): "Photography is 
well abreast of the picture's requirements." 

"STOLEN HARMONY" (Paramount) 

Harry Fischbeck, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 

Daily Variety (March 26, 1935): "Photography of Harry 

Fischbeck is exceptionally good." 
Hollywood Reporter (March 30, 1935): "Photography 

generally is good with some tricky dissolves that really 

help the action." 

"LES MISERABLES" (United Artists) 
Gregg Toland, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (March 30, 1935): "This effect is 
further carried out by the exquisite photography by 
Gregg Toland. He has captured each moment as 
though it were a painting in movement and his close- 
ups are portrait-like." 
Daily Variety (March 30, 1935) : "Gregg Toland's pho- 
tography is cef exceptional merit. He uses the camera 
intelligently and in some episodes with positive inspira- 
tion to emphasize the spiritual phases of the drama." 



of the MONTH 



"RECKLESS' (M-G-M) 

George Folsey, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (April 1, 1935): "The photography 

by George Folsey is beautiful." 
Daily Variety (April 1, 1935): "Photography of George 

Folsey is excellent." 

"THE HOOSIER SCHOOLMASTER" (Monogram) 
Harry Neumann, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (April 2, 1935): "Harry Neumann's 
photography will make any part of 'The Hoosier School- 
master' easy to watch." 
Daily Variety (April 2, 1935) : "Harry Neumann has done 

a top-notch job with his camera." 
Film Daily (April 9, 1935) : Photography "Very good." 

"THE FLORENTINE DAGGER" (Warner Bros.) 
Arthur Todd, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Daily Variety (April 5, 1935) : "Arthur Todd handles his 
camera effectively." 

"SPRING TONIC" (Fox) 

L. W. O'Connell, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Daily Variety (April 5, 1935) : "Photography is okay." 

"THE UNWELCOME STRANGER" 
John Stumor, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (April 8, 1935): "Photography is 
good." 

Daily Variety (April 12, 1935): "John Stumar has con- 
tributed some corking good photography, particular!/ 
the shots of Searl astride a fast-moving horse." 

"PARTY WIRE" (Columbia) 
Al Siegler, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (April 11, 1935): "Al Siegler's pho- 
tography is gorgeous." 
Daily Variety (April 1 1, 1935) : "Photography is good." 

"THE CASE OF THE CURIOUS BRIDE" (Warner Bros.) 
Dave Abel, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Daily Variety (April 12, 1935): "Dave Abel has done a 
good job with the camera." 

"DOUBTING THOMAS" (Fox) 

Joseph Valentine, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Daily Variety (April 12, 1935) : "Photography is standard." 

"EIGHT BELLS" (Columbia) 

Joseph Walker, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (April 12, 1935): "Joseph Walker's 

photography is very fine." 
Daily Variety (April 13, 1935): " which the excel- 
lent photography by Joseph Walker does much to en- 
hance." 

"G-MEN" (Warner Bros.) 

Sol Polito, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Daily Variety (April 17, 1935) : "Photography by Sol Pol- 
ito adds much to the picture." 

(Continued on Page 200) 



May 1935 • American Cinematographer 195 



PASTE It 



MUCH faster than regular Eastman Super Sensitive "Pan" 
under tungsten light. Faster even than that famous film is 
when hypersensitized. That is half of the news about 
Eastman Super X Panchromatic Negative. The other half: 
Eastman Super X shows no increase in grain size over 
Super Sensitive "Pan". . . in fact, the tremendous gain in 
speed has been achieved without sacrificing or impairing 
any valuable characteristic. . . . You are invited to inves- 
tigate the most striking film improvement since the advent 
of the first Eastman Super Sensitive emulsion. Eastman 
Kodak Company, Rochester, N. Y. (J. E. Brulatour, Inc., 
Distributors, New York, Chicago, Hollywood.) 



EASTMAN SUPER X 

PANCHROMATIC NEGATIVE 



196 American Cinematographer • May 1935 



I 

CAN YOU ANSWER 
THESE QUESTIONS? 

Each question should be answered in less than 
half a minute 

If your comcro is running 8 times normal how long will it take 
to expose 400 feet of film? 

If your camera is running 4 times normal how many feet of 
film will you expose in 55 seconds? 

If F 2.3 is the correct lens stop for 24 frames per second, what 
should the stop be for 48 frames per second? 

If F 1 1.3 would be the right stop with the shutter set at 170 
degrees, what would be the lens opening with the shutter 
at 40 degrees? 

When is an 88 filter used and for what purpose? 

What is the filter factor of a 5N5 filter for Eastman Film? 
For Dupont Film? For Agfa Film? 

What is the fastest lens for 35mm cameras ond who makes it? 

How far from the camera would your subject have to be for 
a head close-up with a 100mm lens? 

With a shooting light of F 6.3 and the camera shutter at 170 
degrees, what would be the F value of the Akeley Camera 
with 280-degree shutter? 

With a developing time of 8 minutes at 65 degrees, what 
would be the developing time with a temperature of 55 
degrees? 

These and hundreds of other questions are answered at a 
glance in the 

American Cinematographer Hand Book 
and Reference Guide 

This book is rich in information you need every day on the set or 
location. It is arranged in handy form. It was written and compiled 
by Jackson Rose, A.S.C., who has had many years' experience behind 
the camera. 

Mr. Rose has spent several years on the compilation of this work. It 
has been commended by the leading cinematographers. The first 
edition will be limited. 

Price $2.00 a Copy 

OFF THE PRESS MAY 15TH 

r\merican Cinematographer 

6331 Hollywood Blvd. Hollywood, Calif. 



Eastman Super X Panchromatic 
Negative Motion Picture Film 

i Continued from Page 187) 

Another interesting feature of this 
new film is the fact that it differs very 
slightly from Super-sensitive negative in 
its color sensitivity characteristics. The 
Super X negative is of the general super- 
sensitive type of sensitizing and proof 
of the fact that it matches very closely 
the Super-sensitive film is obtained upon 
examination of the following table of 
filter factors. These factors were com- 
puted under identical sensitometric con- 
ditions for both films and were substan- 
tiated by actual camera exposures. 





Comparative Filter 


Factors 




to Daylight 




Filter 


Super-sensitive 


Super X 


Aero 


1 1.25 


1.25 


Aero 


2 1.50 


1.50 


3N5 


4 


4 


5N5 


5 


5 


G 


3 


3 


23A 


3 


4 


25 


4 


5 


58 


6 


6 


47 


6 


5 


In 


Figure 3 prints from 


wedge specto- 



grams are shown for each of the two 
negatives. It will be observed from these 
that the difference in color sensitivity 
is very slight. 

As was indicated earlier in this article, 
samples of this film have been distrib- 
uted to all types of departments using 
negative film in the motion picture in- 
dustry. At the time of this writing, five 
weeks after its introduction, there are 
six feature pictures being made with this 
film. The screen results have been ex- 
cellent and every cameraman using the 
film does so by his own choice and as 
the result of comparative tests between 
Super X and other types of negative 
materials. It is our feeling, therefore, 
that the practical results are definitely 
indicative of the quality of the film. 
Very successful results are also being 
obtained on this material in photo- 
graphing, for example, actual night ex- 
teriors, miniature shots with high speed 
cameras, and projection background 
composite exposures. 

Gl ow-Lamp Sensitometry 

(Continued from Page 1921 

good condition, the film you are using 
for recording stock may be of too slow 
speed. With the sound recording stock 
we are getting at present in Hollywood, 
it is necessary to pull the glow-lamp 
back Va inch from the slit-block to avoid 
overexposing the film and with the 
shorter development necessary to control 
the density too low a gamma value is 
obtained. 

Now for those laboratories without a 
densitometer. Make a test piece of film 



May 1935 • American Cinematographer 



197 



A». S. C 

Second Annual 

Golf Tournament 

Brentwood Country Club 

Sunday, May 12, 1935 

Open to all A, S. C. Members 
Green Fees, Luncheon, and Refreshments, $1.75 

TOURNAMENT COMMITTEE 

Chas. Lang, Faxon Dean, Allen Siegler, Leonard Smith, Virgil 
Miller, Fred Jackman, Norbert Brodine, Richard Davol, Mil- 
ton Brown, Tony Gaudio, Bert Glennon, Peverell Marley, 
John Arnold, Edw. O. Blackburn, King Charney, 
Wesley Smith, Bud Courcier, Hollis Moyse, 
Geo. Gibson, Wilson Leahy. 

Trophies and Prizes! Remember Last Year! 

Secure Entry Blanks from Camera Departments or A.S.C. Office 

Entries Close May 9, 1935 

Make your reservations NOW 
Remember 

"EARLY BIRDS GET THE BEST WORMS" 
First Foursome Tees off at 7 A.M. 



198 American Cinematographer © May 1935 




We'll Pay Cas 

We Wont Immediately 
Mitchell Bell & Howell 

Akeley De Brie 

Eyemo Contax 
Leica, and similar used Cameras. 

— Also — 
LENSES, MOTORS, PARTS, AND 
CAMERA ACCESSORIES. 

What Have You to Offer? 

H'ri/e or Wire Today 

Motion Picture Camera 
Supply, Inc. 
723 7th Avenue New York City 





1515 Cahuenga Blvd., 
Hollywood, Calif. 
Phone: GLadstone 2404 



Cinematographic 
Annual, Vol. 1 
Now $2.50 



at 10 mils lamp current and another ct 
20 mils. These points are chosen arbi- 
trarily because they should be safely up 
on the straight-line portion of the film 
H & D curve. Develop this neg the 
standard time you have been using *or 
sound track negative. Print these two 
strips at the average printer light you 
have been using, then develop the print 
your average time for prints. Now if 
your over-all gamma is near l .00 you 



should be able to view a piece of print 
from the 10 mil track beside a piece 
of the 20 mill track print, folded double, 
with apparently the same density to the 
eye. If the doubled 20 mil track appears 
lighter than the 10 mil track the over- 
all gamma is more than 1.00, if darker, 
less than 1 .00. The general practice is 
to have the over-all gamma slightly 
more than 1.00 to allow for recorder, 
printer, and projector losses. 



Corrective Makeup as an Aid to Cinematography 



(Continued from Page 1 

crtists. Virtually every feminine player 
on the studio's contract list has her spe- 
cially prescribed corrective makeup; and 
the same course is followed with players 
borrowed from other studios, or engaged 
for a single production. Regardless of 
the player's natural beauty, we have 
found that this system of makeup can be 
used to advantage, for even the most 
completely beautiful woman has some 
minor irregularities of contour which can 
be smoothed out in this fashion. The 
system can be applied with equal suc- 
cess to men, of course, but in practice, 
we rarely do so, as most of our male 
stars are of types which benefit by wear- 
ing little or no makeup. 

In practice, we have found that this 
system of makeup, far from taking any- 
thing out of the cinematographer's con- 
trol, has proven to be of very definite 
benefit to the men at the cameras. Our 
camera staff includes men who are as 
particular about makeup as any in the 
world: and they are unanimous in say- 
ing that our corrective system of makeup 
frees their mind of all worries about 
makeup, simplifies the detail work of 
personal lighting, and allows them to 
work more efficiently on any sort of 
production, from a program film to a 
"special." 

This method can be applied equally 
well to character makeup; in fact, in 
several instances it has been used for 
this purpose. Jean Muir, for instance, 
in a recent dual role, utilized the sys- 
tem for one characterization, while play- 
ing her other part in her regular cor- 
rective makeup. Marion Davies, in her 
current production, "Page Miss Glory," 
is transformed by the same methods into 
a plain, unattractive servant. Applying 
the methods just explained, we made her 
eyes appear round and washed out, her 
mouth thin and straight, gave her a 
most convincing double chin, and cre- 
ated a remarkable pug nose. Not a bit 
of wax or nose-putty was used, nor a 
single eye-distorting strap; everything 
was done by painting upon her face a 
portrait in grease-paint. 

And there, I believe, lies the secret of 
the whole thing; we are applying make- 
up, not as a mere covering for a flat sur- 



face, but in exactly the same way a por- 
trait painter uses oil paints to depict an 
apparently three-dimensional face on his 
flat canvas. Personally, I find my own 
early experience as a portrait-painter 
invaluable in this new interpretation of 
cosmetology. Moreover, I venture to say 
that such experience will prove abso- 
lutely essential when natural-color cin- 
ematography comes into its own, as it 
soon must. In that day, I venture to say 
that the only makeup artists who sur- 
vive will be those who have had a thor- 
ough grounding in the art of brush and 
pallette. Corrective makeup has been 
applied successfully to three-color Tech- 
nicolor productions; and when we 
achieve completely perfected color cine- 
matography, it will reach its highest de- 
velopment for then we will be dealing, 
not with the monochromatic values of 
the wash drawing, but the full glory of 
color. And our corrective makeup will 
then have to be applied as an artist 
would apply his paints, moulding the 
face in the most delicate nuances of 
tone and color. 



Mood Must Be Predominating 
Effect Says June 

I Continued from Page 190) 

us to think about that world with a 
greater degree of concreteness. This, on 
the part of the cinematographer, is no 
small triumph in cultural assimilation. 
Through the utilization and understand- 
ing of these senses, the cinematographer 
is, in return, given a complete under- 
standing of his camera, its possibilities 
and its perversions, its capacity for rep- 
resenting objects that interpenetrate, 
and ability of placing distant environ- 
ments in immediate juxtaposition and 
finally to represent and reproduce sub- 
jective distortions and hallucinations. 
This understanding of the machine with 
which he is working, enables the cine- 
matographer to interpret and capture 
the moods of his subjects. 

These developments in the mind of 
the cinematographer, are perhaps the 
fine psychological reason that they, 
more than anyone else, are able to un- 



May 1935 • American Cinematographer 199 



John Arnold Starts Fifth Term As A.S.C, Head 

(Continued from Page 189) 



derstand and visualize the moods and 
tempos embodied in the story and sub- 
ject. Ordinarily, we skip over and schem- 
atize the objects which surround us in 
every day life. We relate them to some 
practical need or subordinate them to 
some immediate wish. The cinematog- 
rapher recognizes them in an indepen- 
dent form, created by light, shade, arid 
shadow. He restores to the eye, other- 
wise so preoccupied with the abstractions 
of dull existence, an enjoyment of things 
roundly seen. He, through his product, 
the motion pictures, gives significance 
to life's most remote symbols. His is 
a cult of pure form and segregated es- 
thetic sensibility. The motion picture, 
with its close-ups, its synoptic views, it; 
shifting events, its ever-present camera 
eye and its spatial forms, has gradually, 
since its beginning, developed into a re- 
production of life. Vivid in its interpre- 
tation of the throbbing undercurrent, the 
vital rhythm and the ever-changing 
moods, which are life. The cinematog- 
raphic product has slowly gained in 
artistic significance, until, today, it 
stands as undeniable proof that the cine- 
matographer, although he achieves this 
perfection with the use of a machine, 
is as truly an artist as any master of the 
brush. 



by which I judge, and by which I wish 
to be judged." 

First Vice - President Milner's com- 
ment is, "The success of the present 
administration speaks for itself. We 
have brought a new spirit into the rela- 
tions between the Cinematographer and 
his employer — one of fairness to both 
sides, of friendliness and cooperation. 
We will continue this, and bend every 
effort to keep the Cinematographer now, 
as ever before, in the forefront of prog- 
ress. We have minimized the economic 
problems confronting our craft, and we 
stand ready to apply the same energy to 
solving the many technical and artistic 
problems envisioned in the future." 

Past-President Fred Jackman, accept- 
ing his election as Treasurer, remarked, 
"In every way, the condition of the So- 
ciety and its members is immeasurably 
better than ever before. Financially, the 
A.S.C. stands today in a stronger posi- 
tion than at any time in its history. As 
Treasurer, my special interest will be to 
strive to keep it on an equally sound 
basis. Financially, as well as in other 
ways, the Society has in the past gone 
through very trying times; thus far, we 



have successfully weathered every storm, 
though often only by heroic work and 
self-sacrifices. That I have today in- 
herited a well-nourished treasury from 
my predecessor is clearly due to no ac- 
complishment of mine: but I shall bend 
every effort to deliver the financial af- 
fairs of the Society to my successor in 
as healthy a condition as I have re- 
ceived them. 

"The relations between the Camera- 
men and the Producers have never been 
on so practical a basis in the history of 
the Industry. Today, the two groups 
meet as equals, and attack their mutual 
problems as friends and co - workers, 
rather than as employer and employee. 
The results of this new relationship have 
been startlingly successful, and are as- 
sured of even greater success as time 
goes on. 

"The individual condition of Cinema- 
tographers is equally improved. False 
restrictions which for so long fettered 
individual progress and stifled initiative 
have been abolished. In their place is 
a regime of strict justice and common- 
sense. Advancement, for example, so 




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200 American Cinematographer • May 1935 



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long almost impossible, is once more 
open to those who deserve it. Merit, 
common-sense and fairness rule. 

"As to the future, it does not take a 
prophet to foresee that this new spirit 
is bringing better things for every mem- 
ber of the profession. With both cut- 



throat competition and unnecessary regi- 
mentation abolished, and a new spirit of 
sincere cooperation ruling inside and 
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inevitably progress to new and better 
conditions for both the organization and 
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DON'T SHOW THEM EVERYTHING 



(Continued from Page 1911 



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marily a moving picture that he is mak- 
ing. He believes that all the proven prin- 
ciples of cinematography that obtained 
in the silent days are still too valuable 
to go unused merely because there is 
dialogue to help carry the entertainment 
load. 

Fundamentals of dramatic expression 
by lens and film should not be slighted 
just because there is a handy crutch in 
the form of accompanying dialogue. So 
he puts forth all his ability to convey 
pictorial ly every ounce of drama every 
scene contains. He wants to contribute 
his full share to the finished entertain- 
ment. He knows the sound engineers 
will do theirs. 

And he's not above taking artistic li- 
cense to achieve his full quota of dra- 
matic effect. Hospital operating rooms, 
as instance, are skillfully lighted. They 
are all light, with no shadows to annoy 
deft surgeons. 

They are appointed in cold, scientific 
efficiency. They actually are settings 
exuding about the same degree of drama 
as any other sort of impersonal working 
place. Yet in his "White Parade" his 
surgery scenes fairly throb with full- 
throated drama. He puts deep shadows 
where no shadows ever existed. He 
cloaks the cold details so glaringly pres- 
ent in actuality with a mystery that 
stimulates imagination. And a fierce 
light beats down on the operative field, 
focusing dramatic attention to a concen- 
trated spot. It is an intensely gripping 
scene. Miller made it so. He knows to 
an amazing degree just how little to re- 
veal; the dramatic worth of simplicity. 

Many of the noteworthy effects he 
gains can be traced directly to his full 
knowledge of the chemistry that is cine- 




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matography. His early years were in that 
era when studios were built around lab- 
oratories and the cinematographer took 
his pictures, developed his negative and 
made his own prints. He has kept that 
intimate contact with laboratory prac- 
tice. In fact, he has a private labora- 
tory at his home. And at the studio, his 
closest collaborator is his laboratory 
chief. 

Because of this processing intimacy, 
he is usually allotted the task of trying 
out new practices or determining the 
merit of proposed improvements in ma- 
terial or procedure. His "Black Sheep," 
for example is the first picture to be shot 
on the new Eastman Super negative. For 
your information, he reports it easier to 
use, requiring fewer lights, faster, giv- 
ing a noticeably better rendition, partic- 
ularly in greens and shadows. Sets are 
easier to light. It lessens light strain on 
actors and in many cases, particularly 
with children, makes possible effects not 
obtainable under heavy light pressure. 



Photography of the Month 

'Continued from Page 194) 
Hollywood Reporter (April 17, 1935): 
" — but Polito's photography is Al." 

"THE DARING YOUNG MAN" (Fox) 

Merritt Gerstad, A.S.C: Directing Cine- 
matographer 

Daily Variety (April 17, 1935): "Pho- 
tography is good." 

Hollywood Reporter (April 17, 1935): 
"Photography up to standard." 

"GEORGE WHITE SCANDALS" (Fox I 

George Schneiderman, A.S.C: Directing 
Cinematographer 

Daily Variety (March 26, 1935) : "Pho- 
tography of George Schneiderman is 
excellent." 

"BLACK FURY" (First National) 

Byron Haskin, A.S.C: Directing Cine- 
matographer 

Daily Variety (March 26, 1935): "By- 
ron Haskin has handled his camera 
with power and artistry." 

Hollywood Reporter (March 26, 1935): 
"The photography by Byron Haskin 
has plenty to do with the success of 
the picture." 



May 1935 



American Cinematographer 20) 



"MISTER DYNAMITE" (Universal) 

George Robinson, A.S.C.: Directing Cine- 
matographer 

Daily Variety (March 28, 1935) : "Pho- 
tography throughout, handled by 
George Robinson, was excellent." 

Hollywood Reporter (March 28, 1935): 
"Photography and production top- 
notch." 

"PEOPLE WILL TALK" (Paramount) 
Alfred Gilks, A.S.C.: Directing Cinema- 
tographer 

Hollywood Reporter (March 28, 1935): 
"Photography by Alfred Gilks is very 
good." 

Daily Variety (March 28, 1935): "Al- 
fred Gilks' phtoography is uniformly 
good." 

"VAGABOND LADY" ( M-G-M-Roach ) 

Jack MacKenzie, A.S.C.: Directing Cine- 
matographer 

Hollywood Reporter (March 28, 1935): 
"Photography is first rate." 

Daily Variety (March 28, 1935) : "Jack 
MacKenzie's camera is well handled." 

"FOUR HOURS TO KILL" (Paramount) 

Theodor Sparkuhl, A.S.C.: Directing 
Cinematographer 

Hollywood Reporter (March 29, 1935): 
"And add to all that the fine photog- 
raphy by Theodor Sparkuhl — where 
has this master been all these years?" 

Daily Variety (March 29, 1935) : "The- 
odor Sparkuhl uses his camera splen- 
didly." 



SOME FAST "PANS" 

(Continued from Page 193) 

the proudest. Jim, Jr., tells us that soon 
there will be three shutter openers and 
closers in the family. 

"Shades of Admiral Byrd" 

• CLYDE DeVINNA seems to be a short 
wave D.C., however, Clyde's hobby or 
mania, as the case may be, has proved 
to be a great help on previous pictures 
on far off locations. At present, he has 
just completed rigging up his short wave 
set in Tahiti where M-G-M is filming 
"Typee" and has managed to get in 
touch with another radio enthusiast in 
good ole Hollywood who transmits al 1 
messages to Clyde's wiff. During the 
shooting (and we mean shooting) of 
"Trader Horn," it was Clyde who got 
the message through that Edwina Booth 
was dangerously ill and told the com- 
pany's whereabouts, so that medicine 
could be sent by runner from the coast. 

"Time Marches On" 

• And speaking of beneficial hobbies, 
there's Johnny Arnold, who is at present 
experimenting with a new super-process 
screen, 33-38 feet. This new flicker 
sheet will make bigger and better things 
possible in the jumpies. It will ailow 



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202 American Cinematographer • May 1935 



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twice as much light to come through 
than the present type does. According 
to Johnny, the new screen, when per- 
fected, will result in the filmenagerie 
colony producing moom pitchers with 
larger sets, more action and of a far 
better quality . . . (well, hurry up, 
Johrny, Lord knows we need it.) 

"Well, Maybe" 

• We hear that Charlie Clarke, grind- 
ing "Mutiny on the Bounty," weathered 
a ten day sea voyage to location in the 
south seas that was flavored with ty- 
phoons and mountainous waves without 
once swallowing his breakfast twice. 
However, here's the gag, the day after 
arrival, Charlie hired one of those out- 
rigger canoes to do a little early morn- 
ing fishing . . . After two hours on the 
bounding main in the double-barreled 
skiff he got so sick that he was confined 
to bed for a day. 

"Moybe Again . . . But There's Wit- 
nesses" 

• It seems that Karl Struss was out 
tearing the turf at the Lakeside weed 
chopping grounds, one of those days 
when he wasn't shooting camera curves 
of La West. Carl stepped up to the 
sixth, disregarded his caddy's advice, 
and smacked a hole-in-one with a nib- 
lick. Now Carl is proudly gathering loot 
donated by various manufacturers for 
such a feat . . . 

CORRECTION 

Last month on page 145 the caption 
with the illustration stated the scene 
was from the Warner production "Oil 
for the Lamps of China." It should have 
been credited to the production "Go Into 
Your Dance," according to Tony Gaudio. 

R.C.A. Drops Reeves Suit 

© According to a statement made by 
Art Reeves of Hollywood Motion Picture 
Equipment Co. of Hollywood, manufac- 
turers of the Artreeves Sound System, 
the R.C.A. who instituted suit against 
his company in 1933 alleging infrnge- 
ment of sound patents have withdrawn 
their suit from the courts. This means 
according to Reeves that he can con- 
tinue the manufacture of his sound 
equipment for sale in this country with- 
out infringing the R.C.A. patents. 



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May 1935 © American Cinematographer 20"> 




AMATEUR 
MOVIE 

SECTION 



Contents . . . 



EASTMAN'S New 16mm Color Film 
Sensational 208 

DABBLING in Makeup 

by Wm. J. Grace 210 

SPECIAL Effects with Reversal Film 

by J. Lloyd Thompson 21 1 

A "Documentary" Film from Stock Shots 

by William Stull, A.S.C 212 

THE Camera I Would Like to Own 

by Wm. J. Grace 213 

FEARLESS Silent 16mm Professional 
Camera 

by Ralph G. Fear 214 

WHEELS of Industry 215 



PROFESSIONAL Criticism of the Amateur 
picture is a part of the service offered by the 
AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER. Many are 
not aware of this. Hundreds of pictures have 
been reviewed this past year by members of 
the American Society of Cinematographers for 
the Amateur. 



Next Month . . . 

• There will be a continuity suggestion that 
will be of interest to every home movie user. 

• Members of the A.S.C. will contribute time- 
ly and interesting articles that will prove in- 
structive to the amateur. 

• Things of a technical nature will be dis- 
cussed in such a way that will not only nterest 
but benefit the amateur. 



208 American Cinematographer • May 1935 



Eastman's New 16mm Color 



THOSE who have seen the new Eastman Kodachrome 
l 6mm color films claim it the finest commercial color 
to reach the motion picture screen up to the present 

time. 

Many connected with the motion picture profession in 
Hollywood hail it as even better than Technicolor. With 
this film it is now possible to take pictures indoors. The 
skin texture and the reproduction of the coloring in the 
human eye, face and hair are said to be sensational. This 
means the amateur no longer must seek out flower beds, 
but can obtain beautiful colored pictures of his family and 
friends. 

Eastman announces this film will be placed on the mar- 
ket on May 1st and will retail for $9.00 the 100 feet, and 
will be supplied in 16mm reversal stock only. 

Whether it ever reaches the professional market and 
be used in 35mm will undoubtedly depend upon future ar- 
rangements to be made between Eastman and Technicolor 
as it is claimed there are over-lapping patents. 

This makes color film available for every 16mm cam- 
era. No special filters are required either for photographing 
or projecting. The speed is such that even the cameras 
with the very slow lenses can use this film. 

The exposure required is somewhat more than that of 
the ordinary panchromatic film used for making black- 
and-white pictures. It is recommended the next larger 
stop be used than would be used for black and white. 

For ordinary pictures, no filters or other attachments 
are required in the camera; but Eastman provides two cam- 
era filters for special purposes. One of these is used for 
photographing objects at a great distance, objects which 
in ordinary photography would be obscured by haze. The 
filter, in fact, plays the same part as the yellow filter used 
with panchromatic film; but it would, of course, be im- 
possible to use a yellow filter, that would affect the colors. 
The filter used absorbs ultra-violet light only. If no such 
filter is used at great distances, objects will appear too 
blue, owing to the scattered ultra-violet light, which will 
record on the film as if it were blue light. Occasionally, 
this haze-cutting filter is useful for objects at a medium 
distance. For instance, when there is snow on the ground 
the air seems to be full of scattered blue light and the 
picture will be a little too blue unless the ultra-violet light 
is absorbed. 

A filter is desirable if pictures are taken by artificial 
light, since otherwise the pictures will appear altogether 
too yellow or red. This filter is of a light blue color ad- 
justed to compensate for the yellowness of the artificial 
light source. 

At the present time, and probably through 1935, the 
processing will be done only at Kodak Park. 

Up to the present Eastman has not been able to arrange 
to make duplicates. It is not improbable that eventually 
they shall succeed in making duplicates; but this requires a 
good deal of special study. 

They are also not yet prepared to supply Kodachrome 
film in other sizes than 16mm — not because it is impos- 
sible to do this but because up to the present they ha^e 
only been able to construct the necessary processing ma- 
chinery and to work out the methods for the 16mm film. 

The introduction of the new Kodachrome process seems 



Film 

Sensationa 



likely to mark a great step in the history of photography, 
as the possibilities of the new process appear very great. 

Following is a technical description of the film itself 
and the process of developing furnished us by Dr. C. E. 
Kenneth Mees, A.S.C., of Eastman Kodak Co.: 

"All practical processes of color photography depend 
upon the division of the light into three components, red, 
green, and blue-violet. Pictures are taken by these three 
components and are then combined by some method in 
order to give the finished color picture. 

"Color processes are divided generally into two classes: 
the additive processes and the subtractive processes. In the 
first, the three components are combined by direct addition 
of colored images; in the second, the three components are 
combined by printing each negative in a color comple- 
mentary to that which was used in taking, and these col- 
ored prints are then superimposed. 

"In the classic experiment in which Clerk Maxwell 
demonstrated the additive process of color photography at 
the Royal Institution, he showed three pictures of a colored 
ribbon taken by light of the three primary colors, and he 
projected positives from his original negatives in super- 
position upon a screen, each of the positives being projected 
through a color filter of the same color as that used in 
taking the negative. With modern materials and filters, 
this method will give an excellent reproduction of a col- 
ored object. It requires very complicated apparatus, how- 
ever, and is obviously a clumsy method of obtaining a color 
picture. 

"Another type of additive process is that which is 
termed the 'screen-unit process.' In this, a screen is used 
over the whole area of the film, which is composed of very 
small color units — red, green, and blue. A photograph is 
taken through the screen and is thus split up into tiny 
areas, each of them taken through one of the three pre- 
liminary filters. On projection, these areas cover the en- 
tire picture with little spots of colored light. If a red object 
be photographed, for instance, the film will be fully exposed 
behind the red units of the screen but will not be exposed 
behind the blue and green units, and after reversal, the 
green and blue units will be blocked out by the black de- 
posit of silver, while the red units will be projected in full 
brilliancy and will thus produce a red area on the screen 
corresponding to the red object which was photographed. 

"This process has the advantage that the film can be 
used in any camera, exposure can be controlled in the 
ord.nary way with a diaphragm, and the film can be pro- 
jected in any projector. Its practical disadvantages are 
confined to the screen pattern, which is apparent on pro- 
jection, to the absorbtion of light by the screen unit, which 
involves a considerable loss in brightness, and to the cost 
of the special screen-unit film. 

"In the Kodacolor process, which has been very suc- 
cessful for amateur cinematography, the color separation 



May 193 5 • American Cinematographer 209 




RAW FILM 

BLUE SENSITIVE EM 
GREEN " 
RED 11 




COLOR POSITIVE 

YELLOW IMAGE 
MAGENTA IMAGE 
BLUE-GREEN IMAGE 



SAFETY FILM SUPPORT 



ANTIHALATION . 
BACKING 



CROSS-SECTION OF 




is obtained optically. In the lens of the camera is placed 
a multiple-color filter composed of red, green, and blue 
units; and the tiny lenses embossed on the film make 
multiple images of these three units on the film emulsion. 
In projection, the same three filters are placed on the 
lens and a color picture is obtained on the screen. A multi- 
color image in the form of microscopic colored strips is 
projected and reproduces the colors of the original. 

"Turning to the subtractive processes, if the three 
negatives are printed as images in colored dye — the red 
negative as a blue-green image, the green negative as a 
magenta image, and the blue negative as a yellow image 
— and these three color images are assembled in register 
on top of each other, a color picture will result. 

"It will be seen that a red color can be obtained either 
by the projection of light through a red filter on the screen, 
as in the additive processes, or by the projection of the 
light through successive magenta and yellow images, the 
superposition of the yellow on the magenta producing red. 
In the same way, a green image can be obtained by put- 
ting a blue-green one on top of a yellow one, and a blue- 
violet image can be obtained by putting a blue-green 
image on top of a magenta one. 

"In working the subtractive processes, the three neg- 
atives may be taken just as for the additive process, and 
then positives are printed in some way which enables them 
to be made of a colored material, the commonest being 
to make them by printing in bichromated gelatin. By this 
process, the three negatives can be printed in colored dye, 
the picture taken through the red filter being printed 
on gelatin dyed blue-green, the one taken through the 
green filter on gelatin dyed magenta, and the one taken 
through the blue filter on gelatin dyed yellow. If the three 
are superimposed in register, the resulting transparent 
color picture will reproduce the colors of the original sub- 
ject. 

"Subtractive processes of this kind are being used 



KODACHROME FILM 



successfully for the projection of theatrical motion pictures 
in color, but it is clear that to make one print only by 
this method, as is required in amateur cinematography, 
would be extremely expensive, whereas once the three neg- 
atives have been obtained and a method of printing them 
has been worked out, the preparation of a large number of 
prints is not unduly costly. 

"The new Kodachrome process is a subtractive proc- 
ess, but the separation of the light into the three compo- 
nents is not accomplished by placing the separate compo- 
nents in juxtaposition. They are separated in depth. 

"The film for this process is coated no less than five 
times! Nearest the base, an emulsion is coated which is 
strongly red-sensitive. This is then over-coated with a 
separating layer of gelatin containing seme dye to act as 
a filter. Above this is coated a green-sensitive emulsion. 
This is over-coated again with another separating layer. 
Finally, there is applied a top coat which is blue-sensitive 
and which contains a certain amount of yellow dye. The 
five coatings are so thin that the total thickness of the film 
is little more than that of ordinary-line Kodak film. 

"The emulsions are so adjusted that the sensitizers 
do not wander from the layer in which they are coated, so 
that the bottom layer remains red-sensitive with very little 
green sensitivity, the middle layer is green-sensitive and 
is free from red sensitivity, while the top layer is sensitive 
only to the blue. When a picture is taken upon such a 
film, the three components are automatically separated 
in the depth of the coating. The red component is formed 
in the red-sensitive emulsion nearest to the base, the green 
component is formed in the middle layer of emulsion, and 
the blue component forms the image of the top layer. 

"In order to obtain a color picture with this film, all 
that is necessary is to transform each component image of 
the negative into a positive image consisting of a suitably- 
colored dye. The image formed in the red-sensitive layer 

(Continued on Page 220 1 



210 American Cinematographer • May 1933 




At top: No makeup; bottom: the effect with 
makeup. 



Dabbling 

In Makeup 

— Straight Makeup 



by 

Wm. J. Grace 



WITH the opening paragraph may I wager that not 
over one in fifty readers of this series of articles 
on movie makeup for the amateur has given ser- 
ious thought to applying the principles of makeup to their 
cine work, because while it makes nice reading and in- 
creases the store of general knowledge, there seems to be 
little cause to get excited about employing makeup. 

If you are one of those forty-nine disinterested per- 
sons who read but have not thought about a subject seem- 



ingly out of your depth, may I present concrete examples 
of the reasons for using makeup at all in the form of 
two sets of "before-and-af ter" illustrations. I believe you'll 
find the advantages of makeup quite forcibly exhibited. 

Examine closely the four photographs. Look at them as 
critically as possible. Criticise the comparisons from any 
standpoint — see if the characters of the models have been 
changed by makeup. I believe you will come to the con- 
clusion that the straight makeup has in no way altered 
the actual characters of the models, but rather has ac- 
centuated those little things which mark each of them as 
an individual. One of them has a beautiful mouth, the 
other beautiful eyes. I do not mean to slur over other 
features, but the points I have mentioned are, in real life, 
the first things you would notice about them. 

It is the subtle accentuation of one's outstanding fea- 
ture (or features! that justifies the use of makeup, whether 
in real life, on the stage, or on the screen. And there must 
be a lot in this subtle power, for the cosmetic industry is 
one of the largest in the world. In no other industry is 
it possible to sell a dime's worth of colored grease or chalk 
for a dollar and get away with it. 

Perhaps the thing which strikes you in comparing these 
before-and-after pictures is the almost unbelievable dif- 
ference in photographed skin textures. In real life both 
these models have beautiful complexions, in no way sug- 
gesting large pores or wrinkles. Yet, the brilliant lighting 
necessary for photography in light and shadow plays tricks 
with the finest skin texture — every little depression, no 
matter how small, photographs as a visible hole. 

I am no student of cosmetics and can therefore assign 
no scientific explanation for the phenomenon. I do, tho, 
have a suspicion that makeup smooths skins for camera 
work because it is soft enough to go down into those 
tiny pores and color them the same as the surface of the 

(Continued on Page 220 1 




At top: Photographed without makeup; at bot- 
tom: same girl with makeup. 




May 1935 • American Cinematographer 211 



An overexposed reversal film 

Developed as negative. 
Unexposed silver grams 



^ Final ima9e 



There are nor enough silver grams left in the 
emulsion to (jive a good positive . Therefore the 
film is liqht and flat. 



Exposed silver grains developed 
as negative. 
■ Unexposed ,undevelop«d,silver yroms 

Developed silver image bleached out 
Unexposed silver grains. 



i . Remaining silver grains exposed 
and developed. 



Theory of the reversal process 



Special Effects 
with 

Reversal Film 



by 

J. Lloyd Thompson 

Laboratory Supervisor, The CALVIN CO., 
Authorized Agfa Ansco Reversal Laboratory 



THERE have been a number of writers who have made 
a number of statements about the use of reversal 
emulsions in movie work which has done much to dis- 
courage the serious worker from trying special shots. For 
instance, the serious worker has been warned against try- 
ing effect lightings with a great deal of black background 
in them because the automatic processing machines will 
grey out the blacks and the results will be muddy. That 
has been true of films processed that way, but there are 
reversal films on the market which are not processed by 
the automatic method, but each film is given individual 
attention. Reversal films which are processed by this 
method will give you any effect you want provided that 
it has been correctly exposed. That is, it will do anything 
which a negative positive film will do. It will give you 
roundness, depth, detail, large areas of black space, per- 
fect fade outs and fade ins. 

Correct exposure in the reversal process is absolutely 
necessary if the best results are to be obtained. And it 
doesn't matter what film you are using either. Too much 
stress cannot be placed on this point. However, with an 
electric meter there is no reason for missing exposure. In 
order that you may understand this it will be necessary to 
tell you something of how the reversal process works. After 



your film has been exposed it is developed much the same 
as a negative from your still camera, i.e., it is developea 
as a negative. Now if you wanted this film to be a neg- 
ative you would put it in hypo and dissolve out the silver 
which wgs unexposed and hence which has not been turned 
into metallic silver by the developer. But, we want a pos- 
itive image of the picture and not a negative, and so in- 
stead of putting it into hypo to eat out the undeveloped 
silver, we put it into a reversing solution which eats out 
the black metallic silver which has come up as a negative, 
but this does not affect the unexposed, undeveloped silver 
still in the emulsion. After the developed silver has been 
eaten away the film is exposed to light, and the undevel- 
oped silver remaining is exposed. This is then developed 
and it forms a positive image. You can see that you have 
used up all of the silver in the emulsion. Now supposing 
you have overexposed your film. It first comes up as a 
negative. Since it is overexposed it gets very black, using 
up a great many more of the silver crystals than it should. 
When these are bleached out in the reversing bath there 
is not enough silver left in the emulsion to make a black 
positive image and it appears too light on the screen. If 
it has been underexposed the opposite is true and the final 
positive will be too dark. Of course, if you make your ex- 
posure even all through the roll, and whether you over or 
under expose it, this can be controlled in the first develop- 
ment so that the final image will probably be pretty good. 
That is why it is better to shoot a whole roll in one day — 
the exposure is more likely to be more even. 

By referring to diagram No. 2 you can see what hap- 
pens when a film is overexposed. The only method of cor- 
rcting such an error is to underdevelop it in the first de- 
velopment. Since the whole roll must receive the same 
developing time the rest of the roll will have to suffer if 
this one scene is corrected. Therefore the exposure should 
be kept even. Correction of any kind means loss of detail. 
This is true of any kind of photography, but since movie 
film is so small in size the losses are more easily seen. 

Reversal film will give you excellent black and white 
titles with perfectly black backgrounds. It will allow you 
to make spotlight pictures or to photograph large black 
areas with a normal scene in only part of the frame, or 
any other special effect you may want. However, you must 
expose it correctly, and use a film which is developed by 
personal attention to each roll. Don't expect the laboratory 
to put pictures on your film. You must do that in your 
camera. 

There is one thing in your favor, however. All emul- 
sions have been improved in the last year so that they have 
more natural latitude in the film itself. The new Plena- 
chrome emulsion probably has more of this natural latitude 
than any film yet produced. As time goes on we can prob- 
ably expect more and more of this latitude as the film 
makers are constantly at work and they are bound to make 
improvements. So much for the exposure and correction 
for exposure errors in reversal emulsions. 

All of this sounds complicated. It is meant to be for 
those who want to do the unusual. If you want just ordi- 
nary pictures go ahead and make them like you have al- 
ways done, but if you have been getting some scenes too 
light and others too dark it will help you and save you 
money to try to understand a little mare the process you 
are using. 

Special effects take plenty of time, patience, and ex- 
perimenting, but the finished result makes it well worth 
while. With reversal film you must be careful, but most 
anything can be done with it when you learn the proper 
technique. 



212 American Cinematographer • 



May 193 5 




A "Documentary" 
Film From 
Stock-Shots 



by 

William Stull, A.S.C. 



A "DOCUMENTARY" film can be either as intricate 
or as simple as you wish to make it. What chiefly 
differentiates it from the more familiar genres is 
the one requirement that it must be informative. This 
is a matter of treatment as well as subject-matter: even 
a hackneyed home-movie subject like "Baby's Bath," for 
instance, would automatically become a film-document 
if the film were made to show not merely the fact that 
a baby is being bathed, but what is the correct method 
of bathing a baby. This treatment can be applied to al- 
most any subject; and while the more intricate operations 
are best filmatized if everything, from shooting to edit- 
ing, is planned with this idea in mind, surprisingly inter- 
esting documentary pictures can often be made from or- 
dinary shots if they are intelligently edited and titled. 

Here, for example, is a "Documentary Film" contin- 
uity with which I assembled some left-over scenic shots 
into a picture which has received favorable comment from 
every audience that has viewed it: 

MAIN TITLE: 

THE ROMANCE OF A RIVER 

(I made this on an art background, using a pictorial 
still-picture showing a river wandering across a valley. 



This was done in double-exposure, first fading the picture 
in, then the words, after which first words, and the pic- 
ture faded out.) 

TITLE: All the World loves a river. There is a bless- 
ing in its ceaseless flow — a mystery and a fascination in 
the story of its endless journey to the sea. 

Scene I. FADE IN. Long-shot of a broad river, flow- 
ing away from the camera. If possible, make this in a 
back light, with the light reflecting strongly from the 
water, with the river banks left fairly dark. FADE OUT. 

TITLE: For centuries a blazing sun has drawn up water 
from a shining sea. 

Scene 2. Back-lit long-shot on the seashore: silhou- 
etted rocks in the foreground, clouds in the sky, and the 
back-lit surf gleaming. 

TITLE: And clouds have formed, wind-tossed about 
the sky. 

Scene 3. Heavily-corrected shot of clouds. Prefer- 
ably, with no ground showing in the scene. 

Scene 4. Long-shot, heavily filtered, of clouds over 
tall trees. 

Scene 5. Long-shot, in stop-motion, showing clouds 
swirling over mountains. 

TITLE: Then from the clouds, snow has fallen softly, 
until it lay like clouds upon the slopes. 

Scene 6. Long-shot, heavily filtered, of a snow-clad 
mountain, with great fluffy cloud-banks above. 

Scene 7. Similar long-shot, but with more foreground, 
and heavier clouds. 

Scene 8. Closer shot of a snow-covered mountain 
peak, with clouds in the sky above. 

Scene 9. Panorama of a snow-clad mountain range. 

TITLE: Fed by the snow and rain, small streams 
emerged . . . 

Scene 10. Close shot of a rivulet coming from the 
foot of a melting snow-bank. 

Scene 1 1 . Medium-shot of a brook, running between 
banks of melting snow. 

Scene 12. Long-shot of a valley with a stream in the 
centre, flowing toward the camera. In the distance, a 
snow-clad, cloud-draped mountain. 

LAP-DISSOLVE TO: 

Scene 13. Medium long-shot of a waterfall in a 
small stream plunging through a forest. 

TITLE: To start their ceasless journey to the sea. 

Scene 14. FADE IN. Long-shot of a white-water 
river in a deep, wooded canyon. 

Scene 15. Closer shot of the same, made from above. 
Pan upward to show canyon walls and skyline. FADE OUT. 

TITLE: "And see the rivers how they run . . . 

Scene 16. FADE IN: long-shot of a broad, placid 
river curving through steep hills (flowing away from cam- 
era). FADE OUT. 

TITLE: . . . through woods . . . 

Scene 17. Long - shot, made from a low set - up, 
showing a river (in the foreground) flowing between tall 
trees. 

TITLE: . . . through meads . . . 

Scene 1 8. Extreme long-shot of a river meandering 
across a cultivated valley. 

TITLE: ... in shade . . . 

Scene 19. Close shot of a river flowing past the 
camera, under heavily leaved trees. 

Scene 20. Close shot of a shady tree close to a 
river-bank. 

TITLE: ... in sun . . . 

Scene 21. Medium long-shot of a river flowing 
through a bare, open valley; OR a shot similar to Scene 

(Continued on Page 222) 



May 1935 • American Cinematographer 213 



The Camera 
I Would Like 
To Own 

by 

Wm. J. Grace 

The drawings reproduced herewith are the personal property of 
the author and are not to be reproduced without consent. 



FROM the gentle art of day dreaming often come the 
visions of better things which will someday come to 
pass. From the daydream to the drawing board, from 
the drawing board to the manufacturing plant, and from 
the manufactury to the ultimate consumer may involve 
many months of planning, engineering, and advertising. 
But a start has to be made somewhere, sometime. 

All this does not mean that from the inspiration which 
this article may arouse will immediately spring a camera 
which will fulfill the dreams of one man. So please have 
mercy on the stenographer of the author (who, by the way, 
is the author), and do not send your orders until further 
advised. 

What I mean fo say, if you'll pardon me, is that ever 
since I've worked with amateur cine equipment I've had 
dreams of better equipment. I don't mean merely the sub- 
stitution for the present nickel plate of chromium plate; 
I don't mean the mere refinement of existing apparatus; 
I mean something really better, different, basically im- 
proved. 

Automobiles for years went along getting a little more 
refined here, more fancy there, more convenient some- 
where else. Each year's models were slightly improved, 
but still the basic ideas of construction were the same from 
year to year. Then, one manufacturer, noted for his dra- 
matic introductions of new ideas in the automotive field, 
got down to the why of this and the wherefore of that, and 
found we were driving 60 miles an hour in 30 miles an 
hour cars. He drastically relocated not only the mechan- 
ical components of the car, but the location of passengers 
as well, and then shaped the car for more efficiency at 
modern speeds. 

The same thing is going to happen to amateur cine 
cameras one of these days. Some aggressive manufacturer 
is going to scrap a lot of preconceived notions about what 
the public wants, and get on the market something the 
public really and truly is demanding. Why aren't there 
more cameras in use today? Simply because something 
more drastic or dramatic (or call it what you will) will have 
to be done than adding a cute little panel of color here 
or a shiny gadget there. 



Nothing is ever completely perfect for all time, for our 
very notions of perfection are as changeable as the style 
of women's apparel. Therefore, I should hesitate to call 
this camera I would like to own the "perfect camera." By 
the time I got it, I'm sure I'd think of something else I'd 
want it to have. But for the present, at least, let's see 
what one man thinks should be the plans and specs of the 
"perfect camera" for the present. 

The first thing I would do, is write the specifications 
to read, "No carrying case shall be required. The camera 
should be so covered, possibly with a substance like leather, 
that there would be no need to further enclose it for trans- 
portation." 

Why would I eliminate the carrying case? Ask yourself 
that same question the next time you take out your camera 
for a bit of filming. You don't dare risk smashing a lens 
or tearing off the spring-winding handle or some other 
lever or knob by carrying the camera without the case, but 
the case is an awful nuisance to lug around. The design 
I've sketched doesn't need any carrying case, as you will 
note. All controls and the lenses are completely protected 
from injury when the two covers are closed. 

The next paragraph in the specifications would start, 
"The camera is to use 8mm film." Now, here is where 
I've got to back up against a wall and start fighting! A 
year ago, you know, I was invited by the editor to discuss 
the possibilities, present and future, of 8mm, and the 
article, "HOW ABOUT THE 8?", appeared in March, 1934. 
I was strongly attracted to 8 then, and now that a year has 
passed, I feel all the more strongly in favor of the tiny 
but efficient film. So much so, that, could I have the 
camera I'm describing, I would gladly trade in my three 
16 cameras and my 16 proiector, and have all my library 
reduced to 8. 

It is not a case of merely being obstinate about liking 
the 8, for I try at all times to keep an open mind. I have 
found, tho, that most 1 6'ers violently disagree with my 
views, possibly because they don't know just how fine 8 
work really is. Then, too, there is always the argument 
that "it would be so expensive to have all my present 16 
reduced to 8," but it is an argument that won't hold water. 
If one films at all, the cost of such reductions would be 
more than gobbled up by the savings in 8 film cost from 
this point on. 

True, 8 now has only one emulsion available — pan. 
When the market justifies it, tho, there'll be as many (or 
more) emulsions for 8 filmers as there are now for 16. 
If you prefer to wait until then, that's all right with me, 
but may I suggest that if you wait, say, about a hundred 
years, perfection may be nearer in almost everything. In 
other words, why be stubborn about it — why not get into 
the development and grow up with it? If we had all waited 
until radio was "perfected," we wouldn't have any radio 
at all today. 

(Continued on Page 223) 




214 American Cinematographer • May 1935 



F 



earless 



Silent 16mm 



Prof 



essional 



c 



amera 



by 

Ralph G. Fear 

President, Fearless Camera Co. 



ONE of the most interesting developments of recent 
years in the amateur or I 6mm field, is the new 
Professional 1 6mm Fearless Silent Camera, and 
its associated sound recording attachment. 

This new camera is a miniature duplicate of the well 
known professional 35mm and 50mm camera manufac- 
tured by the Fearless Camera Company, and has all of 
the features that professional cameramen have found nec- 
essary for regular production of motion pictures. 

The camera does not have a spring motor drive, but 
is arranged to be driven by an electric motor, or cranked 
by hand. Conventional detachable magazines of 400 feet 
capacity, arranged either for daylight loading spools or 
standard 400-foot rolls, are placed on top of the camera 
and held by a quick-releasing screw. 

The camera is built with an internal driving mechan- 
ism arranged to drive a detachable sound recording attach- 
ment which is placed underneath the camera. The record- 
ing attachment is held to the camera by a quick-releasing 
screw which is turned by the camera hand crank. 

One screw holds either the camera or sound recording 
attachment to a conventional professional type tripod, the 
tilt head of which may be either a friction type or geared 
type. 

A miniature professional type Iris, matte box, filter 
liolder and sun shade are mounted upon the front of the 
camera. 

Two types of motors have been developed for driving 
the camera, one being a universal variable speed motor 
which may be operated from either alternating current 
or direct current and is calibrated for speeds from 8 to 32 
frames per second, the other being a standard synchronous 
motor of special design which can be furnished for either 
single phase or three phase current. 

The camera has a professional quick shift device for 
focusing, focusing of the camera lens being made upon a 
ground glass, the image formed thereon being viewed 
through a magnifying focusing tube where the image ap- 
pears right side up and right side to. 

To elaborate on the method of focusing the photo- 
graphic lens — the camera is built with a sliding turret 
and lens carrier on the front of the camera box. This lens 
carrier is mounted in dovetails and constructed so that it 
may be shifted across the front of the camera box to a 
point where the photographic lens is in front of the ground 
glass of the focusing tube. The lens carrier is made so 





At top the custom built Fearless 16mm camera 
with sound unit attached. At bottom same cam- 
era without sound unit showing interior mech- 
anism. 



that the light shade is mounted to it and instead of having 
to shift the camera, magazine, motors, cables, etc., only 
the light weight lens system and light box are shifted. 

The actual shifting is accomplished by merely pressing 
down a knob and moving a lever from one side of the 
camera to the other. This focusing operation is performed 
so quickly that it has been a revelation to all who have 
seen it. Suitable stops prevent over-travel and suitable 
locks are provided to hold the lens carrier either in the 
focusing position or in the photographic position. The 
image is viewed with a conventional finder or focusing 
magnifier which is supplied for either five or ten power. 

The focusing telescope is of the simple astronomical 
type, and re-inverts the inverted image formed by the lens 
on the ground glass, thus bringing the viewed image right 
side up and right side to. 

The camera has been designed for silence throughout 
and extreme pains have been taken in the design and con- 
struction to eliminate noise wherever possible. The camera 
can be used in the open for all ordinary shots without any 
sound proof covering. This has been accomplished by using 
fibre gears to transmit the power, precision bearings for 
the driving shafts, and by inclosing all moving mechanism 
outside of the movement and sprocket assembly in grease 
tight and sound proof compartments. 

The camera is arranged so that the driving motor 
drives directly into an extension of the movement cam 

(Continued on Page 224) 



May 1935 • American Cinematographer 215 




WHEELS 



• Burleigh Brooks announces a new 
angle of the Rolleif lex Salon. 

The manufacturers of the Rolleiflex 
Camera, Franke & Heidecke G.m.b.H., 
in Braunschweig, Germany, are advanc- 
ing a prize contest for European users of 
the Rolleiflex, simultaneously with the 
American. They have in prospect for 
publication next fall "The Golden Book 
of the Rolleiflex," in which the best 
pictures from both contests will be re- 
produced. The book will be very hand- 
somely edited and compiled, and will 
have a large distribution all over the 
world. 

The firm of Franke & Heidecke 
G.m.b.H. now offers an additional prize 
of from $10.00 to $20.00 for each pic- 
ture which they see fit to reproduce in 
this manner, in addition to a free copy 
of the book itself. This, of course, is 
altogether independent and additional 
to the prizes granted by Brooks. 

The Kemeo Filmvisor 

• The heretofore slow and laborious 
task of editing and re-arranging ama- 
teur movie films has been greatly simpli- 
fied thru the use of the new Filmvisor 
announced by The Automatic Electrical 
Devices Company, of Cincinnati, for use 
with all 8 or 16mm films. 

One of its features includes both 1 :1 
and 4:1 ratio rewind speeds, with a 
transferable brake to prevent unwinding 
of free reel should rewinding be stopped 
suddenly. Splicing outfit is self con- 
tained, and of simple, though sturdy 
construction, and easily operated. 

When using the Filmvisor for inspect- 
ing or reviewing a film, the latter is 
wound slowly under a powerful magni- 
fying glass, and over an aperture illum- 
inated by a bright light, greatly enlarg- 
ing the film image. A new and unique 
method of identifying each scene, thru 
the application of a small gummed 
sticker to the film at the end of each 
scene, and the listing of all scenes on a 
Master Editing sheet, with a brief de- 
scription thereof, makes final cutting 
and re - arrangement of the various 
scenes extremely simple. 

When used for cleaning a film, the 
lamp housing is reversed, bringing a 
single roller in place, over which the 



OF INDUSTRY 



film is slowly run, passing thru a piece 
of chamois cloth saturated with a quick 
drying cleaning fluid, which removes all 
grease, dirt, etc. 

Emulsion Remover 

• According to announcement of the 
Rcsco Laboratories their Emulsion Re- 
mover enables one to make a firmer 
splice with greater ease and perfection. 

The Emulsion Remover peels the 
emu'sion from the base of the film. With 
ordinary scrapers the tendency is to 
scrape the base, making the base thinner 
than necessary for making the splice ac- 
cording to their claim. 

The importance of avoiding scraping 
the base thin is readily discerned, since 
the cement is apt to dissolve the thinned 
area, making the patch weaker at the 
outer edges of the splice, causing the 
splice to tear apart. 

The Emulsion Remover is an instru- 
ment having a moistened wick in the 
barrel of the holder with a straight blade 
at the end and the wick extends under 
the blade. 

For operation the emulsion is moist- 
ened with the wick and the blade peels 
off the emulsion. 

A gentle turn of the fingers alternates 
the wick and blade, placing either in 
position for operation. 

The Emulsion Remover moistens the 
emulsion, instead of saturating it. When 
the film becomes saturated, the excess 
water will soften the emulsion beyond 
the splicing area. 

Film Cement attacks the base of the 
film best, when less moisture is present. 

New Wipe Off Device 

• J. D. Cochrane Jr. of Cincinnati an- 
nounces he is about to market a wipe 




off device to fit the Cine special under 
the trade name of DuMorr Radial Wipe. 

This device is a self contained unit 
which can be mounted on the tilting 
tripod head allowing the camera to be 
bolted in place in the usual manner. No 
modification of the camera is necessary 
other than the removal of the eight- 
f rame-per-turn crank and installing on 
this axle a gear which actuates the 
mechanism. A special spring-winding 
key is provided to take the place of the 
regular handle in winding the spring 
motor when the wiping device is in use. 
Also, a special rewinding handle is sup- 
plied for use on the one-frame-per-turn 
axle to rewind the film in making a 
wipe. The accessory weighs one pound 
and is constructed mainly cf black For- 
mica. 

The direction of the wipe can be made 
from right to left or vice versa by twist- 
ing the belt on either set of pulleys. The 
effect can be further modified by vary- 
ing the number of frames of film re- 
wound, producing either a black or white 
radial beam as desired. The length of 
the wipe can be either 1 Vi or 3 seconds 
according to which set of pulleys are 
used for the belt which drives the fan. 

Leica Data Book 

• The fourth edition of the Leica Data 
Book by Karl A. Barleben Jr. F.R.P.S. 
has just been published by the Fomo 
Publishing Company of Canton, Ohi"\ 

This little handy sized book which 
sells for $1.00 has 84 pages of inter- 
esting information for the users of the 
popular Leica camera. 

The book is divided into seven main 
divisions. The first treats with lenses, 
the second is titled "Exposure Data," 
the third "Film Data," then follow "Fil- 
ter Data," "Projection Data," "Develop- 
ing Data" and "Conversion Data." 

Book of Formulas 

• For many years "HENLEY'S 20th 
CENTURY BOOK OF FORMULAS, PRO- 
CESSES AND TRADE SECRETS" has 
been a standard book. 

Last month the new 1935 edition, 
revised under the editorship of Prof. T. 
O'Conor Sloane, made its appearance. 

The formulas themselves, have been 
revised. The latest methods and trade 
practices have been included. Many 

(Continued on Page 220> 



KODACHROME 

FULL-COLOR MOVIES with any 

16 in in. camera of lOO-foot film capacity 



H, 



ERE are the facts about Kodachrome, the new 
Eastman full -color 16 mm. film, of which Dr. C. E. 
Kenneth Mees, Vice-President in charge of Research 
and Development, Eastman Kodak Company, says : 
. . The pictures made by this new process . . . KODA- 
CHROME . . . are a revelation ..." 

The page opposite answers your questions about it. 



KODACHROME demonstra- 
tion reels are now in the hands 
of all active Cine-Kodak deal- 
ers. Make a point of seeing Ko- 
dachrome. The pictures speak 
for themselves. Eastman Kodak 
Company, Rochester, N. Y. 





KODACHROME 




P 



YES — If your camera loads 
with 100-foot rolls of 16 mm. 
film — regardless of its lens 
speed. All diaphragm "stops" from/.16 to/.1.9 
are "go" signs for Kodachrome. Merely slip a 
roll of Kodachrome into your camera, use the 
next larger diaphragm stop than that required 
for Cine-Kodak Panchromatic black-and- 
white film (for example, /.8 instead of /.ll) and 
get movies in full, natural color. And you can 
make them with telephoto and wide anglelenses 
as well as with the standard lens of yourcamera. 



]^(><j<La_cJ^AxrmJi__ ? 

YES, with the full brilliance 
and full size of black-and- 
white. There are no lines, no 
fringes, no screen pattern — 
only smooth, beautiful color. No filter is neces- 
sary. The color is in the film. 




For your projector — NONE. 
For outdoor Kodachrome — 
NONE, except when making 
distance shots with a tele- 
photo lens, long range shots with the standard 
lens, snow or high altitude scenes, or shots on 
gray days. For subjects such as these the Ko- 
dachrome Haze Filter is suggested. No change 
in exposure is required for this filter. Its price, 
depending upon the lens and camera used, is 
from $1.75 to $3.75. And for indoor Koda- 
chrome with Photoflood Lamps a similarly 
priced Kodachrome Filter for Photoflood is 
recommended to cut down the preponderance 
of red rays found in artificial light. Kodaflector, 
Eastman's $5 twin-reflector lighting unit, is 
your best source of illumination. Outdoor ex- 
posure instructions are packed with each roll 
of Kodachrome. Indoor instructions may be 
obtained from your dealer. 



Focusing cameras can be set at "25 feet," or 
universal focus, just as when using black-and- 
white film. Nor are fixed focus cameras handi- 
capped when using Kodachrome. Merely ob- 
serve the usual precautions when taking close- 
ups, and use the portrait attachment if your 
camera is so equipped. 




YES. Those who do not wish 
to make all their movies in 
color can splice black-and- 
white and Kodachrome se- 
quences together, project them consecutively. 
Focus and brilliance are substantially identical. 




All active Cine-Kodak dealers 
in the United States should 
have Kodachrome in stock 
right now. 

The price is $9 for 100 feet, 
including processing at Rochester, N. Y. 




At the present time Koda- 
chrome Film is available only 
in the form of 16 mm. film 
because we have only been 
able to work out the processing methods and 
to construct the necessary machinery for the 
16 mm. film. 




Most Cine-Kodak dealers are 
already equipped to show you 
Kodachrome. Visit your deal- 
er at once. Learn for yourself 
how inadequate any printed 
description of this amazing discovery really is. 
Visualize your favorite movie subjects as re- 
produced with the unmatched beauty and 
realism that only Kodachrome can bring to 
your screen. 



For the time being Kodachrome Film is being processed 
at Rochester, N. Y., only. As soon as practicable other 
stations will be equipped to process Kodachrome. 



218 American Cinematographer • May 1935 



Start Planning for 

the 1935 Contest 

Now is the time to start planning for the American 
Cinematographer 1935 Amateur Movie Contest. 

There will be a number of outstanding prizes. All 
worth while competing for. 

THE GRAND PRIZE WILL BE $250 in cash. 

EASTMAN KODAK CO. OFFERS $150 in equipment. 
BELL & HOWELL OFFERS $150 in equipment. 

Start preparing now for entry . . . plan your pic- 
ture. You can make it on either 16mm or 8mm. 

Last year the grand prize winner was an 8mm user. 
The year before it was also an 8mm user. The size of your 
equipment is no bar to your winning. 

The entries must be in the offices of the American 
Cinematographer by midnight, November 30, 1935. 

If you wish further information address 

Contest Editor 

American Cinematographer 

6331 Hollywood Blvd. Hollywood, Calif. 



May 1935 • American Cinematographer 



219 



Here's a frame enlargement, made 
from a movie film. The Weston 
Meter gave the exposure for the 
original picture shown at the right. 





Weston Universal 
EXPOSURE Meter 
for use with alt inmeras 
. . . movies, miniatures 
and stills. 



Frame Enlargements 

jitave the <^l~ccutacij 

OF WESTON EXPOSURES 

Will your pictures stand this acid test? Take any frame 
from one of your movie films. Enlarge it. Will you get 
results as shown ahove? You will ... if a Weston 
Exposure Meter is used when shooting the film . . . for 
then every frame will be correctly exposed. True, your 
desire in making movies is not for frame enlargements; 
hut you do want clear, sparkling movies ... a re-creation 
of brilliance and life on the screen. You will get it if 
your exposures are correct . . . and they're sure to be 
correct if a Weston is used . . . Weston Electrical Instru- 
ment Corporation, 598 Frelinghuysen Ave., Newark, N. J. 



Weston H 

&tposmvAfefers 



220 American Cinematographer • May 1935 



EASTMAN'S NEW 16mm COLOR 

FILM SENSATIONAL 



(Continued from Page 209) 



is transformed into a blue-green positive; 
the image in the middle green-sensitive 
layer, into a magenta positive; and the 
one in the top blue-sensitive layer, into 
a yellow positive. This is accomplished 
by an extremely complex processing 
system. The images in the three layers 
are first developed, as with ordinary 
black and white film, and then by a 
series of treatments the images in the 
three layers are transformed into posi- 
tives formed in the dye. The whole of 
the silver salts are removed finally, and 
the image consists of three superim- 
posed dye pictures. 

"The process is the invention of Mr. 
Leopold Mannes and Mr. Leo Godow- 
sky, Jr. These gentlemen are musicians 
whose names were well known in the 
musical world when some years ago they 
commenced the study of color photog- 
raphy as a hobby. As a result of collab- 
oration between them and the Kodak 
Research Laboratories for a number of 
years, it was evident that the work 
could only be brought to a successful 
conclusion by a full utilization of the re- 



search and manufacturing facilities 
available at Kodak Park. Here, there 
were available experts of many kinds: 
organic chemists, emulsion-makers, dye 
specialists, photographic chemists, and 
experts in photographic operations — 
and in 1931, therefore, Mr. Godowsky 
and Mr. Mannes joined the staff of the 
Research Laboratories. By the complete 
cooperation of the staff of the Labora- 
tories and of the Kodak Park Works, a 
task which at first appeared impossible 
was achieved and the Kodachrome proc- 
ess is the result. 

"The processing, as has been said, 
is extremely complicated and involves 
the treatment of the film upon three 
separate machines. Experience has 
shown, however, that it can be performed 
with certainty and that the commercial 
production of the color pictures pre- 
sents little more difficulty than the pro- 
duction of black-and-white pictures, al- 
though the complex processing treatment 
and the expensive chemicals used in it 
naturally increase the cost considerably." 



WHEELS OF INDUSTRY 

(Continued from Page 2151 

complete sections are composed of en- 
tirely new material. 

The scope of the book is so extensive 
that both amateurs and professional 
workers will find it valuable. There are 
10,000 different formulas for all sorts 
of things for the photographer, house- 
holder, farmer, mechanic, laboratory 
worker — from making simple household 
washing powders or writing inks to prac- 
tical methods of heat treating steel. 

There is a very complete, cross-refer- 
enced index and a plainly written section 
on laboratory methods. 

"HENLEY'S 20th CENTURY BOOK 
OF FORMULAS, PROCESSES AND 
TRADE SECRETS" sells for $4.00. 

DABBLING IN MAKEUP 

(Continued from Page 210) 

skin, and that tricks the camera into 
thinking the skin is perfectly smooth. 
Street makeup, you know, is nearly al- 
ways applied dry and can't get into the 
pores and color them the same as it 
does the surface. 

This theory satisfies my own curiosity, 



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tripod sound recording attachment and universal 
motor. 



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May 1935 • American Cinematographer 221 



but whether it is correct or not you'll 
have to find out for yourself elsewhere. 

Personally, I have found straight 
makeup a lot more difficult than char- 
acter makeup, because straight makeup 
requires a knowledge of skin textures 
and colorings which in my engineering 
experience is quite locking. I can make 
up characters easier than I can make up 
straights because bold accentuation of 
a desired feature is a lot easier than a 
more subtle accentuation. 

If you think I'm talking in riddles, if 
you believe straight makeup is foolproof 
and can be done by anyone regardless 
of his or her experience, all you've got 
to do is try it. If you hit it lucky the 
first time, you'll probably laugh at me, 
but my laugh will come when you try to 
duplicate the results and your luck has 
run out on you. I'm only trying to com- 
bat the idea that just because makeup 
is "straight," it can be put on with- 
out serious thought. And this isn't said 
because I happened to find straights 
harder to do than characters — I know of 
many other dabblers in makeup who 
have discovered the same thing. 

But let's get down to cases and write 
down just how we got the results we 
did. What numbers of paints and pow- 
ders did we use? What lip rouges were 
applied? What eye shadow? 

Makeup, like any other art, cannot 
be measured with a yardstick and put 
on according to formulae. Some actual 
experience and practice is quite neces- 
sary. You cannot afford to take the 
exact shades we happened to use on 
these two models and expect results ex- 
actly like ours, because your models may 
not have the same facial expression, the 
same skin textures, the same cranial 
framework as ours had. So, when we 
say we used such - and - such paint or 
powder, remember that your own models 
may not correspond to ours, and use 
your own judgment. 

The young lady of the upper set of 
photographs is a brunette with light skin. 
Her upper eyelids are full and round, 
and the bony structure, being well pad- 
ded, casts no deep shadow above the 
eyes. Because thin eyebrows are the 
present style in feminine beauty, she 
plucks them into rather a thin line. With 
the full, rounded brow structure which 
she has, her face photographs as if she 
were constantly lifting her brows in an 
attitude of questioning — as if she were 
ready to say, "Yes?" Consequently, this 
alters her expression, and the camera 
does not yield a life-like image. To 
draw the brows down and connect them 
more closely to the eyes, then, requires 
a bit of shadow. We used the grey eye 
shadow to get a shadow because the 
lighting would have made it disappear. 
The film doesn't care whethei the dark 
space is made by actual shadow cast by 
lights or by synthetic shadows produced 
with makeup. 




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SHOOT ALL THE FUN OF A GLAMOROUS 
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SHOOT YOUR FRIENDS WHEN THEY'RE NOT 
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Leica shots by Ivan Dimifri 
E. LEITZ, INC. DEPARTMENT 26 



This same young lady has a beautiful 
mouth, especially when it's opened in a 
smile or in conversation. It recuires only 
smooth application of medium lip rouge, 
with the upper lip made a trifle heavier 
and fuller so that it will photograph 
rich and full when the camera is above 
the line of her lips or when she looks 
down below the camera. Last month, 
you remember, we made mention of this 
little makeup trick and gave the reason 
for the slightly fuller than normal upper 
lip rouging. 

The young lady in the lower set of 
pictures is also a brunette, but her skin 
is darker, more olive in color. Where 



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the other model used No. 22 pancro, 
this one used No. 23. Both could have 
used one shade darker under the full 
illumination we used in making these 
pictures, but for average filming, the 
lights probably wouldn't be so intense 



222 American Cinematographer • May 1935 



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full-face and the ones we used would 
have been correct. 

The outstanding feature of the sec- 
ond model is her deep-set eyes. In real 
life her eyes derive much of their beauty 
from the dark surrounding lids, but the 
camera has a tendency to accentuate 
unpleasantly the wrinkles under her eyes, 
giving a dissipated mien. The use of 
brown eye shadow brings out the deep 
setting of the model's eyes with make- 
up, but we kept the shadow confined to 
a smaller area and out of the wrinkle 
area. The shadow was very sparingly 
applied, much more so than in the case 
of the first model, because the lights 
themselves show some shadow with the 
second model. You will notice that con- 
siderably more top-lighting on the "af- 
ter" picture of number two still doesn't 
make the eye shadows too deep, a thing 
for which we may thank makeup. 

The lips of the second model pre- 
sented somewhat of a problem, since 
the lower was rather full but the upper 



rather thin. Consequently, not only was 
the upper lip made fuller, but we tried 
to thin the lower lip slightly, by not 
rouging the lip quite so fully. 

So much for the experiments we tried 
in straight makeup on the faces of two 
rather different models. We found it 
lots of fun trying to make up these faces 
so they would photograph naturally, and 
learning the fundamentals of facial con- 
tours is a most interesting phase of 
movie makeup. We found that where 
there was no photographic shadow, 
makeup could provide one. And we 
found that natural shadows can also be 
toned down, with makeup. 

Try some of this business of straight 
makeup yourself. It won't cost much, 
and it offers a pastime which can be 
substituted for the weekly bridge party 
when friends drop in. Next month we'll 
go into character makeup, something 
all of us think we know something about 
but which can be very baffling at times. 



A Documentary ' Film from Stock Shots 



(Continued from Page 212) 



19, but made in a hot, contrasty top- 
light, so that the tree leaves glitter and 
give an impression of unrelieved sunlight. 

TITLE: . . . sometimes swift . . . 

Scene 22. Close shot of surging 
rapids. (If you have the footage, this 
can be elaborated by repeating in a ser- 
ies of short flashes made from different 
angles, and of different rapids.) 

TITLE: . . . sometimes slow . . . 

Scene 23. Long - shot of a placid, 
mirror-like stretech of river. This should 
be of relatively long duration, to add 
to the sense of slowness, and to contrast 
with the quick flashes suggested for the 
previous scene. 

TITLE: . . . wave succeeding wave 
they go." 

Scene 24. Close shot of ripples on 
the surface of a stream. 

Scene 25. Close shot of a stretch 
of white-water rapids; if possible, from 
above, panning up- or down-stream to 
show a long succession of rapids. 

TITLE: At times, they merge to form 
a placid lake. 

Scene 26. FADE IN: Long-shot of 
a very calm lake, mirroring mountains, 
trees and sky. 

Scene 27. Another, similar scene. 
FADE OUT. 

TITLE: At times, they fall in head- 
long flights of foam. 

Scene 28. Long - shot of a high 
waterfall: if possible, with a person in 
the field, to indicate the height of the 
fall. 

Scene 29. Medium-shot of the fall, 
or a different one, if you have scenes 
of more than one. FADE OUT. 

TITLE: Until, at last, they slip into 
the sea . . . 

Scene 30. Long-shot (from a high 



viewpoint) of the mouth of a river, 
flowing into the sea. (A back-light is 
good for this.) 

TITLE: . . . where they are drawn 
again unto the sun. 

Scene 31. Long - shot of back - lit 
surf, sky and clouds, similar to Scene 
2. 

TITLE: And so it goes, a constant, 
ceaseless chain — an endless tale — the 
romance of a river. 

Scene 32. Medium long-shot of a 
strong, swift river, flowing away from 
the camera between high banks. FADE 
OUT. 

TITLE: THE END. 

This sort of a picture proves surpris 
ingly interesting on the screen, though 
it may appear simple on paper. Granted 
good photography and clever cutting, 
the result should be highly effective, 
despite the simplicity of the framework. 
Of course, this outline should be adapted 
to suit the particular scenes one has 
at hand: if for instance, one has scenes 
showing boats, ships and the like on a 
river, a sequence can be added to util- 
ize them; similarly, if one has a variery 
of shots of waterfalls and rapids, they 
should be utilized. This structure offers 
some fine opportunities to experiment 
with rhythmic cutting, especially in con- 
trasting long, slow scenes, faded in and 
out, in the sequences illustrating the 
slow, placid streams, with a medley of 
short, quick flashes in the scenes of the 
falls and rapids. In my own picture, I 
found that the effectiveness of the film 
was greatly increased by toning the en- 
tire reel blue. For amateur use, this can 
very easily be done by using the "Tab- 
loid" blue toner, which is available at 
most good photo-supply stores. 



May 1935 • American Cinematographer 223 



GOERZ 



The Camera I Would Like To Own 



Enough of the arguments about 8. 
There will always be the die-hard group, 
just as there was when 16 came along. 
But 16 is here, and it will stay, just as 
8 is here and here to stay. Choose your 
weapons, and then be man enough to 
admit with tolerance that the other fel- 
low's weapons and cause may be just as 
good as your own. 

And so, I've decided on 8. That 
means equipment about half the size of 
16, and a film cost of a third of 16. 
With that momentous decision made, let 
us proceed in a less argumentative vein. 

I should like very much to have a 
single lens of the Varo type, in which 
the elements may be varied to make 
the lens anything from Vz" focal length 
to 1 Vz", with automatic iris diaphragm. 
I don't know whether this could be built 
or not, this Varo lens for 8mm work, 
but if any of my readers happen lo be 
lens designers, I would appreciate your 
comments on the idea. 

If I couldn't have a Varo lens (and 
the sketches have shown otherwise), I 
would be satisfied with a three-lens tur- 



(Continued from Page 213) 

to less than 1/1 5th second) 



ret carrying a Vz 



and a 1 Vz" . 



I don't personally care for wide angle 
lenses or extra long telephotos, and the 
range mentioned would be quite ade- 
quate for most work. I would have all 
the lenses so mounted, however, that 
the turret did the moving for focusing, 
not, the lenses themselves, as is now 
the case. Why go to the expense of 
calibrating each lens (and they tell me 
such calibration is a considerable parr 
of lens costs) and making a screw 
mount for this adjustment, when the 
whole set could just as well be moved? 

Focusing? Oh yes, that's a most im- 
portant item. I should require a focus- 
ing means basically similar to that in 
the Cine-Kodak Special, but I would 
have this combined with the brilliant 
finder in such a way as to make either 
field visible thru the same finder. If 
the subject were bright enough, I would 
use the thru-the-lens image all during 
the shot, but if the illumination were 
ten poor for that, I could use the bril- 
liant finder. 

So many are the advantages of get- 
ting absolute focus and field limits with 
a thru-the-lens viewer that it hardly 
seems necessary to review them. You 
and I know that only when we can see 
exactly what the lens sees can we be 
absolutely certain of our picture results. 

Exposure? Automatic? No, I wouldn't 
want that. After all, one does like to 
have some say-so about what's to be 
recorded and how it is to be recorded. 
I would want a Weston exposure metei 
built right into the camera, possibly with 
a few minor revisions of the scales for 
simplicity (for instance, there would be 
no need for the scale to indicate down 



the pho- 

tronic cell facing the subject alongside 
the camera lens, the meter and scales 
located conveniently near the speed and 
shutter opening controls. If a picture 
was to be made of a subject having a 
brightness scale greater than the film 
had, the whole camera could be moved 
from portion to portion of the subject 
to determine the limits. 

Now to a most important feature as 
regards convenience in operation — film 
magazines. The introduction of film 
magazines is, I think, one of the finest 
innovations in amateur cine work. Not 
making use of our cameras every day, 
we amateurs lose the fine touch and 
almost mechanical rapidity necessary to 
fast, accurate film threading. Conse- 
quently, a bungling job is done under 
conditions of pressure, and if we take 
time to thread the film properly, the 
shot is gone while we are getting ready 
for it with a new roll, the previous roll 
having disconcertingly come to an end 
right in the middle of the best part of 
the scene. 

I am not wholly in favor of a maga- 
zine of the design used by Pockette and 
the new Bell & Howell 121 cameras, 
probably for the reason that I begrudge 
paying an extra fee for magazine con- 
venience every time I load. I personally 
had much rather buy a pair or so of 
magazines outright, and load them up 
myself, in the manner of the Cine - 
Kodak Special. The bulk required by 
a roll of 16, however, is unnecessary 
with a little roll of 8. Where the maga- 
zine on the Special seems entirely too 
large for me, I can picture a very com- 
pact 8 magazine, even of the type I 
would load with regulation spools. 

And now we come to the one point 
which only one amateur cine camera in 
the world (excluding the custom job 
of Berndt) provides — an adjustable 
shutter. Where not one amateur still 
worker in a hundred, if he knows his 
stuff, would take pictures of action at 
the slow speed of 1/30 of a second, 
the cine worker is forced to take any 
and all of his movies, whether the sub- 
ject is standing stock-still or galloping 
for dear life, at that very speed. I'm 
going to keep on panning manufacturers 
until the editor will be notified by the 
advertisers that they'll refuse to use 
space in AMERICAN CINEMATOG- 
RAPHER until that Grace person quits 
writing for the magazine, but I'll have 
a lot of fun watching these same peo- 
ple someday yield to public demand for 
just such things as variable shutters on 
amateur cine cameras. 

Now for the final paragraph i i •■ j 
specifications for the ccme r o I'd ! ^.e to 
own and use. "Sound-on-f ilm recording 



LENSES 

FOR EXCELLENT PERFORMANCE 
IN CINEMATOGRAPHY 

Kino-Hypar F/2.7-F/3 

An all-'round lens giving microscopic 
definition and affording crisp, bril- 
liant images. 

Cinegor F/2-F/2.5 

A highly corrected High Speed Lens. 
Ideal under conditions of poor light. 

Telestar F/4.5 

A Telephoto Lens of Good Covering 
Power and correction. 

24-Page Catalog on Request. 

C. P. Goerz American Optical Co. 
317 East 34th St. New York 



16mm. 400 ft., 1200 ft. and 1600 ft. solid 
aluminum reels.' 




The Ideal humidifying can for your film 
Prices to Dealers on Application. 



KIN-O-LUX.Inc^^ 



tEEBil 

your films. Ill 
ication. jMM 



The New 16mm 

PANCHROMATIC NEGATIVES 

(Eastman, Agfa, Dupont) 

will surprise you with their fine qual- 
ity, their beautiful tones and grainless 
reproductions, if you have them devel- 
oped by the 

DUNNINC GRAINLESS METHOD 

DUNNING PROCESS COMPANY 

932 N. La Brea Avenue 
Hollywood, Calif. 

(35mm reduced to 16mm) 




EXTENSION 
ARMS 
For 

RCA SOUND 
PROJECTORS 
PG 38 & PG 60 

1600-Foot Reel 
Capacity 



MODEL A. Solid aluminum casting 
finished in black crackle. All other 
parts nickel plated. With geared re- 
wind which may be released when not 
in use. 

List Price, $50.00 



MODEL B. Same as Model A, without 
the geared rewind. 

List Price, $25.00 
G. A. Bused & Company 

33 WEST 60TH ST. NEW YORK 

Phone Cir 7-2408 



224 American Cinematographer • May 1935 



WE WANT TO BUY 

Sound-On-Film, Silent and Sound-On- 
Disc 16mm films. 

Submit your list. State lowest price 
acceptable, or let us quote our bid. 

Visual Instruction Supply Corp. 

1757 Broadway Brooklyn, N. Y. 



HUGO MEYER 

Lenses 

for all 16 and 35mm Cameras 
THE HIGHEST QUALITY 
THE WORLD AFFORDS 
HUGO MEYER & CO. 

245 West 55th Street, New York 



head to be built into the camera." Only 
with the split 8 do I vision practical 
S-O-F recording for the amateur, for 
the reason that when you put the sound 
on the same strip of film with the pic- 
ture, the splice has to be so long that 
it's a difficult thing for amateurs to 
make. They have a hard enough time 
making a straight splice hold with their 
silent films. With 8, tho, it's a different 
story, for then the splices are short. 
Loading the projector with a picture 
roll and a separate sound roll would 
cause no troubles, because both films 
would be driven by the same gearing. 

If I have trod on the toes of camera 
makers in this outburst of day dreaming, 



please forgive me. May I point out 
that I have also left out of the "perfect 
camera" any apparatus for making 
fades, dissolves, wipes, etc., and I hap- 
pen to manufacture these items myself. 
I don't believe the effects should be 
built in, but should be made in an op- 
tical printer after edition of the film 
has been carefully made. Of course, 
that means extra film and an expensive 
printer, so perhaps I'll still enjoy an in- 
stallation now and then for those who 
think they can time their effects cor- 
rectly as they make them. At any rate, 
whether you agree with my ideas of the 
camera or not, pray at least believe me 
honest in my own convictions. 



LONGEVITY . . . 

Each roll of Kin-O-Lux 16mm Reversal 
film is subjected to Scratch-Proofing 
after it is processed, thereby increasing 
its life and rendering it pratically im- 
mune to the deteriorating influences of 
time and weather. 

No. 1, Green Box, 100 ft $3.00 

50 ft 2.00 

No. 2, Red Box, 100 ft 3 50 

50 ft 2.50 

Prices include 
Processing, 
Scratch- 
Proofing and 
return postage. 

KIN-0-LUX>c. 

107 W. 40th St. N.Y. 




Fearless Silent 1 6mm Professional 



Camera 



(Continued from Page 214) 



shaft, thus transmitting the motor power 
directly to the most highly stressed part 
of the camera and eliminating a great 
deal of noise caused from gears. The 
motor itself absorbs any vibration caused 
by the intermittent movement. 

Silent bakelite gears are used to drive 
the sprockets and shutter shaft. A large 
heavy shutter of the two-opening type 
running at a speed one-half of the inter- 



a 



HIGH FIDELITY 

RECORDING GALVANOMETER 

(Variable Area System) 




FREQUENCY RANGE to 10,000 Cycles. 

The above illustration shows our high fidelity 
unit in new compact mounting. 

Price $300.00 in U.S.A. 

Also available in tubular mounting previously 
advertised. Literature and thorough technical 
description sent upon request. 



TECHNICAL DETAILS: 
All optical parts permanently 
adjusted. Unit requires 6-volt 
battery for lamp and field. Sig- 
nal winding operates from ^ 1 5 
ohms or any standard line im- 
pedance. Power required to 
drive is 1 /3 watt. Line image 
y 2 mil by 70 mils, focused by 
large- head screw. Mounting 
holes which are shown exteno 
clear through. Unit may be 
mounted and focused from 
either side. We will mount it 
on any recorder or camera 
equipped with sound gate for 
slight additional charge. 



THE BERNDT-MAURER CORP. 



1 12 East 73rd Street 



New York 



mittent mechanism is used for a fly- 
wheel. This heavy revolving shutter also 
absorbs any noise that might be trans- 
mitted to the front of the camera and 
makes it possible to make colored pic- 
tures of the Kinema Color type directly, 
by inserting the proper Orange red, and 
Blue green, filters in front of each of 
the shutter openings. 

Three color separation or four color 
separation negative may be produced in 
the same way by using two films and 
Bi-Pack magazines. Of course, with the 
Bi-Pack magazine attachment colored 
pictures of the Du Chrome process may 
be made directly in the camera, just the 
same as they are now made in the pro- 
fessional 35mm camera. 

A standard Fearless silent movement 
of reduced size is used to feed the film 
intermittently past the aperture. A claw 
pin is used to pull the film down and a 
pilot pin is used to lock the film during 
the exposure. This movement is ex- 
tremely easy to thread and due to sim- 
plicity of design and accuracy of work- 
manship is so silent that only by placing 
the ear against the frame of the move- 
ment can any sound be heard while in 
operation. 

An automatic anti-buckling device is 
built into the camera. This device con- 
trols the tension upon the film as it is 
taken up into the magazine and pre- 
vents any slack film from accumulating 
in the camera to cause the so-called 
buckle. 

A trap is built into the bottom of the 
camera so that film may be fed into the 
camera down through the intermittent 
movement, over suitable tension rollers 
and down into the sound recording at- 
tachment where sound may be recorded 
directly upon the picture as it is being 
photographed. 

The recording feed sprocket is hobbed 
by a special method for securing uni- 
form motion to the film and is controlled 
by a fly wheel and spring or mechanical 



May 1935 • American Cinematographer 225 



filter. After recording has taken place 
the film passes back into the camera 
case to the take up or feed sprocket and 
then back into the film magazine. The 
camera of course can be used without 
the sound recording attachment. 

The shutter opening is controlled by 
a hand operated adjusting knob, and is 
arranged for making dissolves or fade 
in and fade outs. A three-speed dissolve 
mechanism being built into the camera 
so that dissolves of 32, 64 and 1 28 
frames may be made. All controls are at 
the rear of the camera where they may 
be easily operated. 
The New Fearless Magazine 

The new Fearless Magazine is being 
announced along with the advent of the 
new Fearless Silent 16mm Camera. Over 
eighteen months' time was spent in ex- 
perimenting, research, and patent in- 
vestigation before the Fearless Camera 
Company had developed a magazine 
that they feel would be superior to any 
now on the market. 

A camera magazine at first thought 
appears to present no problems, but with 
a little thought any cameraman will 
realize that thousands of feet of film 
have been spoiled by the magazine. 
Scratches are one of their worst faults. 
Practically all buckles in a camera are 
caused by improperly constructed maga- 
zines. Most magazines are extremely 
hard to thread, and it is almost impos- 
sible to keep them clean; and in every 
case it takes a great amount of labor 
to dismantle the magazine to remove 
rollers and light trap for cleaning. All 
of the magazines now on the market 
are somewhat noisy. 

Realizing all the above defects, the 
Fearless Camera Company has perfected 
a new type magazine which overcomes 
the troubles found in most magazines. 
The new magazines were designed pri- 
marily for silence, serviceability, dura- 
bility and reliability, and are extremely 
easy to load. 

The main magazine casting carries 
the take-up rollers and spools. This as- 
sembly is carried out on instrument type 
bearings. 

Film is fed from the carrier spool 
through a free opening lighi trap where 
the light is trapped by two rollers which 
are also mounted on precision instru- 
ment type bearings, and by a velvet lin- 
ing in the throat of the magazine. The 
rollers are made from duralumin and 
the roller shafts from steel. The light 
trap is removable from the magazine. 
Six screws in the bottom of the mag- 
azine hold it in place in the main cast- 
ing. These may be removed in a few 
seconds time and the entire trap re- 
moved. The light trap assembly can be 
quickly taken apart by removing four 
screws from the side of the casting. In 
fact the light trap can be removed, com- 
pletely dismantled, cleaned, and re- 
assembled in less than ten minutes time. 



The perfection of design, the mater 
ials used in fabrication and the extreme 
pains taken to insure precision machins 
work in their construction makes the 
Fearless Magazine buckle proof, dust 
proof, and insures against trouble. 

Inasmuch as this camera has been 
developed for the professional camera- 
man no expense has been spared to 
make it the finest camera of its kind 
in the world. Only the finest materials 
and the highest quality workmanship 
have been used in its construction and 
it is presented as the finest 16mm pro- 
fessional camera in the world. 




Now Ready for Release 

PEERLESS 
I omm FEATURES 

New 16mm Subjects Cathered from 
All Parts of the World. 
Send for Lists and Prices. 

PEERLESS CINE NEWS 
And Reveiw 
1437 No. Highland Ave. 
Hollywood, California 




&AI Tf-LI Tf- 
TRU VISION 



portable projection- 
screens 



Whenever Motion Pictures are judged for their per- 
formance, construction, appearance and price, Brite- 
iite Truvision screens rate highest. They come in a 
wide variety of styles including folding (illustrated), 
back board, metal tube and easel models. 



De Luxe "A" Model 
30"x40" $15 List. 

Other Sizes in Proportion. 



MOTION PICTURE SCREEN & ACCESSORIES CO. 



51 WEST 24TH STREET 



NEW YORK CITY 



Fotoshop Declares Dividend 

Satisfied users of Fotoshop Cine films have so increased in number, that thru our 
larger raw stock purchases and the installation of more modern laboratory equipment, 
we have been able to effect a great saving. 



WE PASS THIS DIVIDEND ON TO OUR CUSTOMERS IN GREATLY RE- 
DUCED PRICES 



(2 rolls for $4.00) 



Our Regular No. 2450 Film Now 

Formerly priced at $2.79 per 100 ft. f Otlly 

Due to the extremely low price of this film 
postage is not included in purchase price. J 

Cet more enjoyment from your movies by not cutting your scenes too short. Now 
you can take "all your shots" and use plenty of footage without that exhorbitant cost. 

A New Low-Priced Indoor Film 

OUR REGULAR NO. 5900 HIGH SPEED PANCHRO- > NOW $3.75 
MATIC FILM, Per 100 ft. (including processing) ) (2 rolls for $7.25) 

This is the lowest price ever quoted on any High Speed Panchromatic Film. As good 
for indoors as it is outdoors. 



FOTOSHOP, inc. 



136 W. 32nd St., 
New York City 



USE THIS COUPON 



FOTOSHOP LABORATORIES 
136 West 32nd St., N.Y.C. 

I enclose with this coupon my check for $ Please send me 

1 100-ft. foil of your Regular Film No. 2450 at $2 19 d^t-lj l <m- ->i- 

1 100-ft. roll of your Hi-Speed Pan. Film No. 5900 at.. 3.75 Bum tor -PJ-25 

(plus postage) 



$5.94 



NAME. 



ADDRESS 

Offer Cood for Limited Time Only 



226 American Cinematographer 



• May 1935 



CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING 



Rates: Seven cents a word. Minimum 
charge, one dollar per insertion. 



FOR SALE— MISCELLANEOUS 



FILMOPHONE complete with projector, ampli- 
fier, speaker, like new $189.50. Humidor 
case for 10-400' 16mm reels with lock, key 
$2.49. Used features and single reels $3.75 
reel. Used humidor cans 35c. 200' 16mm 
self threading aluminum reels 28c, with 
humidor 49c. Humidifier 25c. Beaded 
screen material 72c per sq. ft. 30"x40" 
beaded screen on rollers new $4.86. Koda- 
color filter, 2 density filters for C.K. models 
$7.50, Victor and B&H $11.50. Sept camera 
with magazines, case $22.50. DeVry still 
35mm camera $5.95. Projector for same 
$8.95. Titler for Simplex Pockette Camera 
$3.69. Sound silent library, free member- 
ship, films shipped anywhere, trades ac- 
cepted. We carry everything in still and 
motion picture equipment. MOCULL BROS., 
1944-C Boston Rd., N.Y.C. M 



$650. Used Single System and cases. Com- 
plete except batteries. Moviesound Com- 
pany, Jamaica, Long Island. M 



WHY USE MAKESHIFTS for your movie titles? 
Print your titles with real printers' type. 
Complete outfit reasonably priced. Send for 
circular. ELITE Title Outfit, 82 S. W. Stark 
Street, Portland, Oregon. 



RECORDING CLOW LAMP, improved type 
$8.00. Slightly used recording equipment 
and 35mm portable sound projector. Rea- 
sonable. CANADY, 19570 S. Sagamore Rd., 
Cleveland, Ohio. 



EDUCATIONAL Camera Blimp and Dolly for 
Mitchell Camera. Follow Focus Device, gear- 
ed free head, three wheels, pneumatic tires, 
cost $1250, special $500. Hollywood Camera 
Exchange, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, 
Calif. Cable HOCAMEX. 



GENUINE Bell & Howell, 1000-ft. magazines 
in excellent condition, $50.00 each. Four 
hundred foot magazines, $25.00 each. Four 
hundred foot Mitchell magazines, $25.00 
each. Cases for above, $10.00 each. Holly- 
wood Camera Exchange, 1600 Cahuenga 
Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. Cable HOCAMEX. 



ARTREEVES latest 1935 portable double sound 
recording unit with double sprocket recorder, 
automatic speed conTrol motor, twin fidelity 
optical unit. Latest type camera motor. 
New type microphone. Complete factory 
guaranteed, $2,400. This is the only au- 
thentic ArtReeves equipment for sale in 
Hollywood outside factory. Camera Supply 
Co., Ltd., 1515 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood. 
Calif. 



BELL & Howell and Eyemo Cameras, lenses, 
magazines, tripods, moviolas, splicers, re- 
winds, measuring and synchronizing ma- 
chines. All kinds sound and laboratory 
equipment. Process, optical reduction and 
step printers. Eastman & Dupdnt spliced 
negatives tested and guaranteed 2%c per 
foot, 100-ft. rolls, black leader each end on 
spools, $2.75. Inquiries invited. CONTI- 
NENTAL FILMCRAFT, 1611 Cosmo St., Hol- 
lywood, Calif. 



MITCHELL CAMERA, very quiet steel gear?., 
3 Pan Tachar lenses, Free head, complete 
studio equipment, excellent condition, 
$1300. Camera Supply Co., Ltd., 1515 N. 
Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 



BELL & HOWELL CAMERA HEAD, 170 de- 
grees three lenses, B&H tripod legs and 
head, beautiful condition, $750.00. Camera 
Supply Co., Ltd., 1515 Cahuenga Blvd., Hol- 
lywood, Calif. 



VERY POWERFUL FLOODLIGHTS of new de- 
sign. Will burn through a 1000-W. Rifle 
with Cable, $5.00. With 12-foot collapsible 
Stand, $20.00. Camera Supply Co., Ltd., 
1515 N. Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 



SOUND Moviola Model UC, price $450.00. 
Also new H.C.E. free-head and legs for Bell 
& Howell, Eyemo or DeVry portable cameras, 
$75.00 complete. Hollywood Camera Ex- 
change, 1600 Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, 
Calif. 



LIKE NEW — Mitchell Camera, silenced Acad- 
emy aperture, Pan Tachar lenses, free head 
tripod, 1000-ft. magazines, complete — 
$2000. Hollywood Camera Exchange, 1600 
N. Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. 



LIKE NEW — Artreeves portable double sound 
recording outfit with Bell & Howell Silenced 
camera, complete in every detail. A real 
bargain, price $3500. Price without camera, 
$2500. Hollywood Camera Exchange, 1600 
N. Cahuenga Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. Cable 
address: HOCAMEX. 



EASTMAN and Dupont short end negative, 
spliced, tested and guaranteed or money re- 
funded, 2%c per foot, Eyemo rolls on spools, 
$2.75. Inquiries invited. CONTINENTAL 
FILMCRAFT, 1611 Cosmo St., Hollywood. 
Calif. 



WANTED 



Sound Recording Equipment single system 35- 
mm for commercial use. New or used. F. 
D. Goodwin, 2318 So. Royce St., Sioux City, 
Iowa. 



Roll Film adapter for Dallmeyer speed camera, 
l%"x2 1 / 4". Box 248, c/o American Cine- 
matographer. 



WILL pay cash for professional or 16mm cam- 
era, projectors, lensees, motors, enlargers. 
Everything in the photographic line. Holly- 
wood Camera Exchange, 1600 Cahuenga 
Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. Hollywood 3651. 



WANTED — Number 1 Eastman Stereopticon 
camera. Harry Perry, OXford 1908. 



WANTED — Daylight Developing tank for 3%- 
x4>4 cut film. Box 246, American Cinema- 
tographer, 6331 Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood, 
Calif. 



WILL PAY CASH FOR: Bell & Howell, Mitch- 
ell, Akeley or De Brie Cameras, lenses, mo- 
tors, parts and accessories. Motion Picture 
Camera Supply, Inc., 723 7th Ave., New 
York, New York. T 



MISCELLANEOUS 



WE BUY, sell or rent everything necessary for 
the making, taking, or showing of motion 
pictures. Sound or Silent — 35mm and 16- 
mm. We specialize in equipping expeditions. 
Ruby Camera Exchange, 729 7th Ave., New 
York City. T 



16mm Films Exchanged, Sold, Bought, Cameras, 
Projectors, Sound Films. Write me first. 
ROBERT BLOCK, 1451 Broadway, New York 
City. M 



POSITION WANTED 



Assistant Cameraman, experienced in still and 
motion picture photography. References. 
George Howell, 416 Fort Washington Ave., 
New York City. 



FOR SALE— CAMERAS 



Turret Eyemo Model 71C. Six months old and 
has a 47mm F:2.5 Cooke lens also 3" and 
6" lenses; 7 speeds. Box 249, c/o American 
Cinematographer. 



MEMBERS** 



Directors of 
Photography 

Abel, David 
Andersen, Milford A. 
Andriot, Lucien 
Arnold, John 
Ash, Jerome H. 
August, Joseph 
Borlatier, Andre 
Barnes, George S. 
f Bell, Chas. E. 
tBenoit, Georges 
Boyle, Chas. P. 
Boyle, John W. 
Brodine, Norbert F. 
Brown, Jas. S., Jr. 
Browne, Fayte M. 
Chancellor, Philip 
Clark, Dan 
Clarke, Charles G. 
Corby, Francis 
Cronjager, Edward 
tCrosby, Floyd D. 
Daniels, William H. 
tDavis, Charles J. 
de Grasse, Robert 
Depew, Ernest S. 
DeVinna, Clyde 
Dietz, Wm. H. 
tDored, John 
::: Dubray, Joseph A. 
*DuPar, E. B. 
Dyer, Edwin L. 
Dyer, Elmer G. 
Eagler, Paul 
Edeson, Arthur 
Fernstrom, Ray 
Fischbeck, Harry 
Folsey, George J., Jr. 
Forbes, Harry W. 
Freulich, Henry 
*Freund, Karl 
Fryer, Richard 
Fulton, John P. 
Gaudio, Gaetano 
Gerstad, Merritt B. 
Gilks, Alfred 
Glennon, Bert 
Good, Frank B. 
Haller, Ernest 
Halperin, Sol 
tHarten, Charles 
tHaythorne, Reed N. 
THerbert, Charles W. 
Herrmann, lohn L. 
Hickox, Sid 
Hickson, John T. 
Howe, James Wong 
Hunt, Roy 
Jackson, Harry 
Jennings, J. D. 
June, Rav 
Kershner, Glenn 
Kline, Ben 
tKnechtel, Lloyd 
Kohler, Henry N. 
Krasner, Milton 
Kull, Adolph E. 
Landers, Sam 
Lang, Charles B., Jr. 
Lloyd, Art 
Lundin, Walter 
Lyons, Chet 
McCord, Ted 
McGill, Barney 
Mackenzie, Jack 
tMacWilliams, Glenr> 
tMalkames, Don 
Marley, J. Peverell 
Marsh, Oliver 
Marshall, Chas. A. 
Marshall, William C. 
Martinelli, Arthur 
Marzorati, Harold J. 
Mate, Rudolph 
Meehan. Geo. B., Jr. 
Mellor, William C. 
Mescall. John J. 
Miller, Arthur 
Miller, Virgil E. 
Milner, Victor 
Morgan, Ira H. 
Musuraca, Nick 
Neuman, Harry C. 
O'Connell, L. William 
Overbaugh, Roy F. 
Palmer, Ernest 
tPaul, Dr. Edward F. 
Peach, Kenneth 
Perry, Harry 
fPerry, Paul P. 



Planck, Robert H. 
Polito, Sol 
Ragin, David 
Rees, William A. 
Reynolds, Ben F. 
RoDinson, George 
Rose, Jockson J. 
Rosher, Charles 
Rosson, Harold 
tRuttenberg, Joseph 
Schneiderman, George 
Schoenbaum, Charles 
Seitz, John F. 
Shamroy, Leon 
Sharp, Henry 
-Shearer, Douglas 
Slckner, Wm. A. 
Siegler, Alien 
tSilver, John 
Smilh, Jack 
Smith, Leonard 
Snyder, Edward J. 
Sparkuhl, Theodor 
fSteiner, William, Jr. 
Stengler, Mack 
Stout, Archie J. 
Strenge, Walter 
Struss, Karl 
Stumar, Charles 
Stumar, John 
Taylor, ). O. 
Tetzlaff, Ted 
Thompson, William C. 
Tobey, Robert 
Todd, Arthur 
Toland, Gregg 
Tover, Leo 
Towers, Richard 
Tutwiler, Tom 
Valentine, Joseph A. 
-Van Buren, Ned 
Van Enger, Willard 
Van Trees, James 
tVarges, Ariel 
von Sternberg, Josef 
Wagner, Sidney C. 
Walker, Joseph 
Warren, Dwight 
Wenstrom, Harold 
Wetzel, Al. 
Wheeler, William 
White, Lester 
Wyckoff, Alvin 
tZucker, Frank C. 

Special Process 

Binger, Ray 

Cuiiy, Russell A. 
Edouart, Farciot 
Fabian, Maxmillian 
Finger, John 
Griggs, Loyal 
Hammeras, Edwin 
Haskin, Byron 
-Jackman, Fred 
Jackman, Fred, Jr. 
Kelley, W. Wallace 
Koenekamp, H. F. 
fLipp, Leo 
Lipstein, Harold 
Pollock, Gordon 
Ries. Irving C. 
Smith, Arthur 
Walker, Vernon L. 
Williams, William N. 
Wrigley, Dewey 
Wimpy, Rex 
Zech, Harry 



Operative 
Cinematographers 

Albert, C. L. 
Anderson, Don 
Anderson, Wesley 
Arling, Arthur E. 
Badaracco, Jacob 
Bader, Walter 
Bollard, Lucien 
Bell, Jack C. 
Bennett, Guy M. 
Bennett, Monroe 
Bentley, Fred 
Biroc, Joe 
Blackstone, Cliff 
Brodley, Wilbur H. 
Burks, Robert 



Campbell, Arthur 
Castle, Walter H. 
Chewnmg, Wallace 
Clark, Roy 
Clemens, Geo. T. 
Cline, Wilfrid M. 
Cohen, Edward J. 
Collmgs, Russell D. 
Cortez, Stanley 
Davis, Harry 
Davis, Leland E. 
Dean, Faxon 
Diamond, Jas. R. 
Drought, James B. 
Dunn, Linwood G. 
Eslick, LeRoy 
Estabrook, Edw. T. 
Fapp, Daniel L. 
Feindel, Jockey 
Fetters, C. Curtis 
Finger, Frank 
Fitzgerald, Edward 
Galezio, Len 
Garnett, Paul 
Gertsman, Maury 
Gibbons, Jeff T. 
Glassberg, Irving 
Gordon, James 
Gray, King D. 
Green, Kenneth 
Greene, Al M. 
Guffey, Burnett 
Guthrie, Carl 
Hallenberger, Harry 
Harper, James B. 
Harris, Emii 
Heckler, Wm. G. 
Henderson, Edward 
Hoag, Robert 
Huggins, L. Owens 
Jennings, Lewis E. 
Jones, Allyn C. 
tKelly, Wm. J. 
Knott, James 
Landon, Theodore 
Lane, Al L. 
Lanning, Reggie 
LaShelle, Joseph 
Laszlo, Ernest 
Lawton, Charles C 
Lerpae, Paul K. 
i Levitt, Sam 
Lindon, Lionel A. 
Love, Cecil 
Lynch, Warren 
Lyons, Edgar H. 
MacDonald, Joe 
Mayer, Fred 
McCorm.ck, John T. 
Meade, Kyme 
Merland, Harry 
Metty, R. L. 
Mols, Pierre M. 
Newhard, Guy J . 
Newhard, Robert S. 
Nogle, Geo. G. 
Novak, Joe 
Palmer, Robert 
Pierce, Otto 
Pittack, Robert 
Pyle, Edward 
Ramsey, H. Clark 
Ramsey, Ray L. 
Rand, William 
Redman, Frank 
Ries, Ray 

Roberts, Albert G. 
Roberts, Irmin 
Roberts, Josiah 
Robinson, Walter C. 
Roe, Guy 
Rosenberg, Irving 
Salerno, Charles, Jr. 
Scheurich, Victor 
Schmitz. John J. 
Schurr, William F. 
Schoedsack, G. F. 
Smith, Harold I. 
Smith, William Cooper 
Shipham, Bert 
Snyder, Wm. 
Stine, Clifford R. 
Sullivan, Wm. F. 
Tappenbeck, Hatto 
Thompson, Allen Q. 
Thompson, Stuart 
Titus, Frank 

Ulm, William R. 

Unholz, George 



Vaughan, Roy V. 
Vogel, Paul Charles 
Vogel, Willard I. 
Wester, Carl 
White, Ben 
Wild, Harrv 
Wilky, Guy L. 
Williams, Al E. 
Williamson, James 

Assistant 
Cinematographers 

Abbott, L. B. 
Abramson, Melvin 
Adams, Eddie 
Adams, Ralph G. 
Ahern, Lloyd 
Andersen, Jack 
Anderson, Eddie 

August, Joseph S. 

Babbitt, Royal F. 
Baldwin, Herold 

Barber, E. C. 

Barth, Willard 

Beckner, Neal 

Bergholz, Emmett 

Bessette, Raoul 

Boggs, Haskell 

Bohny, Chas. R. 

Bourne, George 

Bradford, William 

Bridenbecker, Milton 

Brigham, Donald H. 

Bronner, Robert 

Burgess, Frank 

Burke, Charles 

Cairns, Lawrence 

Caldwell, John C. 

Carter, Ellis W. 

Citron, Joseph A. 

Clothier, William H. 

Cohan, Ben 

Cohen, Sam 

Collins, Edward C. 

Crane, Chas. M. 

Crawford, Lee 

Crockett, Ernest J. 

Croniager, Henry, Jr. 

Crouse, John 

Cruze, Warner 

Curtiss, Judd 

Daly, James 

Dalzell, Arch R. 

Davenport, Gene L. 

Davis, Mark 

Davis, Robt. D., Jr. 

Davol, Richard S. 

Dawe, Harry 

Dawson, Fred 

DeAngelis, Louis 

tae Cazstellaine, Paul 

Deverman, Dale 

Diskant, George 

Dodds, Wm. 

Dowling, Thomas L. 

Dugas, Frank 

Dye, Geo., Jr. 

Eagan, J. P. 

Eason, Bert 

Eckert, John 

Elliott, August J. 

Epstein, Jack J. 

tEtra, Jack 

Evans, Frank D. 

Farley, Joseph L. 

Fischer, Herbert J. 

Foxall, William 

Fredricks, Ellsworth 

Garvin, Edward 

Gaudio, Frank, Jr. 

Geissler, Charles R. 

Gerstle, Arthur 

Goss, James M., Jr. 

Gough, Robt. J. 

Graham, Harold W. 

Grand, Marcel 

Green, Don 

Greer, John 
Hackett, James C. 
Haddow, Ledger 
Harlan, Russell 
Hayes, Towne D. 
Higgins, James Colman 

Higgs, Stuart P. 
Hoffman, Roswell 

tHolcombe, Walter B. 
Horslcy, D. S. 



Hunter, Kenneth 
Kauffman, R. King, Jr. 
Kearns, Edward 
Keller, Alfred S. 
Kelley, George F. 
Klein, Irving 
Kluznik, Muit 
Koffman, Jack 
Lackey, Walter K. 
Lane, Art 
Laraby, Nelson 
Lathrop, Philip 
Leahy, Chas. P. 
Lebovitz, Alfred 
Lerpee, Carl 
Lewis, C. L. 
Liggett, Eugene 
Lockwood, Paul 
Lykins, Vollie Joe 
Mack, Robt. H. 
Martin, John 
McDonald, Frank 
McEdward, Nelson C 
MacDonneil, Stanley 
Maclntyre, Andy 
Marble, Harry 
Martinelli, Enzo 
Mautino, Bud 
Meade, Kenneth 
Mehl, John 
Mohn, Paul 
Molina, Luis 
Moreno, Robert C. 
Morris, Thomas C. 
Myers, Albert 
Norton, Kay 
Orsatti, Alfred 
Parkins, Harry 
Rankin, Walter 
Reinhold, Wm. G. 
Rhea, Robert 
Riley, William 
Rugg, Maynard B. 
Russell, John L., Jr. 
Sanford, S. A. 
Sargent, Don 
Scheving, Albert 
Schuch, William 
Seawright, Byron 
Shearman. Roger C. 
Shirpser, C. 
Shorr, Lester 
Slifer, Clarence 
Sloane, James 
Smalley, Alfred E. 
Smith, H. C. 
Soderberg, Edward F. 
Southcott, Fleet 
Straumer, E. Charles 
Strong, Glenn 
Strong, William M. 
Terzo, Fred 
Thomas, Jack 
Tolmie, Rod 
Tripp, Roy 

Van Trees, James, Jr. 
Van Wormer, John Pierce 
Walsh, Mike 
Ward, Lloyd 
Webb, Harry 
Weddell, Paul K. 
Weiler. John 
Weisbarth, Ted 
Weissman, Leonard 
Wellman, Harold 
Wendall, Jack E. 
White, Edward L. 
Whitley, William 
Willis. Bert 
Worth, Lothrop 



Still Photographers 

Allan, Ted 
Alsop, George 
Anderson, Bert 
Apger, Virgil 
Bachrach. Ernie 
Bjerring, Frank 
Blanc, Harry 
Breau, Joseph F. 
Bredell, Elwood 
Brown, Milton 
Bulloch, Chas. E. 
Bulloch, Malcolm 
Clark, Sherman L. 
Coburn, Robert 
Cooper, John 



Cronenweth, W. E. 
Crosby, Warner N. 
Crowley, Earl 
Elliott, Mack 
Ellis, John 
English, Donald A. 
Estep, Junius D. 
Evans, Thomas 
Evansmith, Henry 
Farrell, David H. 
Fraker, W. A. 
Freulich, Roman 
Fryer, Elmer 

Graves, Clarence "Stax" 
Grimes, William H. 
Head, Gordon G. 
Hendrickson, Fred S. 
Hester, Jerome E. 
Hopcratt, N. John 
Johnson, Roy L. 
Jones, Raymond H. 
Julian, Mac 
Kahle, Alexander 
Kling, Clifton 
Kornmann, Gene 
Lacy, Madison S. 
Lippman. Irving 
Lobben, C. Kenneth 
Longet, Gaston 
Longworth, Bert 
Lynch, Bert 
MacDonald, Melvin A. 
MacLean, Roy D. 
Manatt, S. C. 
Marigold, Mickey 
Martin, Shirley Vance 
McAlpin, Hal A. 
Miehle, John J. 
Morrison, Talmage H. 
Paul, M. B. 
Richardson, G. E. 
Richee, Eugene R. 
Robbins, Leroy S. 
Rowley, Les 
Schafer, Adolph L. 
Sibbald, Merritt J. 
Sigurdson, Oliver 
Six, Bert 
Stone, Ed 
Tanner, Frank 
Thomas. Wm. E. 
Van Pelt, Homer 
Walling, Will, J. 
Welbourne, Chas. Scott 
Wyckoff, Harold M. 



Honorary Members 

Mr. E. O. Blackburn, 

Los Angeles, Calif. 
tMr. George Eastman, 

Rochester, N. Y. 
J Mr. Thomas A. Edison, 

Orange, N. J. 
Mr. Albert S. Howell, 

Chicago, III. 
Mr. George A. Mitchell, 

Los Angeles, Calif. 



Associate Members 

Mr. Louis A. Bonn 
Mr. George Cave 
Dr. L. M. Dieterich 
Mr. Fred Gage 
Mr. Emery Huse 
Dr. Lloyd A. Jones 
Dr. C. E. K. Mees 
Dr. Herbert Meyer 
Mr. Hollis Moyse 
Dr. W. B. Rayton 
Dr. V. B. Sease 
Dr. J. S. Watson, Jr. 



Inactive Members 

Dunning, Dodge 
DuPont, Max B. 
Fildew, William 
Glouner, Martin G. 
Graham, Stanley 
Jackman, Dr. Floyd 
Lockwood, J. R. 
Roos, Len H. 
Stull, William 



■•-Membership by Invitation only. -Directors of Photography in Executive Positions. , Non-Resident Members. * Deceased. 



PREFERRED 




Leading Cinematographers the world 
over prefer the Mitchell Sound Camera 
because of its dependability, precision 
and ease of operation. 



Mitchell Camera Corporation 



665 N. ROBERTSON BOULEVARD 
WEST HOLLYWOOD, CALIF. 



Cable Address "M1TCAMCO" 



CLAUD C. CARTER 
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Sydney, Australia 



JOHN H. TAYLOR 
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London, N.W. 1, 
England 



FOREIGN AGENCIES 
ARMINO CONTI, BOMBAY RADIO CO., 
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1 Chome 
Osaka, Japan 






The Motion Picture CAMERA Magazine 




June, 
1935 



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June 1935 • American Cinematographer 231 



AMERICAN 
CINEMATOGRAPHER 

A Technical and Educational publication 
of motion picture photography. 

Published monthly by the 
AMERICAN SOCIETY 
OF CINEMATOGRAPHERS, INC. 
6331 Hollywood Boulevard 
Hollywood, California 

Telephone GRanite 21 35 

JOHN ARNOLD, President, A.S.C. 
FRED JACKMAN, Treasurer, A.S.C. 

Volume 16 JUNE 1935 Number 6 



What to Read 

SECOND Annual A.S.C. Golf Tournament. .238 

IMPROVEMENTS for Increased Efficiency 

by George A. Mitchell, Hon. A.S.C 239 

PREPARATION Underlies Toland's 

Achievements 
by Harry Burdick 240 

ON Location at the South Pole 

by Wm. Stull, A.S.C 241 

SOME Fast Pans 242 

"LIGHTING" Problem in Air Photography 

by James L. Fritz 243 

PHOTOGRAPHY of the Month 244 

ADJUSTMENT for Dolly Head 246 

LIGHTWEIGHT Blimp 246 



Next Month 

• As we go to press the S.M.P.E. closes one 
of their most successful conventions in Holly- 
wood. This gathering brought out some inter- 
esting achievements and improvements. The 
most outstanding as far as it concerns the 
Cinematographer is "Polarized Light" as dem- 
onstrated by Eastman. We will tell you about 
this in our next issue. 



ESTABLISHED 1918. Advertising Rates on a pp:;c3tion. 
Subscription: U.S. $2.50 a year; Canada $3.50 a year; 
Foreign $3 50 a year. Single copies 25c. Foreign 
single copies 35c. COPYRIGHT 1935 by American 
Society of Cincmatographers, Inc. 




The Staff 

EDITOR 

Charles J. VerHalen 

TECHNICAL EDITOR 

Emery Huse, A. S. C. 

ASSOCIATES 

Walter Blanchard 
Karl Hale 
CIRCULATION MANAGER 

M. E. Fisher 

ADVISORY 
EDITORIAL BOARD 

Victor Milner, A. S. C. 
James Van Trees, A. S. C. 
Fred Jackman, A. S. C. 
Farciot Edouart, A. S. C. 
Fred Gage, A. S. C. 
Dr. J. S. Watson, Jr., A. S. C. 
Dr. L. M. Dieterich, A. S. C 
Dr. L. A. Jones, A. S. C. 
Dr. C. E. K. Mees, A. S. C. 
Dr. W. B. Rayton, A. S. C. 
Dr. Herbert Meyer, A. S. C. 
Dr. V. B. Sease, A. S. C. 



FOREIGN REPRESENTATIVES 

Georges Benoit, 1 00, Allee Franklin, 
Pavillions-sous-Bois. France. Seine. Tele- 
phone LeRaincy 13-19. 

NEW YORK REPRESENTATIVE 

S. R. Cowan, 19 East 47th St., New York 
City. Phone Plaza 3-0483. 



Neither the American Cinematographer nor 
the American Society of Cinematographers 
is responsible for statements made by au- 
thors. This magazine will not be responsible 
for unsolicited manuscripts. 



232 American Cinematographcr • June 1935 



AMERICAN 
SOCIETY OF 
CINEMATOGRAPHERS 



MEMBERS 



OFFICERS 

JOHN ARNOLD 
VICTOR MILNER 
JAMES VAN TREES 
CHARLES LANG 
FRED JACKMAN 
FRANK B. GOOD 



President 
First Vice-President 
Second Vice-President 
Third Vice-President 
Treasurer 
Secretary 



BOARD OF GOVERNORS 

John Arnold Frank Good 

Bert Clennon Fred Jaxkman 

uan Clark Ray June 

Elmer Dyer Charles B. Lang, Jr. 

Arthur Edeson Victor tv*ilner 

George Folsey Joseph Walker 

Alfred Gilks James Van Trees 
Vernon L. Walker 

Frederick L. Kley, Executive Business Manager 



PAST PRESIDENTS 

Philip E. Rosen 
Gaetano Gaudio 
James Van Trees 
John W. Boyle 



Fred W. Jackman 



Hal Mohr 
Homer Scott 
John F. Seitz 
Daniel B. Clark 



HONORARY MEMBERS 



Mr. Albert S. Howell 
Mr. Edward O. Blackburn 
Mr. George A. Mitchell 



PUBLIC RELATIONS COMMITTEE 

John Arnold 

Joseph Ruttenberg, New York City 
Charles Bell. St. Paul, Minn. 
Charles J. Davis, Washington, D. C. 
Georges Benoit, Paris, France 
Alvin Wyckoff, Mexico City 
John W. Boyle, London, England 
Ariel Varges, Tokyo, Japan 
Edwin L. Dyer, Detroit, Mich. 
Charles W. Herbert, New York City 
Lloyd Knechtel, London, England 
John Dored, Paris, France 
Paul Perry, Manila, P. I. 
Max B. DuPont, Papeete, Tahiti 
Philip M. Chancellor 



MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE 

George Folsey 
Alfred Gilks 
Bert Longworth 



ENTERTAINMENT COMMITTEE 

Elmer Dyer 
Charles B. Lang, Jr. 

Arthur Edeson 



WELFARE COMMITTEE 

Ray June 

Fred W. Jackman 



Dan Clark 
Wm. C. Mellor 
Fred Terzo 



Frank B. Good 
Vernon Walker 



James Van Trees 



CENERAL COUNSEL 

Arthur C. Webb 



RESEARCH COMMITTEE 

Victor Milner, George A. Mitchell, Dr. Herbert 
Meyer, John Arnold, Farciot Edouart, 
Emery Huse, Dr. L. M. Dietrich 



Directors of 
Photography 

Abel, David 
Andersen, Milford A. 
Andriot, Lucien 
Arnold, John 
Ash, Jerome H. 
August, Joseph 



Barlatier, Andre 
Barnes George S. 
tBell, Chas. E. 
tBenoit, Georges 
Boyle, Chas. P. 
Boyle, John W. 
Brodine, Norbert F. 
Brown, Jas. S., Jr. 
Browne, Fayte M. 



Chancellor, Philip 
Clark, Dan 
Clarke, Charles G. 
Corby, Francis 
Cronjager, Edward 
"t Crosby. Floyd D. 



Daniels, William H. 
tDavis, Charles J. 
de Grasse, Robert 
Depew, Ernest S. 
DeVinna, Clyde 
Dietz, Wm. H. 
+ Dored, John 
Draper, Lauron A. 
i; 'Dubray, Joseph A. 
tDuPar, E. B. 
Dyer, Edwin L. 
Dyer, Elmer G. 



Eagler, Paul 
Edeson, Arthur 



Fernstrom, Ray 
Fischbeck, Harry 
Folsey, George J., Jr. 
Forbes, Harry W. 
Freulich, Henry 
*Freund, Karl 
Fryer, Richard 



Gaudio, Gaetano 
Gerstad, Merritt B. 
Gilks, Alfred 
Glennon, Bert 
Good, Frank B. 



Haller, Ernest 
Halperin, Sol 
tHarten, Charles 
tHaythorne. Reed N. 
tHerbert, Charles W. 
Herrmann, John L. 
Hickox, Sid 
Hickson, John T. 
Howe, James Wong 
Hunt, Roy 



Jackson, Harry 
Jennings, J. D. 
June, Ray 



Kershner, Glenn 
Kline, Ben 
tKnechtel, Lloyd 
Kohler, Henry N. 
Krasner, Milton 
Kull, Adolph E. 



Landers, Sam 
Lang, Charles B., Jr. 
Linden, Edwin G. 
Lloyd, Art 
Lundin, Walter 
Lyons, Chet 



Mackenzie, Jack 
tMacWilliams, Glenn 
iMalkames, Don 
Marley, J. Peverell 
Marsh, Oliver 
Marshall, Chas. A 
Marshall, William C. 
Martinelli, Arthur 
Marzorati, Harold J. 
Mate, Rudolph 
McCord, Ted 
McGill, Biniey 
Meehan. Geo 6 Jr 
Mellor, William C. 
Mescall. John J. 
Miller, Arthur 
Miller, Virgil E. 
Milner, Victor 
Morgan, Ira H. 
Musuraca, Nick 



Neuman, Harry C. 



O'Connell, L. William 
Overbaugh, Roy F. 



Palmer, Ernest 
Peach, Kenneth 
Perry, Harry 
iPerry, Paul P 
Planck, Robert H. 
Polito, Sol 



Ragin, David 
Rees, William A. 
Reynolds, Ben F. 
Robinson, George 
Rose, Jackson J. 
Rosher, Charles 
Rosson, Horold 
tRuttenberg, Joseph 



Schneiderman, George 
Schoenbaum, Charles 
Seitz, John F. 
Shamroy, Leon 
Sharp, Henry 
-Shearer, Douglas 
Sickner, Wm. A. 
Siegler, Allen 
tSilver, John 
Smith, Jack 
Smith, Leonard 
Snyder, Edward J. 
SDarkuhl, Theodor 
fSteiner, William, Jr. 
Stengler, Mack 
Stout, Archie J. 
Strenge, Walter 
Struss, Karl 
Stumar, Charles 
Stumar, John 



Tayior, |. O. 
Tetzlaff, Ted 
Thompson, William C. 
Tobey, Robert 
Todd, Arthur 
Toland, Gregg 
Tover, Leo 
Towers, Richard 
Tutwiler, Tom 



Valentine, Joseph A. 
;;: Van Buren, Ned 
Van Enger, Willard 
Van Trees, James 
tVarges, Ariel 
von Sternberg, Josef 



Wagner, Sidney C. 
Walker, Joseph 
Warren, Dwight 
Warrenton, Gilbert 
Wenstrom, Harold 
Wetzel, Al. 
Wheeler, William 
White, Lester 
Wyckoff, Alvin 



i'Zucker, Frank C. 
Special Process 

Binger, Ray 
Culiy, Russell A. 
Edouart, Farciot 

Fabian, Maxmillian 
Finger, John 
Fulton, John P. 

Griggs, Loyal 

Hammeraas, Edwin 
Haskin, Byron 

-Jackman, Fred 
Jackman, Fred, Jr. 

Kelley, W. Wallace 
Koenekamp, H. F. 

tLipp, Leo 
Lipstein, Harold 
Lynch, Warren 

Pollock, Gordon 
Ries, Irving C. 
Smith, Arthur 

Walker, Vernon L. 
Williams, William N. 
Wrigley, Dewey 
Wimpy, Rex 

Zech, Harry 



Operative 
Cinema tographers 

Albert, C. L. 
Anderson, Don 
Anderson, Wesley 
Arling, Arthur E. 



Badaracco, Jacob 
Bader, Walter 
Ballard, Lucien 
Bell, Jack C. 
Bennett, Guy M 
Bennett, Monroe 
Bentley, Fred 
Biroc, Joe 
Blackstone, Cliff 
Booth, Frank H. 
Bradley, Wilbur H. 
Burks, Robert 



Campbell, Arthur 
Castle, Walter H. 
Chewning, Wallace 
Clark, Roy 
Clemens, Geo. T 
Cline, Wilfrid M. 
Cohen, Edward J 
Collings, Russell D. 
Cortez, Stanley 



Davis, Harry 
Davis, Leland E. 
Dean, Faxon 
Diamond, Jas. R. 
Drought, James B. 
Dunn, Linwood G 



Eslick, LeRoy 
Estabrook, Edw. 



Fapp, Daniel L. 
Femdel, Jockey 
Fetters, C. Curtis 
Finger, Frank 
Fitzgerald, Edward 



June 1935 • American Cinematographer 233 



MEMBERS 



Galezio. Len 
Carnett, Paul 
Gertsman, Maury 
Gibbons, Jeff T. 
Glassberg, Irving 
Gordon, James 
Gray, King D. 
Green, Kenneth 
Greene, Al M 
Gutfey, Burnett 
Guthrie, Carl 



Hallenberger, Harrv 
Harper, James B. 
Harris, Emil 
Heckler, Wm. G. 
Henderson, Edward 
Hoag, Robert 
Huggins, L. Owens 



Jennings, Lewis E. 
Jones. All/n C. 



tKelly, Wm. J. 
Knott, James 



Landon, Theodore 
Lone, Al L. 
Lanning, Reggie 
LaShelle, Joseph 
Laszlo, Ernest 
Lawton, Charles C. 
Lerpae, Paul K. 
fLevitt, Sam 
Lindon, Lionel A. 
Love, Cecil 



MacDonald, Joe 
Marta, Jack A. 
Mayer, Fred 
McCormick, John T. 
Meade, Kyme 
Merland, Harry 
Metty, R. L. 
Mols, Pierre M. 
Myers, Albert 



Newhard, Guy J. 
Newhard, Robert S. 
Nogle, Geo. G. 
Novak, Joe 



Palmer, Robert 
Pierce, Otto 
Pittack, Robert 
Pyle, Edward 



Ramsey, H. Clark 
Ramsey, Ray L. 
Rand, William 
Redman, Frank 
Ries, Ray 

Roberts, Albert G. 
Roberts, Irmin 
Roberts, Josiah 
Robinson, Walter C. 
Roe, Guy 
Rosenberg, Irving 



Salerno, Charles, Jr. 
Scheurich, Victor 
Schmitz, John J. 
Schurr, William F. 
Schoedsack, G. F. 
Smith, Ernest F. 
Smith, Harold I. 
Smith, William Cooper 
Shipham, Bert 
Snyder, Wm. 
Stine, Clifford R. 
Sullivan, Wm. F. 



Tappenbeck, Hatta 
Thompson, Allen Q. 
Thompson, Stuart 
Titus, Frank 



Ulm, William R. 
Unholz, George 

Vaughan, Roy V. 
Vogel, Paul Charles 
Vogel, Willard I. 



Wester, Carl 
White, Ben 
Wild, Harrv 
Wilky, Guy L. 
Williams, Al E. 
Williamson, James 



Assistant 
Cinema tographers 

Abbott, L. B. 
Abramson, Melvin 
Adams, Eddie 
Adams. Ralph G. 
Ahem, Lloyd 
Andersen, Jack 
Anderson, Eddie 
August, Joseph S. 



Babbitt, Royal F. 
Baldwin, Herold 
Barber, E. C. 
Barth, Willard 
Beckner, Neal 
Bergholz, Emmett 
Bessette, Raoul 
Boggs, Haskell 
Bohny, Chas. R. 
Bourne, George 
Bradford, Bill 
Bridenbecker, Milton 
Brigham, Donald H. 
Bronner, Robert 
Burgess, Frank 
Burke, Charles 



Cairns, Lawrence 
Caldwell, John C. 
Carter, Ellis W. 
Citron, Joseph A. 
Clothier, William H. 
Cohan, Ben 
Cohen, Sam 
Collins, Edward C. 
Crane, Chas. M. 
Crawford, Lee 
Crockett, Ernest J. 
Croniager, Henry, Jr. 
Crouse, John 
Cruze, Warner 
Curtiss, Judd 



Daly, James 
Dalzell, Arch R. 
Davenport, Gene L. 
Davis, Mark 
Davis, Robt. D., Jr. 
Davol, Richard S. 
Dawe, Harry 
Dawson, Fred 
DeAngelis, Louis 
tae Cazstellaine, Paul 
Deverman, Dale 
Diskant, George 
Dodds, Wm. 
Dowling, Thomas L. 
Dugas, Frank 
Dye, Geo., Jr. 



Eagan, J. P. 
Eason, Bert 
Eckert, John 
Elliott, August J. 
Epstein, Jack J. 
+ Etra, Jack 
Evans, Frank D. 



Farley, Joseph L. 
Fischer, Herbert J. 



Foxall, William 
Fredricks, Ellsworth 



Garvin, Edward 
Gaudio, Frank, Jr. 
Geissler, Charles R. 
Gerstle, Arthur 
Goss, James M., Jr. 
Gough, Robt. J. 
Graham, Harold W. 
Grand, Marcel 
Green, Don 
Greer, John 



Hackett, James C. 
Haddow. Ledger 
Harlan, Russell 
Hayes, Towne D. 
Higgins, James Colman 
Higgs, Stuart P. 
Hoffman, Roswell 
tHolcombe, Walter B. 
Horsley, D. S. 
Hunter, Kenneth 
IHyland, Edward 



Kauffman, R. King, Jr. 
Kearns, Edward 
Keller, Alfred S. 
Kelley, George F. 
King, James V. 
Klein, Irving 
Kluznik, Mart 
Koffman, Jack 
Kunkel, Lou E. 



Lackey, Walter K. 
Lane, Art 
Laraby, Nelson 
Lathrop. Philip 
Leahy, Chas. P. 
Lebovitz, Alfred 
Lerpee, Carl 
Lewis, C. L. 
Liggett, Eugene 
Lockwood, Paul 
Lykins, Vollie Joe 



Mack, Robt. H. 
Martin, John 
MacDonneil, Stanley 
Maclntyre, Andy 
Marble, Harry 
Martinelli, Enzo 
Mautino, Bud 
McDonald, Frank 
McEdward, Nelson C 
Meade, Kenneth 
Mehl, John 
Mohn, Paul 
Molina, Luis 
Moreno, Robert C. 
Morris, Thomas C 



Norton, Kay 



Orsatti, Alfred 



Parkins, Harry 



Rankin, Walter 
Reinhold, Wm. G. 
Rhea, Robert 
Riley, William 
Rugg, Maynard B. 
Russell, John L„ Jr. 



Sanford, S. A. 
Sargent, Don 
Scheving, Albert 
Schuch, William 
Seawright, Byron 
Shearman, Roger C. 
Shirpser, C. 
Shorr, Lester 



Slifer, Clarence 
Sloane, James 
Smalley, Alfred E. 
Smith, H. C. 
Soderberg, Edward F. 
Southcott, Fleet 
Sfraumer, E. Charles 
Strong, Glenn 
Strong, William M. 



Terzo, Fred 

Thomas, Jack 
Tolmie, Rod 
Tripp, Roy 



Van Trees, James, Jr. 
Van Wormer, John Pierce 



Walsh, Mike 
Ward, Lloyd 
Webb, Harry 
Weddell. Paul K. 
Weiler, Carl 
Weiler. John 
Weisbarth, Ted 
Weissman, Leonard 
Wellman, Harold 
Wendall, Jack E. 
White, Edward L. 
Whitley, William 
Willis. Bert 
Worth, Lothrop 



Still Photographers 

Allan, Ted 
Alsop, George 
Anderson. Bert 
Apger, Virgil 
Autrey, Max 



Bachrach, Ernie 
Bierring, Frank 
Blanc, Harry 
Breau, Joseph F. 
Bredell, Elwood 
Brown. Milton 
Bulloch, Chas. E. 
Bulloch, Malcolm 



Clark. Sherman L. 
Coburn, Robert 
Cooper, John 
Cronenweth, W. E. 
Crosby, Warner N. 
Crowley, Earl 



Elliott, Mack 
Ellis, John 
English, Donald A. 
Estep, Junius D. 
Evans. Thomas 
Evansmith, Henry 



Farrell. David H. 
Freulich, Roman 
Fryer, Elmer 

Graves, Clarence "Stax" 
Grimes, William H. 



Head. Gordon G. 
Hendrickson, Fred S. 
Hester, Jerome E. 
Hewitt, Clarence B. 
Hopcraft, N. John 



Johnson, Roy L. 
Jones, Raymond H. 
Julian, Mac 



Kahle, Alexander 
Kling, Clifton 
Kornmann, Gene 



Lacy, Madison S. 
Lippman. Irving 
Lobben, C. Kenneth 
Longet, Gaston 
Longworth, Bert 
Lynch, Bert 



MacDonald, Melvin A. 
MacLean, Roy D. 
Manatt, S. C. 
Marigold, Mickey 
Martin, Shirley Vance 
McAlpin, Hal A. 
Miehle, John J. 
Morrison, Talmage H. 



Paul, M. B. 



Richardson, G. E. 

Richee, Eugene R. 

Robbins, Leroy S. 
Rowley, Les 



Schafer, Adolph L. 
Schoenbaum, Emmett A. 
Sibbald, Merritt J. 
Sigurdson, Oliver 
Six, Bert 
Stone, Ed 



Tanner, Frank 
Thomas, Wm. E. 



Van Pelt, Homer 



Walling. Will, J. 
Welbourne, Chas. Scott 
Wyckoff, Harold M. 



Honorary Members 

Mr. E. 0. Blackburn, 

Los Angeles, Calif. 
tMr. George Eastman, 

Rochester, N. Y. 
tMr. Thomas A. Edison, 

Orange, N. J. 
Mr. Albert S. Howell, 

Chicago, III. 
Mr. George A. Mitchell, 

Los Angeles, Calif. 



Associate Members 

Mr. Louis A. Bonn 
Mr. George Cave 
Dr. L. M. Dieterich 
Mr. Fred Gage 
Mr. Emery Huse 
Dr. Lloyd A. Jones 
Dr. C. E. K. Mees 
Dr. Herbert Meyer 
Mr Hollis Moyse 
Dr. W. B Rayton 
Dr V. B. Sease 
Dr. J. S. Watson, Jr. 



Inactive Members 

Dunning, Dodge 
DuPont, Max B. 
Fildew, William 
Glounpr, Martin G. 
Graham, Stanley 
Jackman, Dr. Floyd 
Lockwood, J. R. 
tPaul. Edward F. 
Roos, Len H. 
Stull, William 



■s-Membership by Invitation only. -Directors of Photography in Executive Positions. tNon-Resident Members. JDcccased 



234 American Cinematographer • June 1935 




June 1935 • American Cinematographer 235 




confirms approval 



MORE than a year has passed since National 
Motion Picture Studio Carbons were approved 
as a source of studio lighting for color photography. 
Subsequent usage has fully confirmed this original 



approval. Carbon arcs have provided the principal 
illumination for the color sequences which have 
proved so popular with theatre patrons during the 
past year. 



m - 





PHOTOGRAPHED UNDER 
CARBON ARC ILLUMINATION 

A scene from Pioneer Pictures' 
"Becky Sharp," starring 
Miriam Hopkins and directed 
by Rouben Mamoulian. 

"Becky Sharp" is the first 
full-length, all Technicolor fea- 
ture picture to be made. It 
was produced by Kenneth 
Macgowan. Photography by 
Ray Rennahan. Chief Electri- 
cian, W. A. OetteL Produced 
at RKO-Pathe Studios. 



"5 
% 

v 




NATIONAL MOTION PICTURE STUDIO CARBONS 

for all studio photography, BLACK and WHITE as uell as 
COLOR. They duplicate the photographic effects of daylight. 



NATIONAL CARBON COMPANY, INC. 

Carbon Sales Division, Cleveland, Ohio 

Unit of Union Carbide |l|ti and Carbon Corporation codi 
Branch Solas Offices • New York ♦ Pittsburgh ♦ Chicago ♦ San Prancisco 



236 American Cinematographer • June 1935 



JFOSL 

if 3a a 





irasi® is 




For twenty-two years we've been printing spe- 
cialists, setting the pace with improved produc- 
tion methods and ever- prompter service . . . 
designing and building machinery to control 
quality and assure uniformity . . . developing 
modern plants so efficient and extensive that 
they could satisfy the print requirements of the 
entire world. Send your productions 
to the screen on Consolidated 
Certified Prints. There is a difference. 






Consolidated film Industries, inc. 



NEW YORK 



HOLLYWOOD 



June 1935 • American Cinematographer 237 



Mickey Mouse in COLOR 

chooses G-E MAZDA LAMPS 




Photo Courte 



chnicolor Corporation and Wall Disney Production 



IVLickey Mouse is stepping into color. And he is 
stepping into it with the aid of G-E MAZDA lamps. 

G-E Mazda Photo Blue lamps provide his 
color camera with the light it needs for good 
color rendition. Their light is steady and clean. 
They do not require adjusting or delay. Also 
there is a convenient size. 



The news is important to every cinematog- 
rapher because it illustrates exceedingly well this 
important fact: General Electric makes lamps for 
every lighting need. 

Are you bringing the benefits of this versatility 
of G-E Mazda lamps to your pictures? General 
Electric Company, Nela Park, Cleveland, Ohio. 



GENERAL |p ELECTRIC 

MAZDA LAMPS 



238 American Cinematographcr • June 1935 





John Mesca 



Wins Second 
Annual A.S.C. 
Golf Tournament 



THE most successful Cameramen's Golf Tourna- 
ment ever held! Such was the verdict of more 
than two hundred enthusiastic golfers who par- 
ticipated in the Second Annual Golf Tournament of 
the American Society of Cinematographers, which was 
played at the Brentwood Country Club on Sunday, 
May 12th. Viewed either as a golfing event or as a 
social occasion, the affair achieved complete success. 
The score-sheets revealed a notable increase in the 
ranks of the really expert players, while the presence 
of the wives and families of many of the players, as 
well as many non-golfing members, struck a new 
and pleasing note in the history of cinema golf-meets. 




W. Anderson, A.S.C. 



Premiere honors were captured by John J. Mescall, 
who reported a score of 78 for the eighteen holes. Wesley 
Anderson, with a 79, was second, with John Fulton and 
George Folsey tied for third place with 81 strokes each. 
Mescall received the Gold Cup presented by Will Rogers, 
with a $65 merchandise order presented by Richard Wallace. 
Anderson received the W. S. Van Dyke Silver Trophy, and a 
$30 merchandise order. Fulton, awarded third honors when 
the Tournament Committee played off the tied cards, re- 
ceived the Gold Table Service presented by Mae West, while 
Folsey received a set of Bobby Jones Irons, donated very 
appropriately by Marion Davies, whose current production 
he is presently photographing. 

Jack Lebovitz, playing in place of his brother who 
was unexpectedly called on location the day before, an- 
nexed honors in the Guest Flight, closely followed by Wesley 
Smith and George H. Gibson, all of whom received special 
guest awards. Two special prizes — Gold Watches presented 
by O. Henry Briggs and William German — for the players 
who came closest to the cup on the two short holes, were 
awarded to C. King Charney, whose ball landed 1 foot 4'/2 
inches from the 8th hole, and Charles A. Marshall, 8 feet 
4 inches from the 16th. Charney, with fine sportsmanship, 
insisted that as he was playing only as a guest, he would 
relinquish his prize to the member next in order, and the 
award accordingly went to Jack Marta, whose ball landed 
1 foot 7 inches from the cup. 



A special tribute was paid by the A.S.C. to J. L. (Bud) 
Courcier in recognition of his invaluable services in arrang- 
ing the tournament. President Arnold, on behalf of the 
Society, presented Courcier with a gold statuette, and the 
ovation that followed indicated in no uncertain way that 
the award met with the unqualified approval of the mem- 
bership. 

The tournament was divided into six flights, exclusive 
of the guest division, grouped according to scores. The 
First Flight included those whose scores were between par 
and 84; the Second Flight, those from 85 to 94; the Third 
Flight, 95 to 104; the Fourth Flight, 1 05 to 1 14; the Fifth 
Flight, 115-124; and the Sixth Flight, from 125 up. Un- 
fortunately, the space here available doese not permit us to 
give a complete list of either the players or their awards; 
none the less, the American Society of Cinematographers 
extends its sincerest appreciation to the many individuals 
and firms whose generous cooperation did so much to make 
the tournament a success. 

The First Flight, of course, was led by John Mescall, the 
winner of the Tournament. The Second Flight was headed 
by Bert Six (86). The Third Flight was topped by Robert 
Pittack 1 95 1; the Fourth Flight by Edward O. Blackburn 
(105); the Fifth Flight by Walter Kelley (116), and the 
Sixth Flight by Milton Krasner (126). Lester Shorr (185) 
received the Booby Prize — and all the honors due a golfer 
who fearlessly admits his true score. 



June 1935 • American Onematographer 239 



Improvements 
for Increased 
Efficiency 



by 

George A. Mitchell, Hon. A. S. C. 

Research Committee, American Society of Cinematographers 



IT HAS long been conceded that the next great changes 
in photographic technique and equipment would be 
the introduction of truly practical natural-color cine- 
matography and of really silent cameras. Both of these 
are more properly problems to be solved in the laboratories 
of the research-engineers than by the practical workers in 
the studios; therefore, the technical wing of the Industry 
has, to a certain extent, at least, relaxed to await the 
outcome of the battles being fought in the drafting-rooms 
and laboratories, satisfied that existing equipment and 
methods were not susceptible of improvement. 

The accuracy of such a viewpoint is, however, by no 
means beyond question. While it may be admitted that 
the next great advances will be in the two fields indicated, 
it is by no means certain that there are not other improve- 
ments of a practical nature which lie well within the grasp 
of our practical technicians, and which can be of consid- 
erable practical and economic advantage to the Industry 
as a whole. We are rather in the position of the proverbial 
individual who could not see the wood for the trees: we 
are so intimately accustomed to many little details which 
slow up production and restrict individual efficiency that 
we ignore them as a matter of course. 

The tripod and the conventional "dolly," for example, 
were long regarded as fundamental technical units; yet the 
experience of Cinematographers who have made pictures in 
studios where these units have been supplanted by such 
devices as the "Rotambulator" and "Velocilator" gives 
factual proof of the added economy and greater flexibility 
of the idea of combining these apparently fundamental 
units into a single, all-purpose camera-support. 

More recently, in one studio where a synchronizing- 
mark was imprinted on the camera-negative by a "fogging- 
light" at the start of each "take," a considerable saving 
in the time ordinarily spent by assistant cameramen in 
checking the operation of these lights was effected by the 
simple expedient of wiring an electric buzzer in series with 
the light, so that a visual indication was given of the light's 
operation. 

To achieve such benefits, an improvement need not be 
startlingly big, nor need it involve the construction of new 




Sketch showing proposed light "port" at top of 
lamp, and markings with "F" representing Flood 
and "C" position for handle to concentrate light. 



equipment. For example, every Cinematographer has had 
the experience of telling an electrician to turn on a certain 
light — and seen the "juicer" lose an appreciable bit of 
time trying to turn on a lamp which was already lit. This 
is especially so with the reflector-type spotlights generally 
used for overhead lighting. Tilted down at the angle at 
which such lamps are usually employed, it is almost im- 
possible for the operator on the catwalk to see whether or 
not the lamp is lit. The same is true, though to a more 
limited degree, of certain types used on the stage floor, 
especially when fitted with diffusers, or on a crowded set. 

The remedy is surprisingly simple, and can be applied 
to existing equipment for negligible cost. All that is neces- 
sary is to fit each lamp with a glazed observation-port, 
either in the barrel of the lamp, or preferably near the edge 
of the mirror at the rear, where it would be more easily 
observed by the man on the catwalk when the unit was 
used for overhead lighting. Such ports could be made by 
merely punching a small hole in the lamp-housing, and 
fitting a small window of colored glass, or — even more sim- 
ply — by fitting one of the red glass tell-tale lenses sold in 
auto-supply stores for automobile headlights, and costing 
five cents apiece. 

A really surprising saving in ordinarily wasted time 
should result from even this slight modification, and the 
resulting monetary saving would more than offset the ex- 
pense of the change. 

Another obvious, but neglected detail improvement 
would be the general standardization of the screw-threads 
used to operate the focusing mechanism in both mirror and 
condenser spotlights. In the mirror-spot, the beam is con- 
centrated when the light-source is at the focal point of 
the mirror, and spread by moving it closer to the reflector. 
The reverse, of course, is true in the case of condenser- 
type lamps, so that if one type is concentrated by turning 
the crank in a clockwise direction, the other would give 
exactly the opposite result if the crank were turned the 
same way. This is bad enough; but not all lamps of the 
same type have identical operating-controls! One lamp 
may be "pulled down" by right-handed rotation of the 
crank, while the one next to it may be "flooded out" by 
the same right-handed turn. This again makes for loss of 
time, effort and money in production, for a lamp may be 
almost perfectly adjusted, requiring but a fraction of a 
degree more concentration to get the desired effect, when 
the electrician, having previously adjusted a lamp of dif- 
ferent manufacture, will unintentionally give its crank that 

Continued on Page 249 



240 American Cinematographer • June 1935 




Cregg Toland, A.S.C. 

Intensive Preparation 
Underlies Toland s 
Achievements 

by 

Harry Burdick 

OF THE many engaging items that may well be re- 
counted touching upon Gregg Toland's contribu- 
tions to the contemporary cinematographic scene, 
of immediate timeliness is his employment of the new silent 
camera. This is the inaudible instrument developed by 
Mitchell over a period of four years; at a reputed invest- 
ment upwards of one hundred thousand dollars. 

It is a compact, self-contained unit, silent unto itself, 
using no cumbersome enveloping blimp and permitting the 
cinematographer to get back on speaking terms, so to 
speak, with his equipment once again. 

For all prevailing picture production purposes, Toland 
reports, the camera is actually without noise. The designers 
entrusted it to him for its studio debut. Following a series 



of reassuring tests, Toland lensed his Anno Sten success 
"We Live Again" with it. Results were completely grati- 
fying. The sound engineers announced a total absence of 
camera noise reaching their delicately attuned recorders. 

Toland has employed his silenced instrument — the 
Goldwyn Studio promptly purchased it — on successive pro- 
ductions including his latest "Les Miserables," which is 
winning accolades of enthusiastic analytical praise. In 
each intance, it has demonstrated its built - in trait of 
performing its tasks efficiently and keeping quiet about it. 

On several occasions, he has extended to visiting con- 
freres the experience of making tests. These fellow-cine- 
matographers, in turn, have found the camera entirely 
silent in their service. 

For one so vitally an artist at heart and blessed with 
a vivid value of dramatic presentation, Toland is surpris- 
ingly original and ingenious on the mechanics side of his 
profession. He is carrying on a modicum of trail-blazing 
in another direction, a simple procedure of merit warrant- 
ing the prediction of its early adoption as a standard studio 
routine. 

He has conceived a small test-board for iden'ifying to 
the laboratory the development desired to establish his 
sought-for effects on negative tests. The board is approx- 
imately twelve by five inches in area and is photographed 
at the start of each scene, much in the fashion of the 
slates of old. On the board are code insignia, nine in num- 
ber, indicating Night, Day, Dusk, Dawn, Effect, Semi- 
Effect, Normal, Force Development, and Under-Develop- 
ment. 

The worth to the laboratory of such scene-labeling is 
obvious. Results testify eloquently of its effectiveness. But 
Toland carries his laboratory co-operation even further. 
On each scene, on the set, he has a contact man — a lab- 
oratory liaison officer, who absorbs the mood, spirit and 
key of the scene and relays this data to the processing 
technicians. As may well be expected from such contin- 
uity of purpose, what Toland intends to capture on his 
celluloid is present in full measure when the negative 
emerges from his laboratory. 

A marked depth of sincerity is manifest in all of To- 
land's procedure in taking to the screen an adequate 
cinematographic rendition of the drama that is unfolding. 
He devotes as much time, when conditions permit, in prep- 
aration as in the actual shooting. 

The exceptional merit of his current "Les Miserables" 
is evidence of the efficacy of his methods. Fifty-four sets 
were utilized in this production. As each was constructed, 
well in advance of schedule, Toland visited it. He called 
for his lights and — radical departure from general tech- 
nique — a squad of painters. Right on the daisy cloth, by 
his instructions, the painters' spray guns put in the shad- 
ows, accentuated the blacks, definitely determined the 
grays, brushed in highlights; providing a supplemented 
foundation for his lights to play upon. 

As to lighting, he uses large units and few of them, as 
preferred to smaller groups in wider number. 

He devoted, by average, in excess of three hours on 
each set in preparation for his actual shooting; many of 
them extending into dawn. But when the characters began 
their portraiture before his sets, he was ready. He did 
one thousand fifteen set-ups in thirty-six days; which av- 
erages twenty-eight each day. Ninety percent of the foot- 
age exposed found place in the picture when screened. 
He saved fifteen thousand dollars under budgets on sets 
alone. 

Continued on Page 247 



June 1935 • American Cinematographer 241 




At left, Carl O. Peterson, radio expert and on oc- 
casion cinematographer, and at right |ohn L. 
Herrmann, A.S.C., veteran Paramount cameraman 
who filmed Byrd's South Pole expedition. 



On Location 
at the 
South Pole 

by 

Wm. Stull, A.S.C. 

JOHN Herrmann, A.S.C, and Carl Peterson have just 
returned from location at the Bottom of the World. 
Ten thousand miles away from Hollywood, 2,500 
miles from the nearest outpost of civilization, they spent 
eighteen months as members of the Second Byrd Antarctic 
Expedition, battling polar storms and temperatures of 65 
degrees and more below zero, to bring back a thrilling suc- 
cessor to the Academy Award-winning "With Byrd at the 
South Pole." 

In many ways, it was the most unique location in the 
history of filmdom. Not recreating history, but recording 
history in the making, entrenched at the edge of a vast 
empire of ice greater than the United States and Mexico 
combined — the last blank space on the maps of the World. 
Herrmann and Peterson were in every sense of the word 



members of the Expedition; not only were they the official 
camera-reporters, assigned by Paramount News to "cover" 
the story, but each performed definite duties as members 
of the exploring party. Herrmann, veteran of the News- 
reel service and sometime Chief Electrician and Photog- 
rapher in the U.S. Navy, was not only Chief Cinematog- 
rapher, but Projectionist, Electrician and assistant-cook. 
Peterson, sea-going radio expert and officer of the Nor- 
wegian and U.S. Navies, carried the "eyes of the world" 
aloft on the flying trips, and did double duty as the party's 
flying radio-officer. Between them, they photographed over 
150,000 feet of film, the last of which has just been reeled 
from the developing machines of the Paramount Studio 
Laboratory. 

"We soon got used to the temperature," says Herr- 
mann. "During the winter months, when it got really cold, 
it was, of course, too dark to make exteriors, save for an 
occasional, flare-lit scene or two. In the summer months, 
it usually warmed up to zero — and sometimes the mer- 
cury even climbed above the freezing-point. Just the same, 
the temperature gave us plenty to think about, photo- 
graphically. Most of our scenes were shot on Super Sensi- 
tive film; the manufacturers had advised us to allow a 
stop to a stop-and-a-half more for every 70 degrees drop 
below normal American temperatures. In practice, we 
opened up from two-and-a-half to three stops, and found 
it about right. Our average exposure, using an Akeley cam- 
era with its 230 degree shutter wide open, and an Aero 
2 filter, was f:8, on Super Pan film! In other words, the 
extreme cold slowed the fast film down to approximately 
the same speed as regular Pan. In addition, we used quite 
a bit of special Background Panchromatic negative, and 
several thousand feet of Infra-D; the latter, incidentally, 
we weren't able to use fully, because this climatic slow- 
ing, combined with the generally rather poor light-condi- 
tions, made it impossible to use the heavy filters necessary. 
In fact, though we carried a complete assortment of gela- 
tine filters, we hardly used any except the old dependable 
Aero 2. Incidentally, it is interesting to know that, while 
the extreme temperatures slowed our film, it did not pro- 
duce any lasting effect; for when we returned to normal 
temperatures in New Zealand, we found that the film- 
speed had also returned to normal. 

"Perhaps the strangest thing was the change in our 
photoelectric exposure-meters. We carried half-a-dozen 
or more in the party, for in addition to ourselves, the Asso- 
ciated press 'still' man and the aero mapping-cameraman, 
there were many 'Leica' enthusiasts in the group. Person- 
ally, I use a meter regularly, and swear by it. But not 
down there in the Antarctic! I don't know whether it was 
the temperature, the proximity of the magnetic pole, or 
the peculiarly deceptive value of the light; but at any rate, 
not one of the meters would give an accurate reading! 
Every one of them gave an off-scale reading; the only way 
we could use them was to allow three full stops over~fhe 
indicated reading. After the first few hundred feet of film, 
I reluctantly discarded the meter, and guided myself en- 
tirely by tests. These, I developed — usually a day or so 
after shooting — in a little dark-room I made out of ice- 
blocks, and using ordinary trays and 'Tabloid' developer, 
or the old Eastman D-7 A-B-C formula. The meters, by 
the way, also returned to normal as soon as we got back 
to more normal temperatures. 

"The extreme cold played the old scratch with our 
film in other ways, too; made it brittle, so that loops were 

Continued on Page 243 



242 American Cinematographer • June 1935 




SOME 

FAST "PANS 



"The Things They Do at- M.G. Mayer" 

It looks as though M. G. M. and Warner's think they are 
running a baseball team, instead of grinding groanies. A 
certain blonde star who recently graced the Burbank plot 
with her enriching presence, demanded that she have her 
favorite film feeder standing behind that infernal machine. 
Rather than have the lady dissatisfied, the powers that be 
made a deal. George Folsey is now at Warner's and Ernie 
Haller is M.G.Ming it. It's just a temporary trade, though 
. . . at least for the present. 

"Anything for a Laugh" 

• Ray June is back on the "China Seas" set after having 
flooded his flu . . . (I think that's the proper remedy). 
Ray is so engrossed in his work these days that he can't 
even hear the signals. ... To prove it . . . There is a 
sequence in the "pitcher" that calls for one of the better 
hams to stop a wet sponge with her face. . . . Ray was 
showing her just where to stand when the director called 
rehearsal . . . and he did not notice Ray, who was stooped 
over, marking the emotines foot positions ... as Ray 
straightened up, the order was given to fire. . . . Ray, 
of course being a gentleman, protected the lady and made 
an excellent stop . . . right between the eyes. . . . Now 
Mack Sennett is trying his best to interest June in a con- 
tract . . . 

"Poor Paul?????" 

• Paul Vogel has gone and done it . . . regardless of ad- 
vice and rumors to the contrary, Paul and the former social- 
ite, Patricia Daley, middle-aisled it the other weekend . . . 
We know, because Len Smith, erstwhile golfer, prsonality 
boy, and mass of muscle . . . told us . . . Len threw a 
binge for his brided buddy over at the Bel Air Bay shack 
. . . among those getting numb enough to associate with 
the happy groom were Ollie Marsh, Ray June, Bill Daniels, 
Hal Lipstein, Charlie Lang, and Pev Marley. . . . You have 
our best wishes and 'Bon Voyage' on your matriphonial 
cruse, Paul, . . . and good wishes help after a few years 
... we know . . . 

"To Be or Not To Be" 

• And while we're on the subject of mergers, the way 
Harkie Smith finally took to himself a wife is a classic 
. . . Harkie and the now safe and sound Mrs. Harkie had 
intended to hook the shackles for some time . . . just 
when they had set the date, Harkie was sent to China to 
crank "Good Earth" .... as soon as the boat docked 
back in the States, Harkie dashed ashore and corraled his 
lady love ... a few quickly answered questions and it 
had been done . . . Harkie now had a wiff . . . but no 
honey-moon . . . three days later Harkie was again called 
before ole Massa Arnold and told to be on his way to Tahiti 
to "yes" Charlie Clarke on "Mutiny on the Bounty" . . . 
two months later Harkie returned to his waiting and watch- 
ful wiff . . . the happy couple had just said hello . . . 



when Harkie again was called . . . this time it was back 
to Tahiti for retakes . . . but . . . Frank Lloyd and 
Charlie Clarke decided that if things kept up, the Smiths 
would have to win their first in a raffle ... if there was 
to be a first. Frank and Charlie made a pooi and sent the 
now frantic "flutter half" along with her lord and master. 
. . . And this department thinks Frank and Charlie de- 
serve all the orchids in the deck . . . 

"Dust Off the Initials Boys" 

• A certain button pusher who was taken over by ole Uncle 
Sammy to supervise and create jobs for the unemployed 
camera men and "stugio" technicians and who, by the 
way, is now 'tops' with all of the better "button leaner on- 
ers" because of the absolutely swell way in which he has 
handled the less fortunate bulb squeezers, was very busy 
the other A.M. in getting his many "yessers" started on 
the day's loafing . . . one of the more ambitious ones 
kept asking for something to do. . . . "Do you want me 
now, Art?" he would ask every time the super would look 
his way. . . . Finally the boss became a little irate over 
the fellow's insistence ... in an attempt to squelch the 
pest, the super walked over to him and in a low tone said, 
"Don't call me Art. Somebody might think you know me 
. . . Call me A.J" . . . And if that isn't a classic we 
might pass on the one that's been floating around about 
Tony Gaudio . . . 

"Push 'lm In, Tony" 

• Tony and Mrs. Gaudio had wound up the family flivver 
and were touring down the Blvd., in search of a new spot 
to take on a few proteins, the other after-mid-night . . . 
suddenly Tony saw a sign reading "Italian Food . . . All 
you can eat . . . 50c." Tony pulled up to the curb. "Come 
ona Mom . . . heresa where we eat." When the first 
course of "Wop yarn" had been set before the Gaudios, 
the proprietor came up and offered his greetings. When 
he had been assured that everything was just fine, he left 
Tony to his gastronic enjoyments. . . . About an hour later 
the proprietor again approached the table . . . this was 
after Tony had devastated his eighth plate of spag-stt . . . 
"Pleasa mister," the proprietor begged Tony, "if you quita 
eating now, I no charga you feefty cent." 

"Short Shots About Things" 

• Herb Fisher and Hal Marzorati have challenged Eddie 
(Handicap) Hannan and Bob Koke in a divot duel to the 
finish, on the Rancho cut and cuss field. The weapons will 
be mid-irons at as many yards as possible . . . George 
Folsey was seen at the L. A. Tennis club the other after 
while stopping balls with various parts of his anatomy. 
George was once one of the best amateurs on the Coast a 
few years ago, but now he's netting next to nothing . . . 
Three of the better miniature maniacs are Bill Walling, 
Gene Richey, and Harold McAlpin; Bill goes in for model 
aircraft and motors; Gene prefers racing boats; and Harold 
satisfies that surpressed feeling by building tiny choo-choos. 



June 1935 • American Cinemarographer 243 




in 

Air Photography 



by 

Jcmes L. Fritz 



ELMER DYER assures us that the aerial cinematog- 
rapher's life is no series of white fleecy clouds and 
pink horizons, but is usually comprised of a series 
of events which require an iron nerve and a fathomless 
knowledge of cinematography. These requirements on the 
part of Dyer proved their necessity during the photograph- 
ing of "The Lost Horizons." 

In this production, the proper lighting was the most 
difficult to master, due to the fact that a single shot might 
cover all of the territory from the top of Mount Whitney, 
which is the highest point in the United States, to the pit 
of Death Valley, which is the lowest point below sea level. 
The camera plane covered this distance in twenty minutes, 
and the contrast in lighting, setting and backgrounds was 
so terrific that every ounce of Dyer's cinematographic 
ability was necessary. From the freezing cold altitudes 
of twenty thousand feet where the cinematographer's fin- 



gers became frostbitten and his cheekbones froze, the plane 
would drop to a bare thousand feet above the desert. At 
this level, the thermometer would register somewhere in 
the neighborhood of 120 degrees, and the heavy flying 
togs which were necessary in the high altitudes, Elmer tells 
us, made him feel as if he were in a Turkish Bath. Aside 
from the physical discomfort, caused by these sudden drops, 
Dyer spent anxious moments endeavoring to keep his 
lenses clear. A sudden change in altitude had a tendency 
to cause a fog to form on the glass of both the finder and 
the lens. Although this fog did not obscure the image, 
it was still dense enough to produce a softening effect. 

Another handicap which Dyer encountered, was the 
glaring light reflections from the salt beds of the dry lakes. 
These gleaming masses of white sodium, when viewed from 
the air, appeared to the camera eye as giant mirrors. A 
shooting schedule, which began at seven-thirty in the 
morning, ended at nine-thirty in the morning, began again 
at three in the afternoon and continued until the light 
failed, proved successful in combatting the handicaps in 
lighting. Even then, Dyers states, the light was so brilliant, 
that it was necessary to use Infra D film, to obtain the 
night effects. 

The camera itself proved to be another handicap. A* 
low altitudes, a heavy oil had to be used in the moving 
parts, because of the mighty sand-storms which blow across 
the desert during this season of the year. At high alti- 
tudes, this oil would become so stiff, that the camera would 
freeze solid. After several experiments with various types 
of oil, it was discovered that the only way to keep the 
camera moving when the plane reached an altitude of 
more than fifteen thousand feet, was to take all of the 
oil out of the camera and on the parts where oil was ab- 
solutely necessary, a very light whale watch oil was used. 

Dyer, however, points out that there was one redeeming 
factor. Both he and his pilot, Frank Clark, had been over 
practically the same territory twice before. The first time 
was for Fox, during the filming of "Change of Heart," and 
the second time for Paramount's "Thirteen Hours By Air." 
Therefore, with the previous knowledge and experience ob- 
tained on these two productions, Dyer managed to photo- 
graph all of the air sequences in twenty-five thousand feet 
of film. His camera plane was a Lockheed Vega, powered 
by a super wasp motor, and was designed especially for 
Dyer. It cast Columbia Studios exactly $1,650 to recon- 
struct the cabin and build the necessary doors, both in the 
floor and sides of the plane to shoot through. 

Dyer claims to be one of the few cinematogfdphers irr 
Hollywood who was forced into his present profession.' It 
all happened back in 1916. Elmer loaned a man $150 
on a movie camera. The man couldn't pay, so Elmer was 
forced to foreclose on the camera. Dyer then points out 
that the only way he could see that he could ever get his 
money back, was to become a cameraman, and he figures 
that now he is just about even. He received his first 
chance as an aerial photographer in 1920, at the Universal 
Studios. Milt Moore, the cameraman, who was chosen to 
film "The Great Air Robbery," became extremely ill, every 
time the plane left the ground. Dyer volunteered for the 
position and was immediately taken. This was the first 
picture ever made in the air and started Elmer on a career 
of aerial successes. 

He has spent more than four thousand hours in the air, 
and yet he has never crashed or been injured in an air- 
plane. Still, on nearly every assignment he has received to 
film on land, he has ended up in the hospital. After the 
injuries Dyer received on the shooting of "Six Day Bike 

Continued on Page 250 



244 American Cinematographer • June 1935 







PHOTOGRAPHY 






of 


the MONTH 



"GOLDDIGGERS OF 1935" (Warners) 
George Barnes, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (April 18, 19351: "Top-notch de- 
scribes the photography of George Barnes. There are 
some startling trick effects." 
Daily Variety (April 18, 1935): "Photography of George 
Barnes is in line with this lenser's usual excellent work." 

"THE COWBOY MILLIONAIRE" (Fox) 
Frank B. Good, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (April 18, 1935) : "Edward Cline's di- 
rection is first rate, as is Frank Good's photography and 
the mounting generally." 
Daily Variety (April 18, 1935): "Excellent photography 
by Frank B. Good adds greatly to the quality." 

"LADIES LOVE DANGER" (Fox) 
Daniel B. Clark, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (April 19, 1935): "Daniel Clark's 
photography was top flight in a picture that called for 
plenty of tricky night interiors and discriminating light- 
ing." 

Daily Variety (April 19, 1935): "Production has been 
handsomely mounted with Daniel Clark's camera." 

"BREWSTER'S MILLIONS" (United Artists) 
Barney McGill, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (April 19, 1935): "Cutting and pho- 
tography are first-rate." 

"THE WHITE COCKATOO" (Warners) 
Tony Gaudio, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reorter (April 22, 1935) : "Tony Gaudio's pho- 
tography is helpful in sustaining the picture's theme." 



"DINKY" (Warners) 

Arthur Edeson, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (April 22, 1935): "Photography 
Arthur Edeson very good." 



by 



"GOIN' TO TOWN" (Paramount) 

Karl Struss, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 

Hollywood Reporter (April 23, 1935) : "Karl Struss proves 

again he's an ace cameraman." 
Daily Variety (April 23, 19351: "Photography by Karl 

Struss is excellent." 

"VILLAGE TALE" (Radio) 

Nick Musuraca, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (April 23, 1935): "Musuraca's pho- 
tography contributed masterfully to the depressing at- 
mosphere of the story." 
Daily Variety (April 23, 1935) : "Nick Musuraca has done 
a good camera job." 

"THE INFORMER" (Radio) 

Joseph August, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 

Daily Variety (April 24, 1935): "Photography of Joseph 



August is splendid. Lighting is artistic and eye-pleas- 
ing." 

Hollywood Reporter (April 23, 1935): "Joseph August's 
camerawork and the splendid lighting are responsible 
for a large share of the picture's power. Composition 
after composition should be framed and hung." 

"THE CALL OF THE WILD" (Twentieth Centuryl 
Charles Rosher, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (April 27, 1935): "Charles Rosher 
touches a new high in his photographic conquest of 
the woods, the snow-clad wilderness and the eternally 
white peaks of the northland. There is dramatic as well 
as artistic value in every one of his master scenes." 
Daily Variety (April 27, 1935): "Charles Rosher's pho- 
tography is perfect." 

"WEREWOLF OF LONDON" (Universal) 
Charles Stumar, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (April 27, 1935): "Beautifully pho- 
tographed by Charles Stumar." 

"OIL FOR THE LAMPS OF CHINA" (Warners) 
Tony Gaudio, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (April 27, 1935): "Tony Gaudio's 
photography is fine throughout the entire picture and 
the atmospheric shots look genuinely good." 
Daily Variety (April 27, 1935): "Tony Gaudio's photog- 
raphy is excellent in its adaptation to the subject and 
in stressing the atmospheric elements." 

"THE FLAME WITHIN" (M-G-M) 

James Wong Howe, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (May 2. 1935) : "Jimmy Howe's scenes 

up to his usual standard." 
Daily Variety (May 2, 1935) : "James Wong Howe has 

photographed well." 

"AGE OF INDISCRETION" (M-G-M) 
Ernest Holler, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Hollywood Reporter (May 2, 1935) : "Holler's photography 
is okay." 

Daily Variety (May 2, 19351 : "Photography and produc- 
tion are very good." 

"BLACK SHEEP" (Fox) 

Arthur Miller, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
Daily Variety (May 3, 1935): "Arthur Miller's photog- 
raphy is swell." 

"$10 RAISE" (Fox) 

Harry Jackson, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 
The Film Daily (May 4, 1935) : Photography, "Fine." 

"SWELL HEAD" (Fox) 

Joe Valentine, A.S.C.: Directing Cinematographer 

The Film Daily (May 4, 1 935 I : Photography, "Good." 

Continued on Page 274 



June 1935 • American Cinennafographer 245 



EXTRA SPEED 



SUPER X "Pan" is much faster than regular 
Super Sensitive. Under normal conditions its 
extra speed gives definitely better shadow 
detail . . . general improvement in quality. And 
under adverse light it often means certain 
success instead of probable failure. Combining 
this great speed with startling fineness of grain, 
Eastman Super X marks a substantial advance 
in motion picture photography. Eastman Kodak 
Company, Rochester, N. Y. (J. E. Brulatour, Inc., 
Distributors, New York, Chicago, Hollywood.) 



EASTMAN SUPER X 

PANCHROMATIC NEGATIVE 



246 American Cinematographer • June 1935 




• Gregg Toland, A.S.C., recently de- 
vised a novel mechanism which greatly 
increases the flexibility of his camera 
equipment. Fitted to a standard Fox- 
Fearless "Veloci lator," the device con- 
sists of a flat bedplate, similar in prin- 
ciple to a lathe-bed, upon which travels 
a flat carriage. Upon this carriage is 
mounted a "top-hat," which i n turn 
carries a conventional friction-type pan- 
and-tilt head. The bedplate may be ro- 
tated, though its normal position is at 
right angles to the velocilator's crane- 
arm. By means of a toothed rack on 
this plate, the carriage may be traversed 
laterally through a distance of over a 
foot and a half on either side of the 
center-line. This motion is secured by 



• A new lightweight camera blimp has 
recently been placed in service at the 
Metro - Goldwyn - Mayer Studios. Like 
previous MGM blimps, it was designed 



operating a crank located conveniently 
at the rear of the carriage; a locking 
mechanism is also provided. 

In practice, according to Toland, the 
device greatly facilitates the making of 
difficult shots. Travelling-shots, for ex- 
ample, are more easily aligned, and fail- 
ure of the actors to occupy their exact 
positions in such shots can often be rem- 
edied by a slight lateral movement of 
the camera. Obviously, the device sim- 
plifies set-ups in which the camera must 
come close to the wall of a set, or ex- 
tend over a desk or table. Toland has 
used the device on several of his recent 
productions, including "Les Miserables" 
and "Public Hero No. 1." 



by John Arnold, A.S.C., Head of the 
Studio's Camera Department. In ap- 
pearance, the new unit is similar to the 
earlier designs in use at the studio, but 



features many detail improvements, and 
the lowest weight so far achieved by 
camera-housings of this type. Through 
the use of improved aluminum - alloy 
castings and painstaking design, the 
weight has been reduced to slightly over 
a hundred pounds — a figure which is 
expected to be further reduced by detail 
improvements. The device is somewhat 
more compact than its predecessors. 

The familiar features of MGM blimps, 
including sturdiness, accessibility, focus- 
ing and parallax-correcting finder, are 
retained. The focusing scale is pre- 
calibrated for 25, 35, 45, 50, 75mm 
and 4 '/4 -inch lenses, with unusually 
large and easily-read calibrations, and 
the mechanism is so designed that any 
four lenses may be carried on the turret 
of the camera, and interchanged almost 
as readily as in the pre-talkie era; the 
finder is synchronized by means of 
quickly changed cams. 

The doors are fitted with less cumber- 
some locks and positive, quick-release 
catches which hold them firmly when 
open. The front door of the blimp is 
hinged to swing horizontally rather than 
vertically, and the window is masked by 
accurately-cut bakelite mattes, resem- 
bling the familiar finder - mattes, but 
opaque. An ample bakelite sunshade 
can be fitted externally, while a green 
vizor is double-pivoted to swing down 
over the finder, to shade the Operative's 
eyes when necessary. The fogging-light 
and an indicating buzzer are wired in 
series, so that an audible indication is 
given of the former's operation. 




Lightweight Blimp Has Many Improvements 



June 1935 O American Cinematographer 247 



Intensive Preparation Underlies 
Toland's Achievements 

Continued from Page 240 

When previewed at the Chinese The- 
atre, another innovation, "Les Miser- 
ables" was at once nominated as an out- 
standing contender for the year's cine- 
matographic laurels. It is done in very 
low key throughout — indeed one of the 
lowest in key that has ever been made. 
Hugo's immortal story of Valjean inces- 
stantly hounded by the cruel Javert is 
not a tale of gaiety. Ten thousand feet 
done in so low a key might well be ex- 
pected to be depressing to an audience. 
So, at skillfully timed intervals, Toland 
relieves the mood by interspersing bright 
and brilliant scenes; thus achieving a 
deft dramatic balance. The period, 
France 1800, is realistically conveyed by 
masterful, and well prepared cinematog- 
raphic suggestion. 

His treatment of closeups is a revela- 
tion in artistic conception and courage. 
There are many of them in "Les Miser- 
ables," some flashing in brief cuts of 
two and three feet. They appear to be 
absolute nadir in key, only vivid bars of 
brilliance slashing across faces at sur- 
prising angles alleviating utter depth of 
mood. 

Toland is the truer type of cinema- 
tographer who harbors the belief that 
"camera man" is a woefully weak mis- 



nomer for the practitioner of the myriad 
arts of cinematography. It smacks too 
flatly of the machinery involved. He 
likes to dismiss all thoughts of mechan- 
ics and physics and chemistry and such 
tangible things which comprise the 
media of his expression. 



He is a story-teller, a maker of dra- 
matics. His sphere is with the director 
and the art director. With them, he 
plots his drama's development. His pre- 
liminary praparation is exhaustive, thor- 
ough. His first scene creates and estab- 
lishes mood. His every successive scene 




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develops and expands that mood, delib- 
erately, with well-planned exactness. 

There is nothing of the haphazard in 
his creations. All is as studiously pre- 
pared and planned as an architect's 
specifications. Then, when his cameras 
turn, the full scope of his artistry is free 
and unhampered; h i s creative genius 
has a clear track. 

So unusual degree of preliminary 
preparation presents no impediment to 
full exercise of his versatility. The same 
measure of calmly plotted charm and 
appeal, of keenly etched mood and cine- 
matographic atmosphere, stand forth as 
noticeably in one of his Eddie Cantor 



brilliant extravaganzas, as in his fine 
dramatic drawing "Les Miserables." 

A comparatively young man, and 
Gregg Toland looks far younger than his 
total of busy years, he finds himsell 
established well within the charmed cir- 
cle of Hollywood's foremost cinematog- 
raphic exponents. His talents have won 
him, at this writing, a reward unique in 
the annals of his profession. 

He has just affixed his signature to 
a contract, an air-tight contract, with 
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cinematographic creation. 



ON LOCATION AT THE SOUTH POLE 



Continued from Page 241 



continually breaking. Of course, we kept 
the film in an ice-house, and when we 
made interiors, we slowly warmed the 
film for several days, gradually bring- 
ing it up to the temperature inside the 
houses, before we shot. We carried a 
small set of portable Photoflood light- 
ing-units, and a Photoflood strip, which 
we supplied from two portable 1-Kw. 
gasoline-driven generators. As we had 
more, and better, lighting equipment, I 
think our interiors will be a bit better 
than those brought back by the boys on 
the first expedition, who had only a 
couple of twin-arc broads. 

"Right here, I want to pay tribute to 
Harry Ensign, Ray Wi.kinson, and the 
Paramount Studio Laboratory. Our first 
few thousand feet went through a news- 
reel lab, three-minute 'dynamite' soup, 
and so on; the rest has gone through 
here at the studio. The difference is so 
great that I can hardly believe I photo- 
graphed some of the stuff. If the pic- 
ture is a good job photographically, the 
lab crew will deserve a lion's share of 
the credit. 

"Our camera-equipment was rather 
limited; at first, just an Akeley and 
several hand-cameras; later, the studio 
sent down a Bell & Howell for the back- 
ground work. In the warmer weather — 
we called anything above about 15 de- 
grees below zero warm — we lubricated 
the cameras with special aircraft-instru- 
ment oil. When it got really cold, we 
had to drain the cameras, dry them out 
thoroughly, and run them dry; otherwise, 
the oil would have frozen and jammed 
them up tight. We worked in silk gloves, 
of course, to keep our hands from stick- 
ing to the metal parts, and kept the 
cameras in an ice-house. When we 
wanted to make interiors, we took them 
indoors and baked them — literally — in 
an oven until every bit of moisture was 
dried out. 

"Contrary to usual exploring practice, 
we did not bundle ourselves up in furs; 
instead, we wore specially made cotton 
windbreakers. The closely woven cloth 



kept out the cold winds just as well as 
fur, and was much less bulky. The only 
time we wore furs was when we were 
flying, or doing similar tasks where we 
could not move around." 

Peterson, a member of the First Ex- 
pedition, joined Paramount News some 
time before the second group started, 
and mastered aerial cinematography so 
that he could do double duty as radio- 
operator and cameraman on the flights. 
"To be useful on such an expedition as 
this," he says, "a man must not only be 
a qualified specialist in some line, but, if 
possible, proficient in more than one 
job. Take my own case, for example; 
if I had not been a qualified radio-oper- 
ator, nothing could have gotten me a 
place in one of the planes, for every 
ounce lifted from the ice must do useful 
work. On the first expedition, Co-pilot 
Harold June had to handle the photog- 
raphy — as well as flying and radio — be- 



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June 1935 • American Cinematographer 249 



cause both of the cameramen were dan- 
gerously heavy. 

"All told, I had more than 70 hours 
in the air down there in the 'Home of 
the Blizzard.' The weather was much 
less favorable than during the first ex- 
pedition, but the ships spent more time 
in the air. Much of the time, every- 
thing was overcast, and visibility was 
about zero. In every direction — up, 
down, and to all sides — was just a milky 
whiteness. This made flying difficult 
and dangerous, and our aerial pictures 
were very flat. We had several bad 
moments; once, out over the Rockefeller 
Mountains, the port motor of the big 
'Condor' went dead — out of gas. Un- 
less June had been able to pump fuel 
from another tank and start the motor 
quickly, before it froze, we would have 
crashed, five hundred miles from 'Little 
America.' Those moments while the 
plane mushed down, half its power gone, 
and June feverishly pumped gasoline, 
were without doubt the longest and 
worst of my life. But I think the most 
dangerous flight I made was the sec- 
ond one. Pilot June, the Admiral, and 
I went off in the big 'Condor,' taking 
off from the open sea to cruise forward 
over the pack-ice in search of an open 
lead through which the S.S. 'Jacob Rup- 
pert' could reach Little America. A 
forced landing could only mean a crash, 
with no hope of rescue or escape across 
the broken ice-pack. To make things 
still more unpleasant, the murky weather 
forced us to fly low, 'hedge-hopping' 
over icebergs. I have never known the 
Admiral to take such chances; but it was 
necessary, for we had to get the 'Jacob 
Ruppert' to shore and unloaded before 
winter set in. 

"On the overland trip which went 500 
miles inland to build the advance base 
in which the Admiral spent the winter, 
we had the largest land party that has 
ever made a polar journey; ten tractors, 
carrying tons of equipment, and a score 
of men. We had to lay down caches of 
food and fuel as we went, and for every 
hundred miles we advanced, we travelled 
1,400 miles back and forth with sup- 
plies!" 

Improvements for Increased 
Efficiency 

Continued from Page 239 

fraction of a turn in the wrong direc- 
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Obviously, the ideal solution for this 
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obvious practical considerations, how- 
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simple, inexpensive remedy nevertheless 
exists. This is simply to mark each 
lamp, plainly indicating by means of an 
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250 American Cinematographer • 



June 1935 



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The Same Efficient Head 

For follow shots, known for 
their smoothness of opera- 
tion and equal tension on 
all movements. 
Unaffected by temper- 
ature. 



Model A for Ama- 
teur motion picture 
cameras. Attaches In 
any standard STILL 
Tripod, $12.00. 



Trueball tripod 
heads are unexcelled 
for simplicity, ac- 
curacy and speed of 
operation. 



The Hoefner four- 
inch Iris and Sun- 
shade combination 
is also a superior 
product. 



lighting units. Granting the desirability 
of working toward an eventual stand- 
ardization of threads and operating 
mechanism, and the incorporation, even 
so, of a visible indicator, would it not 
be well to go a step beyond this and 
provide a calibrated indicclor, by which 
a lamp could be set accurately at " Vz 
flood," " 3 A concentrated," and so cnr 1 
Such an indicator would not involve any 
basic changes in design, nor complicate 
the problems of manufacture, yet i{ 
would make the lamp a definitely more 
practical unit for commercial use. 



Lighting Problerrs In Air 
Photography 

Continued from Page 243 

Rider" for Warner Brothers, he made a 
solemn promise that he would never pho- 
tograph anything again, except in the 
air. 

On the other hand, Dyer has received 
many narrow escapes, during the shoot- 
ing of his numerous air pictures. The 
first time was on the production "Paul 
Jones, Jr." for Fox. Dick Grace, who 
was the camera pilot on this production, 
cut the motor and asked Dyer if his belt 
was fastened. Elmer, thinking the pilot 
was referring to the belt which was 
holding his trousers, assured him that it 
was well fastened. Grace, then, without 
warning, threw the plane into an almost 
vertical power dive, and the only thing 
that kept Dyer from plunging into ob- 
livion was the fact that he had a secure 
hold on his camera, which was bolted 
firmly to the side of the ship. Another 
hair-raising incident took place during 
the filming of "Hell's Angels." It was 
necessary for the camera plane to fly 
very close to the ground for close-up 
shots of the crashes. Dick Grace was 
again Dyer's pilot. As the camera plane 
swept low over a diving ship, a piece of 
wreckage from the crashed plane flew 
into the air and struck Grace on the 
head, knocking him unconscious. Dyer 
claims that he wasn't afraid during the 
time, but he was merely worrying about 
how his wife was going to spend his in- 
surance. However, today finds Elmer 
hale and hearty and seeking further aer- 
ial triumphs. 




MAX FACTOR'S 

N EW 

<^o£Uv <S~mo<ytfv 

LIQUID FOUNDATION 



The opinion of every cameraman 
who has been fortunate enough 
to obtain 

Eastman 
Super X 
Panchromatic 
Negative 

" . . . It's the greatest and finest 
negative Him I've ever shot!" 



J. E. BRULATOUR, INC 





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BELL & HOWELL 

BELL & HOWELL COMPANY, 1843 Larchmont Avenue, Chicago; 
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C IT is , 

Bell cV Howell'